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Alzheimers and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163531/impaired-resolution-of-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Robert A Whittington, Emmanuel Planel, Niccolò Terrando
Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and over the last several decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder has been increasingly elucidated. The initiation of the acute inflammatory response is counterbalanced by an active process termed resolution. This process is designed to restore homeostasis and promote tissue healing by the activation of neutrophilic apoptosis, promotion of neutrophil clearance by macrophages, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, while concurrently leading to a diminution in pro-inflammatory mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163489/ameliorating-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibrils-triggered-inflammation-via-curcumin-loaded-polymeric-nanoconstructs
#2
Andrea Ameruoso, Roberto Palomba, Anna Lisa Palange, Antonio Cervadoro, Aeju Lee, Daniele Di Mascolo, Paolo Decuzzi
Inflammation is a common hallmark in several diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity, and neurodegeneration. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), growing evidence directly correlates neuronal damage with inflammation of myeloid brain cells, such as microglia. Here, polymeric nanoparticles were engineered and characterized for the delivery of anti-inflammatory molecules to macrophages stimulated via direct incubation with amyloid-β fibers. 200 nm spherical polymeric nanoconstructs (SPNs) and 1,000 nm discoidal polymeric nanoconstructs (DPNs) were synthesized using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and lipid chains as building blocks...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162504/checks-and-balances-between-autophagy-and-the-inflammasomes-during-infection
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Seveau, Joanne Turner, Mikhail A Gavrilin, Jordi B Torrelles, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Jacob Yount, Amal O Amer
Autophagy and inflammasome complex assembly are physiological processes that control homeostasis, inflammation, and immunity. Autophagy is a ubiquitous pathway that degrades cytosolic macromolecules or organelles, as well as intracellular pathogens. Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that assemble in the cytosol of cells upon detection of pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns. A critical outcome of inflammasome assembly is the activation of the serine protease caspase-1, which activates the pro-inflammatory cytokine precursors pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158049/down-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-pathways-by-tanshinone-iia-and-cryptotanshinone-in-a-non-genetic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Francesco Maione, Marialuisa Piccolo, Simona De Vita, Maria Giovanna Chini, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen De Caro, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Rita Santamaria, Carlo Irace, Vincenzo De Feo, Antonio Calignano, Nicola Mascolo, Giuseppe Bifulco
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia mainly characterized by the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Additionally, increasing evidence demonstrates that a neuro-inflammatory state plays a key role in the development of this disease. Beside synthetic drugs, the use of natural compounds represents an alternative for the development of new potential drugs for the treatment of AD. Among these, the root of Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge (also known as Danshen) used for the treatment of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease and CNS functional decline in Chinese traditional medicine is one of the most representative examples...
November 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156608/fatty-acids-antioxidants-and-physical-activity-in-brain-aging
#5
REVIEW
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Gustavo da Costa Ferreira, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Karen de Jesus Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155703/modeling-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-toxicity-and-neurodegeneration-in-adult-zebrafish-brain
#6
Prabesh Bhattarai, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak, Christos Papadimitriou, Violeta Mashkaryan, Yixin Zhang, Caghan Kizil
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease in which accumulation of toxic amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptides leads to synaptic degeneration, inflammation, neuronal death, and learning deficits. Humans cannot regenerate lost neurons in the case of AD in part due to impaired proliferative capacity of the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and reduced neurogenesis. Therefore, efficient regenerative therapies should also enhance the proliferation and neurogenic capacity of NSPCs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a regenerative organism, and we can learn the basic molecular programs with which we could design therapeutic approaches to tackle AD...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154736/lactobacilli-fermented-cow-s-milk-attenuated-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-and-memory-impairment-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Nurul Huda Musa, Vasudevan Mani, Siong Meng Lim, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154038/dna-damage-and-neurodegenerative-phenotypes-in-aged-ciz1-null-mice
#8
Mohammad Moshahid Khan, Jianfeng Xiao, Damini Patel, Mark S LeDoux
Cell-cycle dysfunction and faulty DNA repair are closely intertwined pathobiological processes that may contribute to several neurodegenerative disorders. CDKN1A interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) plays a critical role in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression at the G1/S checkpoint. Germline or somatic variants in CIZ1 have been linked to several neural and extra-neural diseases. Recently, we showed that germline knockout of Ciz1 is associated with motor and hematological abnormalities in young adult mice...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149631/prostaglandin-j2-promotes-o-glcnacylation-raising-app-processing-by-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-secretases-relevance-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Teneka Jean-Louis, Patricia Rockwell, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira
Regulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by α- and β-secretases is of special interest to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as these proteases prevent or mediate amyloid beta formation, respectively. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in AD. Our data demonstrate that the endogenous mediator of inflammation prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) promotes full-length APP (FL-APP) processing by α- and β-secretases. The decrease in FL-APP was independent of proteasomal, lysosomal, calpain, caspase, and γ-secretase activities...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138750/markers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-primary-visual-cortex-in-normal-aging-in-mice
#10
Luis Fernando Hernández-Zimbrón, Montserrat Perez-Hernández, Abigail Torres-Romero, Elisa Gorostieta-Salas, Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Rosario Gulias-Cañizo, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, Edgar Zenteno
Aging is the principal risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hallmarks of AD are accumulation of the amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ42) and abnormal hyperphosphorylation of Tau (p-Tau) protein in different areas of the brain and, more recently reported, in the visual cortex. Recently, Aβ42 peptide overproduction has been involved in visual loss. Similar to AD, in normal aging, there is a significant amyloid deposition related to the overactivation of the aforementioned mechanisms. However, the mechanisms associated with visual loss secondary to age-induced visual cortex affectation are not completely understood...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137322/the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-ocular-degenerative-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-suggesting-a-correlation-between-ocular-and-brain-pathologies
#11
Lucia Buccarello, Alessandra Sclip, Matteo Sacchi, Anna Maria Castaldo, Ilaria Bertani, Andrea ReCecconi, Silvia Maestroni, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Paolo Nucci, Tiziana Borsello
Recently a range of ocular manifestations such as retinal and lens amyloid-beta accumulation and retinal nerve fiber layer loss have been proposed as potential biomarkers in Alzheimer disease (AD). The TgCRND8 mouse model of AD exhibits age-dependent amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers accumulation and cognitive defects, amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated Tau deposition and inflammation. We proved the correlation between ocular pathologies and AD, observing increased levels of p-APP and p-Tau, accumulation of Aβ oligomers in the retina, eye, and optic nerve...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136783/revalidation-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-a-united-states-patented-polyherbal-formulation-on-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#12
Prabhat Upadhyay, Ananya Sadhu, Praveen K Singh, Aruna Agrawal, K Ilango, Suresh Purohit, Govind Prasad Dubey
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia yet treatment options are extremely limited. The disease is associated with cognitive impairment as well as structural irregularities, accumulation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, diminished levels of acetylcholine, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the brain. We have previously reported on the positive effects of a united states patented (US 7,273,626 B2) poly herbal test formulation, consisting of Bacopa monnieri, Hippophae rhamnoides and Dioscorea bulbifera extracts, on cognitive deficits in AD patients...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134678/systemic-immune-checkpoint-blockade-with-anti-pd1-antibodies-does-not-alter-cerebral-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-in-several-amyloid-transgenic-mouse-models
#13
Martine Latta-Mahieu, Bradford Elmer, Alexis Bretteville, Yaming Wang, Mati Lopez-Grancha, Philippe Goniot, Nicolas Moindrot, Paul Ferrari, Véronique Blanc, Nathalie Schussler, Emmanuel Brault, Valérie Roudières, Véronique Blanchard, Zhi-Yong Yang, Pascal Barneoud, Philippe Bertrand, Bart Roucourt, Sofie Carmans, Astrid Bottelbergs, Liesbeth Mertens, Cindy Wintmolders, Peter Larsen, Caroline Hersley, Tyler McGathey, Margaret M Racke, Ling Liu, Jirong Lu, Michael J O'Neill, David R Riddell, Andreas Ebneth, Gary J Nabel, Laurent Pradier
Chronic inflammation represents a central component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work suggests that breaking immune tolerance by Programmed cell Death-1 (PD1) checkpoint inhibition produces an IFN-γ-dependent systemic immune response, with infiltration of the brain by peripheral myeloid cells and neuropathological as well as functional improvements even in mice with advanced amyloid pathology (Baruch et al., (): Nature Medicine, 22:135-137). Immune checkpoint inhibition was therefore suggested as potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders when activation of the immune system is appropriate...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134267/complement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan
The emergence of complement as an important player in normal brain development and pathological remodelling has come as a major surprise to most scientists working in neuroscience and almost all those working in complement. That a system, evolved to protect the host against infection, should have these unanticipated roles has forced a rethink about what complement might be doing in the brain in health and disease, where it is coming from, and whether we can, or indeed should, manipulate complement in the brain to improve function or restore homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134229/decursin-and-decursinol-angelate-molecular-mechanism-and-therapeutic-potential-in-inflammatory-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Adeeb Shehzad, Sajida Parveen, Munibah Qureshi, Fazli Subhan, Young Sup Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, including cancers, neurological diseases, hepatic fibrosis, diabetic retinopathy, and vascular diseases. Decursin and decursinol angelate (DA) are pyranocoumarin compounds obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas. Several studies have described the anti-inflammatory effects of decursin and DA. Decursin and DA have shown potential anti-inflammatory activity by modulating growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, cellular enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases cyclooxygenase, and protein kinases such as extracellular receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and protein kinase C...
