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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338452/an-update-on-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, Tian Zhu, Yuan Shi, Richard Rubenstein, J Adrian Tyndall, Geoff T Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major worldwide neurological disorder of epidemic proportions. To date, there are still no FDA-approved therapies to treat any forms of TBI. Encouragingly, there are emerging data showing that biofluid-based TBI biomarker tests have the potential to diagnose the presence of TBI of different severities including concussion, and to predict outcome. Area covered: The authors provide an update on the current knowledge of TBI biomarkers, including protein biomarkers for neuronal cell body injury (UCH-L1, NSE), astroglial injury (GFAP, S100B), neuronal cell death (αII-spectrin breakdown products), axonal injury (NF proteins), white matter injury (MBP), post-injury neurodegeneration (total Tau and phospho-Tau), post-injury autoimmune response (brain antigen-targeting autoantibodies), and other emerging non-protein biomarkers...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327084/bace1-inhibition-more-effectively-suppresses-initiation-than-progression-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-pathology
#2
Finn Peters, Hazal Salihoglu, Eva Rodrigues, Etienne Herzog, Tanja Blume, Severin Filser, Mario Dorostkar, Derya R Shimshek, Nils Brose, Ulf Neumann, Jochen Herms
BACE1 is the rate-limiting protease in the production of synaptotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) species and hence one of the prime drug targets for potential therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, so far pharmacological BACE1 inhibition failed to rescue the cognitive decline in mild-to-moderate AD patients, which indicates that treatment at the symptomatic stage might be too late. In the current study, chronic in vivo two-photon microscopy was performed in a transgenic AD model to monitor the impact of pharmacological BACE1 inhibition on early β-amyloid pathology...
January 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315246/recent-advances-in-electrochemical-biosensors-based-on-enzyme-inhibition-for-clinical-and-pharmaceutical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Loubna El Harrad, Ilhame Bourais, Hasna Mohammadi, Aziz Amine
A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306668/a-prognostic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-relying-on-multiple-longitudinal-measures-and-time-to-event-data
#4
Kan Li, Richard O'Brien, Michael Lutz, Sheng Luo
INTRODUCTION: Characterizing progression in Alzheimer's disease is critically important for early detection and targeted treatment. The objective was to develop a prognostic model, based on multivariate longitudinal markers, for predicting progression-free survival in patients with mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: The information contained in multiple longitudinal markers was extracted using multivariate functional principal components analysis and used as predictors in the Cox regression models...
January 3, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305855/microglia-derived-extracellular-vesicles-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#5
REVIEW
Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Antonia Cianciulli, Giorgio Mori, Adriana Di Benedetto, Chiara Porro
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), based on their origin or size, can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs)/microparticles (MPs), and exosomes. EVs are one of the new emerging modes of communication between cells that are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs released from activated or apoptotic cells contain specific proteins (signaling molecules, receptors, integrins, cytokines), bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, small non coding RNAs, DNA) from their progenitor cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300714/electrophysiology-of-olfactory-and-optic-nerve-in-outpatient-and-intraoperative-settings
#6
Praveen Hariharan, Jeffery R Balzer, Katherine Anetakis, Donald J Crammond, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
Evoked potentials are time-locked electrophysiologic potentials recorded in response to standardized stimuli using scalp electrodes. These responses provide good temporal resolution and have been used in various clinical and intraoperative settings. Olfactory evoked potentials (OEPs) may be used as an adjunct tool in identifying patients of Parkinson disease and Alzheimer dementia. In clinical practice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are particularly useful in identifying subclinical cases of optic neuritis and in treatment surveillance...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291596/photonic-crystals-on-copolymer-film-for-label-free-detection-of-dna-hybridization
#7
Han Su, Xin R Cheng, Tatsuro Endo, Kagan Kerman
The presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in Apolipoprotein E4 gene is implicated with the increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, detection of AD-related DNA oligonucleotide sequence associated with Apolipoprotein E4 gene sequence was achieved using localized-surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on 2D-Photonic crystal (2D-PC) and Au-coated 2D-PC surfaces. 2D-PC surfaces were fabricated on a flexible copolymer film using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). The film surface was then coated with a dual-functionalized polymer to react with surface immobilized DNA probe...
