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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344778/methodological-advances-in-imaging-intravital-axonal-transport
#1
REVIEW
James N Sleigh, Alessio Vagnoni, Alison E Twelvetrees, Giampietro Schiavo
Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342292/ultra-fast-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-eight-bioactive-components-of-kai-xin-san-in-rat-plasma-and-its-application-to-a-comparative-pharmacokinetic-study-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-rats
#2
Xiaotong Wang, Yue Zhang, Huibin Niu, Yajing Geng, Bing Wang, Xiaomei Yang, Pengyu Yan, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
A method of ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of eight bioactive components, including polygalaxanthone III, sibiricaxanthone B, tenuifolin, sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, tenuifoliside A, ginsenoside Re and ginsenoside Rb1 in rat plasma after oral administration of Kai-Xin-San. The plasma samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using digoxin as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Venusil MP C18 column (100 mm × 2...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337517/a-column-switching-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-determine-anandamide-and-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-plasma-samples
#3
Camila Marchioni, Israel Donizeti de Souza, Caroline Fernandes Grecco, José Alexandre Crippa, Vitor Tumas, Maria Eugênia Costa Queiroz
This study reports a fast, sensitive, and selective column switching ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in plasma samples. This bidimensional system used a restricted access media column (RP-8 ADS, 25 mm × 4 mm × 25 μM) in the first dimension and a core-shell Kinetex C18 (100 mm × 2, 1.7 mm × 1 μM) column in the second dimension, followed by detection in a mass spectrometer triple quadrupole (multiple reactions monitoring mode) operating in the positive mode...
March 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335593/simultaneous-single-cell-analysis-of-na-k-ca2-and-mg2-in-neuron-like-pc-12-cells-in-a-microfluidic-system
#4
Lu Li, Yuanyuan Fan, Qingling Li, Renjie Sheng, Haibin Si, Juan Fang, Lili Tong, Bo Tang
Various intracellular metal ions have closely related functional roles in the nervous system. An excess or deficiency of essential metal ions can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the detection of various metal ions in neurons is important for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases. In particular, single-cell analysis of multiple metal ions allows us to not only understand the cellular heterogeneity and differentiation, but also determine the actual relationships among multiple metal ions in each individual cell...
March 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332150/dynamic-nature-of-presenilin1-%C3%AE-secretase-implication-for-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Katarzyna Marta Zoltowska, Oksana Berezovska
Presenilin 1 (PS1) is a catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for the intramembraneous cleavage of more than 90 type I transmembrane proteins, including Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related amyloid precursor protein (APP). The γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the APP C-terminal membrane stub leads to the production of various amyloid β (Aβ) species. The assembly of Aβ into neurotoxic oligomers, which causes synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration, is influenced by the relative ratio of the longer (Aβ42/43) to shorter Aβ (Aβ40) peptides...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330539/-state-of-the-art-work-up-of-dementia-disorder
#6
Steen Gregers Hasselbalch
Early diagnosis of a dementia disorder is required for early support, treatment and information. A basic programme including history taking, somatic and neurological examination, blood screening and a structural scan will suffice in typical cases. For patients with uncertain or atypical symptoms or disease course, supplementary investigations are warranted, including biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, functional imaging and neuropsychological testing. Also, imaging of specific protein accumulations in Alzheimer's disease may serve to monitor disease progression and effects of interventions...
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327340/epileptic-activity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-causes-and-clinical-relevance
#7
REVIEW
Keith A Vossel, Maria C Tartaglia, Haakon B Nygaard, Adam Z Zeman, Bruce L Miller
Epileptic activity is frequently associated with Alzheimer's disease; this association has therapeutic implications, because epileptic activity can occur at early disease stages and might contribute to pathogenesis. In clinical practice, seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease can easily go unrecognised because they usually present as non-motor seizures, and can overlap with other symptoms of the disease. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, seizures can hasten cognitive decline, highlighting the clinical relevance of early recognition and treatment...
