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Alzheimers and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782959/targeting-central-%C3%AE-2-receptors-ameliorates-streptozotocin-induced-neuroinflammation-via-inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase3-pathway-in-mice
#1
Nora O Abdel Rasheed, Nesrine S El-Sayed, Aiman S El-Khatib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is portrayed by progressive cognitive decline and pathological deposition of amyloid plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles. Most of AD cases are sporadic, resulting from overlap of various environmental and genetic factors. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) leads to insulin resistance brain state accompanied by memory decline, oxidative stress, and neuro-degeneration which mimic the pathologies associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD). In the current study, protective effects of formoterol in STZ-induced SAD were studied...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782911/estrogen-deficiency-exacerbates-a%C3%AE-induced-memory-impairment-through-enhancement-of-neuroinflammation-amylodogenesis-and-nf-%C3%A4-b-activation-in-ovariectomized-mice
#2
Jaesuk Yun, In Jun Yeo, Chul Ju Hwang, Dong-Young Choi, Hyung-Sik Im, Ji Youg Kim, Won Rak Choi, Myung Hee Jung, Sang-Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Estrogen is well known to have a preventative effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several studies have demonstrated that nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-ĸB) can contribute to the effects of estrogen on the development of AD. We investigated whether NF-ĸB affects amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced memory impairment in an estrogen-lacking condition. In the present study, nine-week-old Institute cancer research (ICR) mice were ovariectomized to block estrogen stimulation. Ten weeks after the ovariectomization, mice were administered with Aβ (300 pmol) via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion for 2 weeks...
May 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782798/regulatory-activities-of-dopamine-and-its-derivatives-towards-metal-free-and-metal-induced-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Eunju Nam, Jeffrey S Derrick, Seunghee Lee, Juhye Kang, Jiyeon Han, Shin Jung C Lee, Su Wol Chung, Mi Hee Lim
A catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), is suggested to be linked to the pathology of dementia; however, the involvement of DA and its structural analogues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, composed of multiple pathogenic factors has not been clear. Herein, we report that DA and its rationally designed structural derivatives (1-6) based on DA's oxidative transformation are able to modulate multiple pathological elements found in AD [ i.e., metal ions, metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-bound Aβ (metal-Aβ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with demonstration of detailed molecular-level mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782315/tlr4-gene-expression-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-in-response-to-hippocampal-deafferentation-in-rodents
#4
Justin Miron, Cynthia Picard, Josée Frappier, Doris Dea, Louise Théroux, Judes Poirier
One important aspect in Alzheimer's disease pathology is the presence of chronic inflammation. Considering its role as a key receptor in the microglial innate immune system, TLR4 was shown to regulate the binding and phagocytosis of amyloid plaques by microglia in several mouse models of amyloidosis, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, TLR4 and its association with cytokines have not been thoroughly examined in the brains of subjects affected with Alzheimer's disease. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in postmortem human brains, we observed increased expression for the TLR4 and TNF genes (p = 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779175/anthocyanins-improve-hippocampus-dependent-memory-function-and-prevent-neurodegeneration-via-jnk-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-in-lps-treated-adult-mice
#5
Muhammad Sohail Khan, Tahir Ali, Min Woo Kim, Myeung Hoon Jo, Jong Il Chung, Myeong Ok Kim
Microglia plays a critical role in the brain and protects neuronal cells from toxins. However, over-activation of microglia leads to deleterious effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to affect neuronal cells via activation of microglia as well as directly to initiate neuroinflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of anthocyanins against LPS-induced neurotoxicity in an animal model and in cell cultures. Intraperitoneal injections of LPS (250 μg/kg/day for 1 week) induce ROS production and promote neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration which ultimately leads to memory impairment...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779041/the-potential-importance-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown, but the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and chronic inflammation indicates that immune disturbances are involved in AD pathogenesis. Recent genetic studies have revealed that many candidate genes are expressed in both microglia and myeloid cells which infiltrate into the AD brains. Invading myeloid cells controls the functions of resident microglia in pathological conditions, such as AD pathology. AD is a neurologic disease with inflammatory component where the immune system is not able to eliminate the perpetrator, while, concurrently, it should prevent neuronal injuries induced by inflammation...