April 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286376/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-detection-of-mitophagy-in-human-cells-c-elegans-and-mice
#8
Evandro F Fang, Konstantinos Palikaras, Nuo Sun, Elayne M Fivenson, Ryan D Spangler, Jesse S Kerr, Stephanie A Cordonnier, Yujun Hou, Eszter Dombi, Henok Kassahun, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Joanna Poulton, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr
Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells and produce cellular energy in the form of ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to biological aging and a wide variety of disorders including metabolic diseases, premature aging syndromes, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of mitochondrial health depends on mitochondrial biogenesis and the efficient clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy. Experimental methods to accurately detect autophagy/mitophagy, especially in animal models, have been challenging to develop...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284675/test-retest-reproducibility-for-the-tau-pet-imaging-agent-flortaucipir-f-18
#9
Michael D Devous, Abhinay D Joshi, Michael Navitsky, Sudeepti Southekal, Michael J Pontecorvo, Haiqing Shen, Ming Lu, William R Shankle, John P Seibyl, Ken Marek, Mark A Mintun
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by beta-amyloid plaques (Aβ) and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There are several PET imaging biomarkers for Aβ including 11C-PiB and 18F florbetapir. Recently, PET tracers for tau NFTs have become available and have shown utility in detection and monitoring of neurofibrillary pathology over time. Flortaucipir F 18 is one such tracer. Initial clinical studies indicated greater tau binding in AD and MCI patients compared to controls in a pattern consistent with tau pathology observed at autopsy...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282296/galectin-8-mediated-selective-autophagy-protects-against-seeded-tau-aggregation
#10
Benjamin Falcon, Jessica Noad, Harvey McMahon, Felix Randow, Michel Goedert
Assembled tau can transfer between cells and seed the aggregation of soluble tau. This process is thought to underlie the amplification and propagation of tau inclusions throughout the brain in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide strategies for limiting assembled tau propagation. Here, we sought to determine how assembled tau seeds gain access to the cytosol and whether this access triggers cellular defenses. We show that tau assemblies enter cells through clathrinindependent endocytosis and escape from damaged endomembranes into the cytosol, where they seed the aggregation of soluble tau...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276551/gold-nanoparticles-as-a-probe-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-and-amyloid-formation
#11
Esmail A Elbassal, Clifford Morris, Thomas W Kent, Richard Lantz, Bimlesh Ojha, Ewa P Wojcikiewicz, Deguo Du
The process of amyloid-β (Aβ) amyloid formation is pathologically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The identification of Aβ amyloids and intermediates that are crucial players in the pathology of AD is critical for exploring the underlying mechanism of Aβ aggregation and the diagnosis of the disease. Herein, we performed a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based study to detect the formation of Aβ amyloid fibrils and oligomers. Our results demonstrate that the intensity of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the AuNPs is sensitive to the quantity of Aβ40 amyloids...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276381/a-new-data-analysis-approach-for-measuring-longitudinal-changes-of-metabolism-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-adults
#12
Sepideh Shokouhi, William R Riddle, Hakmook Kang
Introduction: Previously, we discussed several critical barriers in including [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) imaging of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. These factors included the reference region selection and intensity normalization of PET images and the within- and across-subject variability of affected brain regions. In this study, we utilized a novel FDG-PET analysis, the regional FDG time correlation coefficient, rFTC, that can address and resolve these barriers and provide a more sensitive way of monitoring longitudinal changes in metabolism of cognitively normal elderly adults...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275545/application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-the-meningeal-lymphatic-vessels-during-opening-of-blood-brain-barrier-mechanisms-of-brain-clearing
#13
Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Arkady Abdurashitov, Alexander Dubrovsky, Denis Bragin, Olga Bragina, Nataliya Shushunova, Galina Maslyakova, Nikita Navolokin, Alla Bucharskaya, Valery Tuchin, Juergen Kurths, Alexander Shirokov
