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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432516/the-tower-of-london-tol-in-italy-standardization-of-the-tol-test-in-an-italian-population
#1
Maddalena Boccia, Dario Marin, Giovanni D'Antuono, Paola Ciurli, Chiara Incoccia, Gabriella Antonucci, Cecilia Guariglia, Laura Piccardi
Deficit in planning and problem-solving, affecting a wide range of neuropsychological patients, has been widely investigated using the Tower of London (ToL) test, as developed by Shallice (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 298:199-209, 1). The ToL taps on several executive functions (EF), such as planning, time for planning or rule breaks, which may be usefully indexed by different ToL measurements. However, in its original version, the different aspects involved in ToL are not evaluated in a specific way...
April 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429629/developing-indicators-of-appropriate-and-inappropriate-end-of-life-care-in-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-cancer-or-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-for-population-level-administrative-databases-a-rand-ucla-appropriateness-study
#2
Robrecht De Schreye, Dirk Houttekier, Luc Deliens, Joachim Cohen
BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of aggressive life-prolonging treatments in the final stages of life has been reported for people with progressive life-shortening conditions. Monitoring appropriate and inappropriate end-of-life care is an important public health challenge and requires validated quality indicators. AIM: To develop indicators of appropriate and inappropriate end-of-life care for people with cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or Alzheimer's disease, measurable with population-level administrative data...
April 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422655/validation-of-a-regression-technique-for-segmentation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Mahsa Dadar, Tharick Pascoal, Sarinporn Manitsirikul, Karen Misquitta, Carmela Tartaglia, John Brietner, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Owen Carmichael, Charles DeCarli, D Louis Collins
Segmentation and volumetric quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) is essential in assessment and monitoring of the vascular burden in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially when considering their effect on cognition. Manually segmenting WMHs in large cohorts is technically unfeasible due to time and accuracy concerns. Automated tools that can detect WMHs robustly and with high accuracy are needed. Here we present and validate a fully automatic technique for segmentation and volumetric quantification of WMHs in aging and AD...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422052/folic-acid-reduces-tau-phosphorylation-by-regulating-pp2a-methylation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#4
Miaoyan Zheng, Chen Zou, Mengyue Li, Guowei Huang, Yuxia Gao, Huan Liu
High incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420415/distribution-pattern-following-systemic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-injection-depends-on-the-age-of-the-recipient-and-neuronal-health
#5
Claire Fabian, Yahaira Naaldijk, Christiane Leovsky, Adiv A Johnson, Lukas Rudolph, Carsten Jaeger, Katrin Arnold, Alexandra Stolzing
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show therapeutic efficacy in many different age-related degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Very little is currently known about whether or not aging impacts the transplantation efficiency of MSCs. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the distribution of intravenously transplanted syngeneic MSCs derived from young and aged mice into young, aged, and transgenic APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease mice. MSCs from male donors were transplanted into female mice and their distribution pattern was monitored by PCR using Y-chromosome specific probes...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415412/graphene-oxide-modified-single-use-electrodes-and-their-application-for-voltammetric-mirna-analysis
#6
Deniz Isin, Ece Eksin, Arzum Erdem
The modification of graphene oxide (GO) onto the surfaces of chemically activated pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) was performed herein, and then these electrodes were applied for the first time on voltammetric monitoring of miRNAs. The specific recognition of miRNA-34a, which has been related to Alzheimer disease, was explored in the presence of DNA-RNA hybridization by using CA/GO/PGEs in combination with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. The characterization of CA/GO/PGE was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406664/spontaneous-retrieval-deficits-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-of-focal-event-based-prospective-memory
#7
Agnieszka Niedźwieńska, Lia Kvavilashvili, Kunle Ashaye, Jacek Neckar
OBJECTIVE: Research on early cognitive markers of Alzheimer's disease is primarily focused on retrospective recall (of word lists, pairs of items, stories) and executive functions. However, research shows that people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), who are at a higher risk of developing the disease than healthy controls, are particularly impaired in remembering to do things in the future or prospective memory (PM). The aim of this study was to establish which type of event-based PM is particularly disrupted in aMCI, focal PM, based on spontaneous retrieval, or nonfocal PM that relies on strategic monitoring processes...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398234/down-regulated-drebrin-aggravates-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Yan Liu, Yanfeng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the relationship between Dbn and AD has not been fully understood. In the present study, we examined how down-regulation of Dbn impacts the progression of AD in experimental animals...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390893/targeting-glutamatergic-and-cellular-prion-protein-mechanisms-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-mediated-persistent-synaptic-plasticity-disruption-longitudinal-studies
#9
Dainan Zhang, Yingjie Qi, Igor Klyubin, Tomas Ondrejcak, Claire J Sarell, A Claudio Cuello, John Collinge, Michael J Rowan
Alzheimer's disease amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are synaptotoxic, inappropriately increasing extracellular glutamate concentration and glutamate receptor activation to thereby rapidly disrupt synaptic plasticity. Thus, acutely promoting brain glutamate homeostasis with a blood-based scavenging system, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and blocking metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor or its co-receptor cellular prion protein (PrP), prevent the acute inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) by exogenous Aβ...
