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Alzheimers and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352267/differential-susceptibility-of-striatal-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons-to-caspase-6
#1
Anastasia Noël, Libin Zhou, Bénédicte Foveau, P Jesper Sjöström, Andréa C LeBlanc
Active cysteinyl protease Caspase-6 is associated with early Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. Higher entorhinal cortex and hippocampal Caspase-6 levels correlate with lower cognitive performance in aged humans. Caspase-6 induces axonal degeneration in human primary neuron cultures and causes inflammation and neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus, and age-dependent memory impairment. To assess whether Caspase-6 causes damage to another neuronal system, a transgenic knock-in mouse overexpressing a self-activated form of Caspase-6 five-fold in the striatum, the area affected in Huntington disease, and 2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352259/plasma-mcp-1-and-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-two-year-follow-up-study
#2
Wei-Ju Lee, Yi-Chu Liao, Yen-Feng Wang, I-Feng Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Jong-Ling Fuh
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as chemokine CCL2) is a vital chemokine that mediates inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed the associations between the baseline plasma MCP-1 level, longitudinal cognitive changes, and genetic effects of CCL2 rs1024611 and its receptor, CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) rs1799864, in AD. In total, 310 AD patients and 66 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients were followed for 2 years, and 120 controls were recruited at baseline for comparison...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350764/the-protective-effect-of-antarctic-krill-oil-on-cognitive-function-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-of-senescence-accelerated-prone-mouse-strain-8-samp8-mice
#3
Qian Li, Fengjuan Wu, Min Wen, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, Yuming Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its progression. Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has various biological activities, such as improving insulin sensitivity, alleviating inflammation and ameliorating oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of AKO against AD were investigated in senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) mice. Results showed that treatment with AKO could effectively ameliorate learning and memory deficits and ease the anxiety in SAMP8 mice by Morris water maze, Barnes maze test and open-field test...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344304/atherosclerosis-is-exacerbated-by-chitinase-3-like-1-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#4
Yu Yeon Jung, Ki Cheon Kim, Mi Hee Park, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park, Min Hee Park, Jun Chang, Dae Youn Hwang, Sang Bae Han, Sanghyeon Kim, Dong Ju Son, Jin Tae Hong
Although the important role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in vascular diseases associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences are unclear. We aimed to evaluate vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in Swedish mutant of human APP transgenic (APPsw-Tg) and ApoE-/-/APPsw-Tg mice. We also aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying any changes observed in these mice compared with non-Tg controls. Methods: The transgenic and non-Tg mouse strains were subjected to partial ligation of the left carotid artery to induce atherosclerotic changes, which were measured using histological approaches, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and gene expression microarrays...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329646/effects-of-gardenia-jasminoides-extracts-on-cognition-and-innate-immune-response-in-an-adult-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Wei-Wei Ma, Ye Tao, Yan-Ying Wang, I-Feng Peng
Herbal extracts have been extensively used worldwide for their application on memory improvement, especially among aged and memory-deficit populations. In the present study, the memory loss induced by human Abeta protein over-expression in fruitfly Alzheimer's disease (AD) model was rescued by multiple extracts from Gardenia jasminoides. Three extracts that rich with gardenia yellow, geniposide, and gardenoside components showed distinct rescue effect on memory loss. Further investigation on adding gardenoside into a formula of Ganoderma lucidum, Panax notoginseng and Panax ginseng (GPP) also support its therapeutic effects on memory improvement...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327503/noncoding-rnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
M Laura Idda, Rachel Munk, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Myriam Gorospe
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the main cause of dementia among the elderly worldwide. Despite intense efforts to develop drugs for preventing and treating AD, no effective therapies are available as yet, posing a growing burden at the personal, medical, and socioeconomic levels. AD is characterized by the production and aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), the presence of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT), and chronic inflammation leading to neuronal loss...