The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249963/exploring-the-association-between-alzheimer-s-disease-oral-health-microbial-endocrinology-and-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Alice Harding, Ulrike Gonder, Sarita J Robinson, StJohn Crean, Sim K Singhrao
Longitudinal monitoring of patients suggests a causal link between chronic periodontitis and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the explanation of how periodontitis can lead to dementia remains unclear. A working hypothesis links extrinsic inflammation as a secondary cause of AD. This hypothesis suggests a compromised oral hygiene leads to a dysbiotic oral microbiome whereby Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone periodontal pathogen, with its companion species, orchestrates immune subversion in the host...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249916/bile-acid-quantification-of-20-plasma-metabolites-identifies-lithocholic-acid-as-a-putative-biomarker-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Josef Marksteiner, Imrich Blasko, Georg Kemmler, Therese Koal, Christian Humpel
Introduction: There is still a clear need for a widely available, inexpensive and reliable method to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) and monitor disease progression. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful analytic technique with a very high sensitivity and specificity. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to measure concentrations of 20 bile acids using the novel Kit from Biocrates Life Sciences based on LC-MS technique. Methods: Twenty bile acid metabolites were quantitatively measured in plasma of 30 cognitively healthy subjects, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 patients suffering from AD...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247791/immune-senescence-and-biomarkers-profile-of-bambu%C3%A3-aged-population-based-cohort
#16
Karen Cecília Lima Torres, Vitor Bortolo de Rezende, Maria Luiza Lima-Silva, Lorena Júnia de Souza Santos, Carla Gabriela Costa, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Sérgio William Viana Peixoto, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho
During immunosenescence many proinflammatory markers such as cytokines and chemokines are increased. This process called by Franceschi and colleagues as inflammaging is associated with chronic inflammation and the ethiology and pathophysiolgy of many ageing diseases as Alzheimer's and atherosclerosis. The knowledge of immune profile during ageing may provide some interventions that would improve the immune function in elderly and quality of life for old people. However, the identification of a group of potential biomarkers to monitor the ageing process is very difficult...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235220/not-oligomers-but-amyloids-are-cytotoxic-in-the-membrane-mediated-amyloidogenesis-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#17
Naoya Itoh, Eri Takada, Kaori Okubo, Yoshiaki Yano, Masaru Hoshino, Akira Sasaki, Masataka Kinjo, Katsumi Matsuzaki
The formation of neurotoxic aggregates by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is considered to be a key step in the onset of Alzheimer's disease. It is widely accepted that oligomers are more neurotoxic than amyloid fibrils in the aqueous-phase aggregation of Aβ. Membrane-mediated amyloidogenesis is also relevant to the pathology, although the relationship between the aggregate size and cytotoxicity has remained elusive. Here, the aggregational processes of Aβ on living cells and cytotoxic events were monitored by fluorescence techniques...
December 13, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#18
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226862/the-rationale-and-design-of-the-reducing-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-targeting-radar-trial
#20
Patrick G Kehoe, Peter S Blair, Beth Howden, David L Thomas, Ian B Malone, Jeremy Horwood, Clare Clement, Lucy E Selman, Hannah Baber, Athene Lane, Elizabeth Coulthard, Anthony Peter Passmore, Nick C Fox, Ian B Wilkinson, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: Anti-hypertensives that modify the renin angiotensin system may reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and reduce the rate of disease progression. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a phase II, two arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of losartan to test the efficacy of Reducing pathology in Alzheimer's Disease through Angiotensin TaRgeting (RADAR). METHODS: Men and women aged at least 55 years with mild-to-moderate AD will be randomly allocated 100 mg encapsulated generic losartan or placebo once daily for 12 months after successful completion of a 2-week open-label phase and 2-week placebo washout to establish drug tolerability...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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