April 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382304/tau-oligomers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Urmi Sengupta, Erik Portelius, Oskar Hansson, Kathleen Farmer, Diana Castillo-Carranza, Randall Woltjer, Henrik Zetterberg, Douglas Galasko, Kaj Blennow, Rakez Kayed
OBJECTIVE: With an increasing incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neurodegenerative tauopathies, there is an urgent need to develop reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, such as the recently discovered toxic tau oligomers. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the presence of tau oligomers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cognitive deficits, and to determine whether tau oligomers could serve as a potential biomarker for AD. METHODS: A multicentric collaborative study involving a double-blinded analysis with a total of 98 subjects with moderate to severe AD (N = 41), mild AD (N = 31), and nondemented control subjects (N = 26), and two pilot studies of 33 total patients with AD (N = 19) and control (N = 14) subjects were performed...
April 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381303/retention-of-normal-glia-function-by-an-isoform-selective-protein-kinase-inhibitor-drug-candidate-that-modulates-cytokine-production-and-cognitive-outcomes
#11
Zhengqiu Zhou, Adam D Bachstetter, Claudia B Späni, Saktimayee M Roy, D Martin Watterson, Linda J Van Eldik
BACKGROUND: Brain p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a potential therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunction based on the neuroinflammation-synaptic dysfunction cycle of pathophysiology progression, offers an innovative pharmacological strategy via inhibiting the same activated target in both glia and neurons, thereby enhancing the possibility for efficacy. The highly selective, brain-penetrant p38αMAPK inhibitor MW150 attenuates cognitive dysfunction in two distinct Alzheimer's disease (AD)-relevant models and avoids the problems encountered with previous mixed-kinase inhibitor drug candidates...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379235/characterizing-serum-metabolic-alterations-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-intervention-of-shengmai-san-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-quadruple-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#12
Shengwen Lu, Ying Han, Hang Chu, Ling Kong, Aihua Zhang, Guangli Yan, Hui Sun, Ping Wang, Xijun Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic and multi-factor-induced neurodegenerative disorder. The development of a single-target treatment strategy for AD has not been successful. Shengmai-San (SMS), a traditional Chinese medicine containing multi-active components, has been reported to be effective for treating AD. However, the mechanism of SMS is still unclear, and as a multicomponent combination therapy, there is a lack of appropriate evaluation. Thereby, metabolomics was applied to investigate the multi-target intervention of SMS by monitoring the fold changes of metabolites in serum...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378376/fluorescent-and-luminescent-fusion-proteins-for-analyses-of-amyloid-beta-peptide-aggregation
#13
Kenji Usui, Masayasu Mie, Takashi Andou, Hisakazu Mihara, Eiry Kobatake
The amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is regarded as a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, fluorescent and luminescent fusion proteins were constructed to analyze Aβ aggregation. A system was developed to monitor changes in luminescence that provides information about Aβ aggregation. In the presence of monomeric Aβ, the fusion protein exhibits higher luminescence intensity, and the luminescence intensity is diminished after aggregation of the fusion protein and Aβ. In contrast, the fluorescence is sustained in the presence of Aβ...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376923/taxifolin-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-formation-and-fully-restores-vascular-integrity-and-memory-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#14
Satoshi Saito, Yumi Yamamoto, Takakuni Maki, Yorito Hattori, Hideki Ito, Katsuhiko Mizuno, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Raj N Kalaria, Masanori Fukushima, Ryosuke Takahashi, Masafumi Ihara
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) induces various forms of cerebral infarcts and hemorrhages from vascular amyloid-β accumulation, resulting in acceleration of cognitive impairment, which is currently untreatable. Soluble amyloid-β protein likely impairs cerebrovascular integrity as well as cognitive function in early stage Alzheimer's disease. Taxifolin, a flavonol with strong anti-oxidative and anti-glycation activities, has been reported to disassemble amyloid-β in vitro but the in vivo relevance remains unknown...