January 12, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325805/reduced-plaque-size-and-inflammation-in-the-app23-mouse-model-for-alzheimer-s-disease-after-chronic-application-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-cns-targeted-zinc-delivery
#7
Antonietta Vilella, Daniela Belletti, Ann Katrin Sauer, Simone Hagmeyer, Tasnuva Sarowar, Martina Masoni, Natalia Stasiak, John J E Mulvihill, Barbara Ruozi, Flavio Forni, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giovanni Tosi, Michele Zoli, Andreas M Grabrucker
A local dyshomeostasis of zinc ions in the vicinity of amyloid aggregates has been proposed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to the sequestration of zinc in senile plaques. While an increase in zinc levels may promote the aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ), increased brain zinc might also be beneficial rescuing some pathological alterations caused by local zinc deficiency. For example, increased Aβ degradation by metalloproteinases, and a reduction in inflammation can be hypothesized. In addition, zinc may allow a stabilization of the number of synapses in AD brains...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324067/mao-inhibitors-and-their-wider-applications-a-patent-review
#8
Simone Carradori, Daniela Secci, Jacques P Petzer
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, after the initial "golden age", are currently used as third-line antidepressants (selective MAO-A inhibitors) or clinically enrolled as co-adjuvants for neurodegenerative diseases (selective MAO-B inhibitors). However, the research within this field is always increasing due to their pivotal role in modulating synaptic functions and monoamines metabolism. Areas covered: In this paper, MAO inhibitors (2015-2017) are disclosed ordering all the patents according to their chemical scaffold...
January 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323772/the-role-of-nrf2-signaling-in-counteracting-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Rumen V Kostov, Aleksey G Kazantsev
The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2) functions at the interface of cellular redox and intermediary metabolism. Nrf2 target genes encode antioxidant enzymes, and proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins and organelles, inflammation, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. The function of Nrf2 is altered in many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedreich's ataxia...
January 11, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318974/-understanding-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-during-neurodegeneration-for-new-therapeutics-opportunities
#10
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316784/clusterin-induces-muc5ac-expression-via-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#11
Chang Hoon Bae, Hyung Gyun Na, Yoon Seok Choi, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
Objectives: Clusterin (CLU) is known as apolipoprotein J, and has three isoforms with different biological functions. CLU is associated with various diseases such as Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, and some malignancies. Recent studies report an association of CLU with inflammation and immune response in inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effect of CLU on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells has not yet been understood. Therefore, the effect and brief signaling pathway of CLU on MUC5AC (as a major secreted mucin) expression were investigated in human airway epithelial cells...
January 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316242/sustained-high-fat-diet-modulates-inflammation-insulin-signalling-and-cognition-in-mice-and-a-modified-xenin-peptide-ameliorates-neuropathology-in-a-chronic-high-fat-model
#12
Paul Denver, Victor A Gault, Paula L McClean
AIMS: Metabolic disease increases risk of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive dysfunction. Chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding leads to cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. This study demarcated pathological events in brain as a result of short-term to chronic HFD feeding. Efficacy of Xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] was assessed in chronic HFD-fed mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD or normal diet for 18 days, 34 days, 10 and 21 weeks. Cognition was assessed using novel object recognition and Morris water maze...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315754/tspo-regulation-in-reactive-gliotic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Adam M McNeela, Charles Bernick, Rochelle M Hines, Dustin J Hines
The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body. This high metabolic demand is apparent in that 60% of the brain is comprised of mitochondria-enriched cells. A disruption of the brain's ability to meet this immense metabolic demand is central to the pathogenesis of a multitude of neurological disorders, which range from depression to Alzheimer's disease. Central to these pathologies are glial signaling and energy metabolism cascades regulating apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, diseases causing inflammation and disruption of metabolism can be correlated with glial reactivity...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311632/bace1-dependent-amyloid-processing-regulates-hypothalamic-leptin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#14
Paul J Meakin, Susan M Jalicy, Gemma Montagut, David J P Allsop, Daniella L Cavellini, Stuart W Irvine, Christopher McGinley, Mary K Liddell, Alison D McNeilly, Karolina Parmionova, Yu-Ru Liu, Charlotte L S Bailey, J Kim Dale, Lora K Heisler, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
