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Dustin A Carlson, Peter J Kahrilas, Katherine Ritter, Zhiyue Lin, John E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Repetitive, retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with post-fundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Maciej Jasiński, Marta Kulik, Monika Wojciechowska, Ryszard Stolarski, Joanna Trylska
Synthetic oligonucleotides targeting functional regions of the prokaryotic rRNA could be promising antimicrobial agents. Indeed, such oligonucleotides were proven to inhibit bacterial growth. 2'-O-methylated (2'-O-Me) oligoribonucleotides with a sequence complementary to the decoding site in 16S rRNA were reported as inhibitors of bacterial translation. However, the binding mode and structures of the formed complexes, as well as the level of selectivity of the oligonucleotides between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic target, were not determined...
2018: PloS One
Nilan T Jacob
Over the years, the pharmaceutical industry has been at the forefront of research and innovation in drug discovery and development. The process of drug discovery extending from pre-clinical studies to multi-centric clinical trials and post-marketing phase is a costly affair running into billions of dollars. On the flip side, not all investigational molecules clear the trial phases and get approved; which puts pressure on the manufacturers to maximise the profit from approved drugs. It is in this key area, the practice of drug promotion plays its role...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Micaela Fedele, Cecilia Vernia
In this paper we solve the inverse problem for the Curie-Weiss model and its multispecies version when multiple thermodynamic states are present as in the low temperature phase where the phase space is clustered. The inverse problem consists of reconstructing the model parameters starting from configuration data generated according to the distribution of the model. We demonstrate that, without taking into account the presence of many states, the application of the inversion procedure produces very poor inference results...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Arkadiusz Jędrzejewski, Anna Chmiel, Katarzyna Sznajd-Weron
We investigate a kinetic Ising model with several single-spin-flip dynamics (including Metropolis and heat bath) on quenched and annealed random regular graphs. As expected, on the quenched structures all proposed algorithms reproduce the same results since the conditions for the detailed balance and the Boltzmann distribution in an equilibrium are satisfied. However, on the annealed graphs the situation is far less clear-the network annealing disturbs the equilibrium moving the system away from it. Consequently, distinct dynamics lead to different steady states...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Sebastian von Ohr, Markus Manssen, Alexander K Hartmann
We studied the nonequilibrium aging behavior of the random-field Ising model in three dimensions for various values of the disorder strength. This allowed us to investigate how the aging behavior changes across the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition. We investigated a large system size of N=256^{3} spins and up to 10^{8} Monte Carlo sweeps. To reach these necessary long simulation times, we employed an implementation running on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors, reaching single-spin-flip times as short as 6 ps...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
A T Chieco, R Dreyfus, D J Durian
We introduce the concept of a "hyperuniformity disorder length" h that controls the variance of volume fraction fluctuations for randomly placed windows of fixed size. In particular, fluctuations are determined by the average number of particles within a distance h from the boundary of the window. We first compute special expectations and bounds in d dimensions, and then illustrate the range of behavior of h versus window size L by analyzing several different types of simulated two-dimensional pixel patterns-where particle positions are stored as a binary digital image in which pixels have value zero if empty and one if they contain a particle...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Mario Giuffrè, Ettore Piro, Simona La Placa, Giovanni Corsello
Paracetamol (acetaminophen or N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) is considered a safe analgesic and antipyretic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug commonly used during pediatric ages and during pregnancy. We report on a term neonate with closed ductus arteriosus, severe cardiomyopathy, right ventricular dysfunction, and functional stenosis of pulmonary arteries at birth after maternal self-medication with paracetamol and consumption of polyphenol-rich foods in late pregnancy. This drug, especially when associated with other vasoconstrictors (such as polyphenols), interferes with prostaglandin metabolism, which seriously accentuates the intrauterine ductus arteriosus constriction and leads to pharmacologic adverse events...
January 17, 2018: Pediatrics
Jiahui Meng, Danfeng Zhao, Hai Tian, Liang Zhang
In order to improve the performance of non-binary low-density parity check codes (LDPC) hard decision decoding algorithm and to reduce the complexity of decoding, a sum of the magnitude for hard decision decoding algorithm based on loop update detection is proposed. This will also ensure the reliability, stability and high transmission rate of 5G mobile communication. The algorithm is based on the hard decision decoding algorithm (HDA) and uses the soft information from the channel to calculate the reliability, while the sum of the variable nodes' (VN) magnitude is excluded for computing the reliability of the parity checks...
January 15, 2018: Sensors
A P Zakharov, L M Pismen
We describe reshaping of active textiles actuated by bending of Janus fibres comprising both active and passive components. A great variety of shapes, determined by minimising the overall energy of the fabric, can be produced by varying bending directions determined by the orientation of Janus fibres. Under certain conditions, alternative equilibrium states, one absolutely stable and the other metastable coexist, and their relative energy may flip its sign as system parameters, such as the extension upon actuation, change...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Asuka Nanbo, Junki Maruyama, Masaki Imai, Michiko Ujie, Yoichiro Fujioka, Shinya Nishide, Ayato Takada, Yusuke Ohba, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Cell surface receptors for phosphatidylserine contribute to the entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) particles, indicating that the presence of phosphatidylserine in the envelope of EBOV is important for the internalization of EBOV particles. Phosphatidylserine is typically distributed in the inner layer of the plasma membrane in normal cells. Progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane of infected cells, suggesting that phosphatidylserine is likely flipped to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in infected cells for EBOV virions to acquire it...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Lindsay Johnston, Susan B Williams, Anne Ades
A well-organized educational curriculum for the training of both novice and experienced ECMO providers is critical for the continued function of an institutional ECMO program. ELSO provides guidance for the education for ECMO specialists, physicians and staff, which incorporates "traditional" instructor-centered educational methods, such as didactic lectures and technical skill training. Novel research suggests utilization of strategies that align with principles of adult learning to promote active learner involvement and reflection on how the material can be applied to understand existing and new constructs may be more effective...