May 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777723/effect-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-donepezil-and-rivastigmine-on-the-activity-and-expression-of-cyclooxygenases-in-a-model-of-the-inflammatory-action-of-fluoride-on-macrophages-obtained-from-thp-1-monocytes
#7
Marta Goschorska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Izabela Gutowska, Maciej Tarnowski, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Emilia Metryka, Krzysztof Safranow, Dariusz Chlubek
Inflammation is an important factor in the development of many diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. ‪Given that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are also currently believed to have anti-inflammatory properties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil) on cyclooxygenase activity and expression using the proinflammatory action of fluoride (F- ) on cultured macrophages obtained from THP-1 monocytes...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776741/a-small-diversity-library-of-%C3%AE-methyl-amide-analogs-of-sulindac-for-probing-anticancer-structure-activity-relationships
#8
Bini Mathew, Timothy S Snowden, Michele C Connelly, R Kiplin Guy, Robert C Reynolds
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a variety of potential indications that include management of pain and inflammation as well as chemoprevention and/or treatment of cancer. Furthermore, a specific form of ibuprofen, dexibuprofen or the S-(+) form, shows interesting neurological activities and has been proposed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In a continuation of our work probing the anticancer activity of small sulindac libraries, we have prepared and screened a small diversity library of α-methyl substituted sulindac amides in the profen class...
May 10, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774334/a-comparative-study-of-epa-enriched-ethanolamine-plasmalogen-and-epa-enriched-phosphatidylethanolamine-on-a%C3%AE-42-induced-cognitive-deficiency-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Hongxia Che, Qian Li, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Ding, Lingyu Zhang, Haohao Shi, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Changhu Xue, Yaoguang Chang, Yuming Wang
Ethanolamine plasmalogen (pPE), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes, is specifically reduced in postmortem brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of EPA-enriched ethanolamine plasmalogen (EPA-pPE) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylethanolamine (EPA-PE) on cognitive deficiency and illustrate the possible underlying mechanisms. SD rats were divided into four groups including the sham group injected with 0.9% saline and three amyloid-β (Aβ) infusion groups, Aβ42 group, EPA-pPE group and EPA-PE group...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769839/a-novel-association-of-polymorphism-in-the-itga4-gene-encoding-the-vla-4-%C3%AE-4-subunit-with-increased-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Vladimira Durmanova, Zuzana Parnicka, Juraj Javor, Gabriel Minarik, Lubomir Vrazda, Barbora Vaseckova, Karin Gmitterova, Maria Kralova, Jan Pecenak, Peter Filipcik, Ivana Shawkatova
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in elderly people worldwide. Many studies support the hypothesis that the inflammation of the CNS contributes to the neurodegeneration and disease progression. The integrin molecule α 4 β 1, also known as very late antigen 4 (VLA-4), belongs to adhesion molecules that activate the inflammatory process through the migration of immune cells into the CNS. Therefore, the objective of our study was to analyze the association between two polymorphisms located in the ITGA4 gene encoding the α 4 subunit of VLA-4 and the risk of AD...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765306/microglial-activation-is-modulated-by-captopril-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#11
Keren Asraf, Nofar Torika, Ron N Apte, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important peripheral system involved in homeostasis modulation, with angiotensin II (Ang II) serving as the main effector hormone. The main enzyme involved in Ang II formation is angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) such as captopril (Cap) are predominantly used for the management of hypertension. All of the components of the RAS have also been identified in brain. Centrally located hormones such as Ang II can induce glial inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where glial inflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of Ang II and ACE have been detected...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764453/ampa-ergic-regulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#12
Jane C Hettinger, Hyo Lee, Guojun Bu, David M Holtzman, John R Cirrito
BACKGROUND: Extracellular aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic multimers is a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Aβ aggregation is concentration-dependent, with higher concentrations of Aβ much more likely to form toxic species. The processes that regulate extracellular levels of Aβ therefore stand to directly affect AD pathology onset. Studies from our lab and others have demonstrated that synaptic activity is a critical regulator of Aβ production through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755345/analogous-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloids-harmaline-and-harmine-ameliorate-scopolamine-induced-cognition-dysfunction-by-attenuating-acetylcholinesterase-activity-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-mice
#13
Shu-Ping Li, Yu-Wen Wang, Sheng-Lan Qi, Yun-Peng Zhang, Gang Deng, Wen-Zheng Ding, Chao Ma, Qi-Yan Lin, Hui-Da Guan, Wei Liu, Xue-Mei Cheng, Chang-Hong Wang
The analogous β-carboline alkaloids, harmaline (HAL) and harmine (HAR), possess a variety of biological properties, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and many others, and have great potential for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies have showed that the two compounds have similar structures and in vitro AChE inhibitory activities but with significant difference in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to comparatively investigate the effects of HAL and HAR in memory deficits of scopolamine-induced mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754747/sexual-dimorphism-in-predisposition-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Daniel W Fisher, David A Bennett, Hongxin Dong
Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and rate of symptom progression, but the mechanisms underlying this sexual divergence are unknown. Although some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of the known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities toward the disease. Although a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to mediate these differences, none have been definitively verified...