April 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315450/phospholipid-oxidation-and-carotenoid-supplementation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#8
O S Ademowo, H K I Dias, I Milic, A Devitt, R Moran, R Mulcahy, A N Howard, J M Nolan, H R Griffiths
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease, characterised by decline of memory, cognitive function and changes in behaviour. Generic markers of lipid peroxidation are increased in AD and reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of cognitive decline. Carotenoids are depleted in AD serum, therefore we have compared serum lipid oxidation between AD and age-matched control subjects before and after carotenoid supplementation. The novel oxidised phospholipid biomarker 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) was analysed using electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), 8-isoprostane (IsoP) was measured by ELISA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) was measured by a colorimetric assay...
March 14, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304304/raman-spectrometric-detection-methods-for-early-and-non-invasive-diagnosis-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Chia-Chi Huang, Ciro Isidoro
The continuous increasing rate of patients suffering of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide requires the adoption of novel techniques for non-invasive early diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Here we review the various Raman spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier Transform-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy, that could be used for the diagnosis of AD. These techniques have shown the potential to detect AD biomarkers, such as the amyloid-β peptide and the tau protein, or the neurotransmitters involved in the disease (e...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#10
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300561/nucleolin-is-a-nuclear-target-of-heparan-sulfate-derived-from-glypican-1
#11
Fang Cheng, Mattias Belting, Lars-Åke Fransson, Katrin Mani
The recycling, S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan glypican-1 releases anhydromannose (anMan)-containing HS chains by a nitrosothiol-catalyzed cleavage in endosomes that can be constitutive or induced by ascorbate. The HS-anMan chains are then transported to the nucleus. A specific nuclear target for HS-anMan has not been identified. We have monitored endosome-to-nucleus trafficking of HS-anMan by deconvolution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody in non-growing, ascorbate-treated, and growing, untreated, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and hypoxia-exposed Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 fibroblasts and human U87 glioblastoma cells...
March 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293793/ultrasensitive-and-selective-detection-of-3-repeat-tau-seeding-activity-in-pick-disease-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid
#12
Eri Saijo, Bernardino Ghetti, Gianluigi Zanusso, Adrian Oblak, Jennifer L Furman, Marc I Diamond, Allison Kraus, Byron Caughey
The diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving tau-based pathology such as Alzheimer disease and certain frontotemporal dementias is hampered by the inability to detect pathological forms of tau with sufficient sensitivity, specificity and practicality. In these neurodegenerative diseases, tau accumulates in self-seeding filaments. For example, Pick disease (PiD) is associated with frontotemporal degeneration and accumulation of 3-repeat (3R) tau isoforms in filaments constituting Pick bodies. Exploiting the self-seeding activity of tau deposits, and using a 3R tau fragment as a substrate, we have developed an assay (tau RT-QuIC) that can detect tau seeds in 2 µl aliquots of PiD brain dilutions down to 10(-7)-10(-9)...
March 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293644/t-lymphocytes-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-interplay-between-brain-and-blood-in-alzheimer-s-disease-potential-pools-of-new-biomarkers
#13
REVIEW
Anna Mietelska-Porowska, Urszula Wojda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the main cause of dementia. The disease is among the leading medical concerns of the modern world, because only symptomatic therapies are available, and no reliable, easily accessible biomarkers exist for AD detection and monitoring. Therefore extensive research is conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of AD pathogenesis, which seems to be heterogeneous and multifactorial. Recently much attention has been given to the neuroinflammation and activation of glial cells in the AD brain...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290247/modulation-of-retinal-arteriolar-central-reflection-by-apoe-genotype
#14
Shaun Frost, Alauddin Bhuiyan, David Offerman, James D Doecke, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, David Ames, Colin Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, Aibl Research Group