November 13, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134111/periodontitis-induced-by-bacterial-infection-exacerbates-features-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-transgenic-mice
#16
Naoyuki Ishida, Yuichi Ishihara, Kazuto Ishida, Hiroyuki Tada, Yoshiko Funaki-Kato, Makoto Hagiwara, Taslima Ferdous, Mohammad Abdullah, Akio Mitani, Makoto Michikawa, Kenji Matsushita
Periodontitis is a localized infectious disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Recently, it has been suggested that bacterial infections may contribute to the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, we do not have any evidence about a causative relationship between periodontitis and AD. In this study, we investigated by using a transgenic mouse model of AD whether periodontitis evoked by P. gingivalis modulates the pathological features of AD. Cognitive function was significantly impaired in periodontitis-induced APP-Tg mice, compared to that in control APP-Tg mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132092/berberine-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-ameliorates-tau-hyperphosphorylation-by-limiting-the-self-perpetuating-pathogenic-cycle-between-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#17
Wenbo He, Chuanling Wang, Yi Chen, Yongli He, Zhiyou Cai
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present work was to explore whether BBR ameliorates cognitive deficits in AD and to investigate whether its underlying mechanism involves inhibiting hyperphosphorylated tau protein. METHODS: The cognitive function was measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins were determined by Western blot. The biomarkers of NF-κB signaling pathway and oxidative stress were detected by Western blot and biochemical assays...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131336/molecular-function-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-as-drug-targets
#18
Cecilia Bouzat, Matías Lasala, Beatriz Elizabeth Nielsen, Jeremías Corradi, María Del Carmen Esandi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In vertebrates, there are seventeen different nAChR subunits that combine to yield a variety of receptors with different pharmacology, function, and localization. The homomeric α7 receptor is one of the most abundant nAChRs in the nervous system and it is also present in non-neuronal cells. It plays important roles in cognition, memory, pain, neuroprotection, and inflammation...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129774/crosstalk-between-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-brain-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Luis E Santos, Sergio T Ferreira
While most often noted for its cognitive symptoms, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is, at its core, a disease of protein misfolding/aggregation, with an intriguing inflammatory component. Defective clearance and/or abnormal production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), and its ensuing accumulation and aggregation, underlie two hallmark features of AD: brain accumulation of insoluble protein deposits known as amyloid or senile plaques, and buildup of soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs), diffusible toxins linked to synapse dysfunction and memory impairment...
November 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126887/combined-administration-of-resolvin-e1-and-lipoxin-a4-resolves-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Alpdogan Kantarci, Nurgul Aytan, Iro Palaska, Danielle Stephens, Leah Crabtree, Claudia Benincasa, Bruce G Jenkins, Isabel Carreras, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Dysfunction in the resolution of inflammation may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we found that the levels of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice are significantly lower than in non-transgenic littermates. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that treatment with resolvin E1 (RvE1) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) alone or in combination will reverse the neuroinflammatory process and decrease Aβ pathology. 5xFAD mice were treated intraperitoneally starting at 1month of age with RvE1 or LXA4 alone or in combination at a dose of 1...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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