April 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747817/gangliosides-in-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#15
Koichi Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Orie Tajima, Yuki Ohkawa, Yuji Kondo, Ji Shuting, Noboru Hashimoto, Keiko Furukawa
Gangliosides play roles in the regulation of cell signaling that are mediated via membrane microdomains, lipid rafts. In this review, functions of gangliosides in the maintenance of nervous systems with a focus on regulation of inflammation and neurodegeneration are addressed. During analyses of various ganglioside-lacking mutant mice, we demonstrated that nervous tissues exhibited inflammatory reactions and subsequent neurodegeneration. Among inflammation-related genes, factors of the complement system showed up-regulation with aging...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743866/dexmedetomidine-inhibits-inflammation-in-microglia-cells-under-stimulation-of-lps-and-atp-by-c-fos-nlrp3-caspase-1-cascades
#16
Hu Li, Xueping Zhang, Mingfu Chen, Jianyan Chen, Tao Gao, Shanglong Yao
NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) plays critical roles in the initiation of inflammasome-mediated inflammation in microglia, thus becomes an important therapeutic target of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a new type of clinical anesthetic agent, shows anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits postoperative cognitive dysfunction in AD patients. The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Dex on NLRP3 activity in activated microglia and reveal the underlying mechanisms. The human microglia clone 3 (HMC3) cells were exposed to 100 ng/ml LPS and 5 mM ATP, in the presence and absence of doses of Dex...
2018: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740431/omics-based-approach-reveals-complement-mediated-inflammation-in-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#17
Morten Blaabjerg, Anne Louise Hemdrup, Lylia Drici, Klemens Ruprecht, Peter Garred, Romana Höftberger, Bjarne W Kristensen, Daniel Kondziella, Tobias Sejbaek, Soren W Hansen, Helle H Nielsen, Pia Jensen, Morten Meyer, Friedemann Paul, Hans Lassmann, Martin R Larsen, Zsolt Illes
Objective: Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare syndrome with relapsing brainstem/cerebellar symptoms. To examine the pathogenic processes and investigate potential biomarkers, we analyzed combined materials of brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by comprehensive methodologies. Materials and methods: To identify major pathways of perivascular inflammation in CLIPPERS, we first compared the CSF proteome ( n  = 5) to a neurodegenerative condition, Alzheimer's disease (AD, n  = 5)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740382/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-accelerates-disease-progression-in-a-mouse-model-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Zhilin Huang, Qiang Liu, Yu Peng, Jiaying Dai, Youna Xie, Weineng Chen, Simei Long, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Xiaoli Yao
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by interactions between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. Circadian rhythm dysfunction (CRD) is a significant contributor to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, whether CRD contributes to the progression of ALS remains little known. We performed behavioral and physiological tests on SOD1G93A ALS model mice with and without artificially induced CRD, and on wild-type controls; we also analyzed spinal cord samples histologically for differences between groups...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740000/ameliorative-potential-of-desalted-salicornia-europaea-l-extract-in-multifaceted-alzheimer-s-like-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-mice-model
#19
Govindarajan Karthivashan, Shin-Young Park, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Joonsoo Kim, Md Ezazul Haque, Duk-Yeon Cho, In-Su Kim, Eun-Ah Cho, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
The Salicornia europaea L. (SE) plant is a halophyte that has been widely consumed as a seasoned vegetable, and it has been recently reported to counteract chronic diseases related to oxidative and inflammatory stress. In this study, we performed an initial phytochemical analysis with in vitro biochemical tests and chromatographic profiling of desalted and enzyme-digested SE ethanol extract (SE-EE). Subsequently, we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and ameliorative potential of SE-EE in LPS-inflicted BV-2 microglial cells and scopolamine-induced amnesic C57/BL6N mice, respectively...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737252/does-ceruloplasmin-defend-against-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Bo Wang, Xiao-Ping Wang
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major copper transport protein in plasma, mainly produced by the liver. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked CP (GPI-CP) is the predominant form expressed in astrocytes of the brain. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that CP is an essential protein in body with multiple functions such as regulating the homeostasis of copper and iron ions, ferroxidase activity, oxidizing organic amines, and preventing the formation of free radicals. In addition, as an acute-phase protein, CP is induced during inflammation and infection...
May 7, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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