This study investigated the retinal arteriolar central reflex (CR, the central reflection observed in photographs of retinal vessels), which may provide information about micro-vascular health in the retina and also the brain, due to the homology between these vascular networks. The study also describes a novel computer based semi-automated technique that accurately quantifies retinal arteriolar CR and vessel width, and calculates the CR to vessel width ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Digital retinal photographs were collected from participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing (AIBL), including 25 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age 72...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290243/motif-discovery-in-speech-application-to-monitoring-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Peter Garrard, Vanda Nemes, Dragana Nikolic, Anna Barney
BACKGROUND: Perseveration - repetition of words, phrases or questions in speech - is commonly described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Measuring perseveration is difficult, but may index cognitive performance, aiding diagnosis and disease monitoring. Continuous recording of speech would produce a large quantity of data requiring painstaking manual analysis, and risk violating patients' and others' privacy. A secure record and an automated approach to analysis are required. OBJECTIVES: To record bone-conducted acoustic energy fluctuations from a subject's vocal apparatus using an accelerometer, to describe the recording and analysis stages in detail, and demonstrate that the approach is feasible in AD...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284228/interactive-wearable-systems-for-upper-body-rehabilitation-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Qi Wang, Panos Markopoulos, Bin Yu, Wei Chen, Annick Timmermans
BACKGROUND: The development of interactive rehabilitation technologies which rely on wearable-sensing for upper body rehabilitation is attracting increasing research interest. This paper reviews related research with the aim: 1) To inventory and classify interactive wearable systems for movement and posture monitoring during upper body rehabilitation, regarding the sensing technology, system measurements and feedback conditions; 2) To gauge the wearability of the wearable systems; 3) To inventory the availability of clinical evidence supporting the effectiveness of related technologies...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282924/autophagy-and-microglia-novel-partners-in-neurodegeneration-and-aging
#17
REVIEW
Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala, Virginia Sierra-Torre, Amanda Sierra
Autophagy is emerging as a core regulator of Central Nervous System (CNS) aging and neurodegeneration. In the brain, it has mostly been studied in neurons, where the delivery of toxic molecules and organelles to the lysosome by autophagy is crucial for neuronal health and survival. However, we propose that the (dys)regulation of autophagy in microglia also affects innate immune functions such as phagocytosis and inflammation, which in turn contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and neurodegenerative diseases...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281745/n-methyl-mesoporphyrin-ix-as-an-effective-probe-for-monitoring-alzheimer-s-disease-%C3%AE-amyloid-aggregation-in-living-cells
#18
Meng Li, Andong Zhao, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Formation of amyloid fibrils by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is an important step in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pro-gression. Screening and designing new molecules which can monitor amyloidosis process especially in cells are diagnostically and therapeutically important. Utilizing Thioflavin T (ThT), the commonly used amyloid dye, is the most standardized way to monitor amyloid. However, with the green fluorescence emission and small Stokes shift, the fluorescence of ThT can overlap with that arising from other intrinsic fluorescent components in the cells, making it not suitable for detection of protein aggregates in vivo...
March 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280572/thioflavin-t-as-an-amyloid-dye-fibril-quantification-optimal-concentration-and-effect-on-aggregation
#19
Christine Xue, Tiffany Yuwen Lin, Dennis Chang, Zhefeng Guo
Formation of amyloid fibrils underlies a wide range of human disorders, including Alzheimer's and prion diseases. The amyloid fibrils can be readily detected thanks to thioflavin T (ThT), a small molecule that gives strong fluorescence upon binding to amyloids. Using the amyloid fibrils of Aβ40 and Aβ42 involved in Alzheimer's disease, and of yeast prion protein Ure2, here we study three aspects of ThT binding to amyloids: quantification of amyloid fibrils using ThT, the optimal ThT concentration for monitoring amyloid formation and the effect of ThT on aggregation kinetics...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274302/exploration-of-verbal-repetition-in-people-with-dementia-using-an-online-symptom-tracking-tool
#20
Emily Reeve, Pierre Molin, Amaris Hui, Kenneth Rockwood
BACKGROUND: Online tools can be used by people with dementia and their caregivers to self-identify and track troubling symptoms, such as verbal repetition. We aimed to explore verbal repetition behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: Participants were recruited via an online resource for people with dementia and their caregivers. Respondents were instructed to complete information about symptoms that are most important to them for tracking over time. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data pertaining to individuals with dementia who had at least three symptoms selected for tracking...
March 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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