January 11, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Temel Tirkes, Chen Lin, Enming Cui, Yu Deng, Paul R Territo, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Fatih Akisik
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular volume fraction and T1 mapping can be used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis (CP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant study analyzed 143 consecutive patients with and without CP who underwent MR imaging between May 2016 and February 2017. Patients were selected for the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that considered history and clinical and laboratory findings. Eligible patients (n = 119) were grouped as normal (n = 60) or with mild (n = 22), moderate (n = 27), or severe (n = 10) CP on the basis of MRCP findings using the Cambridge classification as the reference standard...
January 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Daniel P Radin, Yong-Xin Li, Gary Rogers, Richard Purcell, Arnold Lippa
It was previously reported that Stargazin (STG) enhances the surface expression of AMPA receptors, controls receptor gating and slows channel desensitization as an auxiliary subunit of the receptors. Ampakines are a class of AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators that modify rates of transmitter binding, channel activity and desensitization parameters. As such, they have shown efficacy in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, where excitatory synaptic transmission is compromised. Given the functional similarities between STG and ampakines, the current study sought to probe interactions between STG and ampakine gating properties...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ying Li, Jianglei Di, Chaojie Ma, Jiwei Zhang, Jinzhan Zhong, Kaiqiang Wang, Teli Xi, Jianlin Zhao
We demonstrate a simple method for quantitative phase imaging of tiny transparent objects such as living cells based on the transport of intensity equation. The experiments are performed using an inverted bright field microscope upgraded with a flipping imaging module, which enables to simultaneously create two laterally separated images with unequal defocus distances. This add-on module does not include any lenses or gratings and is cost-effective and easy-to-alignment. The validity of this method is confirmed by the measurement of microlens array and human osteoblastic cells in culture, indicating its potential in the applications of dynamically measuring living cells and other transparent specimens in a quantitative, non-invasive and label-free manner...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Richa Nigam, Roy Anindya
Repair of alkylation damage in DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity. Escherichia coli (E.coli) protein AlkB removes various alkyl DNA adducts including N1-methyladenine (N1meA) and N3-methylcytosine (N3meC) by oxidative demethylation. Previous studies showed that AlkB preferentially removes N1meA and N3meC from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). It can also remove N1meA and N3meC from double-stranded DNA by base-flipping. Notably, ssDNA produced during DNA replication and recombination, remains bound to E...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Catherine J Dowell, J Farley Norman, Jackie R Moment, Lindsey M Shain, Hideko F Norman, Flip Phillips, Astrid M L Kappers
In three experiments participants haptically discriminated object shape using unimanual (single hand explored two objects) and bimanual exploration (both hands were used, but each hand, left or right, explored a separate object). Such haptic exploration (one versus two hands) requires somatosensory processing in either only one or both cerebral hemispheres; previous studies related to the perception of shape/curvature found superior performance for unimanual exploration, indicating that shape comparison is more effective when only one hemisphere is utilized...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elisabetta Moroni, David A Agard, Giorgio Colombo
The Hsp90 family of molecular chaperones oversees the folding of a wide range of client proteins. Hsp90 is a homodimer, whose conformational states and functions are regulated by ATP-binding and hydrolysis. The crystal structure of mitochondrial Hsp90 (Trap1) showed that one of the two protomers in the active state is buckled, resulting in an asymmetric conformation. The asymmetry between the two protomers corresponds to the broadly conserved region responsible for client binding. Moreover, asymmetry determines differential hydrolysis for each protomer, with the buckled conformation favoring ATP processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ai Ping Chen, Julian Gonzalez, Konstantin Guslienko
Micromagnetic simulations of magnetization reversal were performed for magnetic nanotubes of a finite length, L, equal to 1 and 2 μm, 50 and 100 nm radii, R, and uniaxial anisotropy with "easy axis" parallel to the tube length. I.e., we considered relatively short nanotubes with the aspect ratio L/R in the range 10-40. The non-uniform curling magnetization states on both ends of the nanotubes can be treated as vortex domain walls (DW). The domain wall length, Lc, depends on the tube geometric parameters and the anisotropy constant Ku, and determines the magnetization reversal mode, as well as the switching field value...
January 10, 2018: Materials
Joani Mato, Mark S Gordon
A new, general spin-correct spin-flip configuration interaction (SF-CI) method is introduced by extending the occupation restricted multiple active spaces (ORMAS) CI method in GAMESS. SF-ORMAS is a single reference CI method that utilizes a high-spin restricted open shell determinant on which an arbitrary amount of spin-flipped excitations are carried out to generate a wave function of desired multiplicity. Furthermore, the SF-ORMAS method allows for a flexible design of the active space(s) to fit the chemical problem at hand...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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