April 4, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372332/epidemiological-approaches-to-understanding-the-link-between-type-2-diabetes-and-dementia
#15
Greg T Sutherland, Julia Lim, Velandai Srikanth, David G Bruce
Diabetes and dementia are two diseases that increased dramatically in most societies in direct proportion to increases in average life expectancy. The two conditions are strongly associated and there is much hope that understanding this association will unlock the enigma that is the pathogenesis of dementia. Previous studies suggest that type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However these estimates may not necessarily have taken into account the overlap in dementia pathologies or the competing risk of death...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347967/a-two-photon-nir-to-nir-fluorescent-probe-for-imaging-hydrogen-peroxide-in-living-cells
#16
Haidong Li, Qichao Yao, Jiangli Fan, Jianjun Du, Jingyun Wang, Xiaojun Peng
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays vital roles in diverse physiological processes. Imbalance of the H2O2 is concerned with serious diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Therefore, it is critical to develop efficient methods for monitoring H2O2 in vivo. In this work, a two-photon excitation (860nm) NIR fluorescent turn-on probe TPNR-H2O2 for H2O2 based on Dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran fluorophore is reported, which can be used in solution detection with 13...
March 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344778/methodological-advances-in-imaging-intravital-axonal-transport
#17
REVIEW
James N Sleigh, Alessio Vagnoni, Alison E Twelvetrees, Giampietro Schiavo
Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342292/ultra-fast-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-eight-bioactive-components-of-kai-xin-san-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-comparative-pharmacokinetic-study-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-rats
#18
Xiaotong Wang, Yue Zhang, Huibin Niu, Yajing Geng, Bing Wang, Xiaomei Yang, Pengyu Yan, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
A method of ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of eight bioactive components, including polygalaxanthone III, sibiricaxanthone B, tenuifolin, sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, tenuifoliside A, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using digoxin as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Venusil MP C18 column (100 mm × 2...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337517/a-column-switching-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-determine-anandamide-and-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-plasma-samples
#19
Camila Marchioni, Israel Donizeti de Souza, Caroline Fernandes Grecco, José Alexandre Crippa, Vitor Tumas, Maria Eugênia Costa Queiroz
This study reports a fast, sensitive, and selective column switching ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in plasma samples. This bidimensional system used a restricted access media column (RP-8 ADS, 25 mm × 4 mm × 25 μM) in the first dimension and a core-shell Kinetex C18 (100 mm × 2, 1.7 mm × 1 μM) column in the second dimension, followed by detection in a mass spectrometer triple quadrupole (multiple reactions monitoring mode) operating in the positive mode...
March 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335593/simultaneous-single-cell-analysis-of-na-k-ca-2-and-mg-2-in-neuron-like-pc-12-cells-in-a-microfluidic-system
#20
Lu Li, Yuanyuan Fan, Qingling Li, Renjie Sheng, Haibin Si, Juan Fang, Lili Tong, Bo Tang
Various intracellular metal ions have closely related functional roles in the nervous system. An excess or deficiency of essential metal ions can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the detection of various metal ions in neurons is important for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases. In particular, single-cell analysis of multiple metal ions allows us to not only understand the cellular heterogeneity and differentiation but also determine the actual relationships among multiple metal ions in each individual cell...
April 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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