Obesity places an enormous medical and economic burden on society. The principal driver appears to be central leptin resistance with hyperleptinemia. Accordingly, a compound that reverses or prevents leptin resistance should promote weight normalisation and improve glucose homeostasis. The protease Bace1 drives beta amyloid (Aβ) production with obesity elevating hypothalamic Bace1 activity and Aβ1-42 production. Pharmacological inhibition of Bace1 reduces body weight, improves glucose homeostasis and lowers plasma leptin in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306052/celecoxib-prevents-cognitive-impairment-and-neuroinflammation-in-soluble-amyloid-%C3%AE-treated-rats
#15
Emanuela Mhillaj, Maria Grazia Morgese, Paolo Tucci, Anna Furiano, Livio Luongo, Maria Bove, Sabatino Maione, Vincenzo Cuomo, Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Recent findings suggest that soluble forms of amyloid-β (sAß) peptide contribute to synaptic and cognitive dysfunctions in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, neuroinflammation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme have gained increased interest as key factors involved early in AD, although the signaling pathways and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying a link between sAß-induced neurotoxicity and inflammation are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of selective COX-2 enzyme inhibition on neuropathological alterations induced by sAβ administration in rats...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304217/elevated-markers-of-inflammation-are-associated-with-longitudinal-changes-in-brain-function-in-older-adults
#16
Kristen N Warren, Lori L Beason-Held, Olga Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Yang An, Jimit Doshi, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Background: Chronic inflammation has been linked to memory and other cognitive impairments, as well as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigate the association between inflammatory markers and changes in brain activity measured by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to assess the relationship between inflammation and brain function in older individuals. Methods: Annual 15O water resting-state positron emission tomography (PET) scans collected over a 5-year period were assessed in 138 cognitively normal older participants (77 males; mean age at baseline = 71...
January 3, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301530/understanding-amd-by-analogy-systematic-review-of-lipid-related-common-pathogenic-mechanisms-in-amd-ad-as-and-gn
#17
REVIEW
Qinyuan Xu, Sijia Cao, Sanjeeva Rajapakse, Joanne A Matsubara
RATIONALE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness among the elderly. Due to its complex etiology, current treatments have been insufficient. Previous studies reveal three systems closely involved in AMD pathogenesis: lipid metabolism, oxidation and inflammation. These systems are also involved in Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis. Understanding commonalities of these four diseases may provide insight into AMD etiology...
January 4, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298649/an-inflammation-related-nutrient-pattern-is-associated-with-both-brain-and-cognitive-measures-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-population
#18
Yian Gu, Jennifer J Manly, Richard P Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, and brain and cognitive health. It is unclear whether inflammation explains this association. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether an inflammation-related nutrient pattern (INP) was associated with neuroimaging and cognitive measures of brain health. METHOD: The current cross-sectional study included 330 non-demented elderly (mean age 79 years at MRI scan) participants in a multi-ethnic, community-based cohort study who had information on nutritional intakes (estimated from food frequency questionnaire), circulating C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (measured by ELISA), MRI scans, and cognition...
January 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290138/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-as-relays-of-neuroinflammation
#19
Paul O'Callaghan, Xiao Zhang, Jin-Ping Li
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are implicated as inflammatory mediators in a variety of settings, including chemokine activation, which is required to recruit circulating leukocytes to infection sites. Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharide chains are highly interactive and serve co-receptor roles in multiple ligand:receptor interactions. HS may also serve as a storage depot, sequestering ligands such as cytokines and restricting their access to binding partners. Heparanase, through its ability to fragment HS chains, is a key regulator of HS function and has featured prominently in studies of HS's involvement in inflammatory processes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286084/petasites-japonicus-bakkenolide-b-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-pro%C3%A2-inflammatory-cytokines-via-ampk-nrf2-induction-in-microglia
#20
Sun Young Park, Min Hyun Choi, Geuntae Park, Young-Whan Choi
Abnormal neuroinflammatory responses have diverse roles in neuronal death, oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Microglia regulate these responses via molecular signaling cascades that involve inflammatory cytokines and complement proteins. Bakkenolide B from Petasites japonicus exhibits significant anti‑inflammatory and anti‑allergic bioactivities. The present study investigated the anti‑neuroinflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of bakkenolide B on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑mediated neuroinflammatory response in microglia...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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