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Child maltreatment

Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Barbara H Chaiyachati, Julie R Gaither, Marcia Hughes, Karen Foley-Schain, John M Leventhal
Although home visiting has been used in many populations in prevention efforts, the impact of scaled-up home-visiting programs on abuse and neglect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of voluntary participation in an established statewide home-visiting program for socially high-risk families on child maltreatment as identified by Child Protective Services (CPS). Propensity score matching was used to compare socially high-risk families with a child born between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 who participated in Connecticut's home-visiting program for first-time mothers and a comparison cohort of families who were eligible for the home-visiting program but did not participate...
March 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Laura Montoya-Sánchez, Rocío Del P Pereira-Ospina, Javier Y Pinzón-Salamanca, José M Suescún-Vargas
Pancreatitis consists in acute inflammation of the pancreas that is clinically characterized by abdominal pain. To make the diagnosis it is necessary the elevation of biochemical markers like pancreatic amylase or lipase. It is the most frequent pancreatic disease in both children and adults. Its presentation in the pediatric population is increasing and has several etiologies such as: infections, trauma, intoxication and metabolic diseases. Trauma mechanisms have been described: child maltreatment, falls, trauma with the bicycle handle and traffic accidents...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Grace S Chng, Dongdong Li, Chi Meng Chu, Tabitha Ong, Felicia Lim
Children who enter the child protection system often have complex family problems and have experienced early adverse experiences. Using latent class analysis, this study aimed to identify family classes of child protection cases in Singapore, to ascertain the prevalence of these family classes, and to test the association of family class membership to subsequent recurrence of harm. A sample of 440 cases who entered the Child Protective Service in Singapore was analyzed based on eight familial factors on the household and caregiver levels...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Beth Herold, Karen St Claire, Scott Snider, Aditee Narayan
Child maltreatment is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in the United States, often leading to lifelong adverse health consequences. Currently, there is a nationwide shortage of child abuse pediatricians (CAPs), resulting in many unfilled child abuse positions throughout the United States. In addition, the number of future CAPs currently in fellowship training will meet neither the current need for CAPs nor provide replacements for the senior CAPs who will be retiring in the next 5 to 10 years. Although it is recognized that pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) play an important role in the care of maltreated children, there are few available data on the impact of the PNP as an integral member of the child abuse team...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Kate Guastaferro, Betty S Lai, Katy Miller, Jenelle Shanley Chatham, Daniel J Whitaker, Shannon Self-Brown, Allison Kemner, John R Lutzker
Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem best addressed through evidence-based parent-support programs. There is a wide range of programs with different strengths offering a variety of options for families. Choosing one single evidence-based program often limits the range of services available to meet the unique needs of families. This paper presents findings from a study to examine the systematic braiding of two evidence-based programs, Parents as Teachers and SafeCare at Home (PATSCH), with the goal to provide a more robust intervention for higher risk families...
February 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Yvette Efevbera, Dana C McCoy, Alice J Wuermli, Theresa S Betancourt
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Cecilia Martinez-Torteya, Katherine L Rosenblum, Marjorie Beeghly, David Oppenheim, Nina Koren-Karie, Maria Muzik
The current study evaluated whether maternal insightfulness can buffer the negative influence of postpartum stressful life events on maternal parenting behaviors. Participants were 125 mother-infant dyads (55% boys) who present a subsample of a larger longitudinal study on maternal maltreatment during childhood and its impact on peripartum maternal adjustment. Women were primarily white and middle class. At 4 months postpartum, mothers reported on the stressful life events experienced after the child's birth and current depressive symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David B Resnik, Duncan C Randall
In this article, we explore the ethical issues related to the reporting of suspected abuse or neglect in research involving children. Ethical dilemmas related to reporting child maltreatment are often complex because the rights of children and their adult caregivers may conflict and determinations of abuse or neglect are socially constructed judgments that depend on particular circumstances. We argue that when reporting is legally mandated, investigators must follow the law and report their suspicions to Child Protective Services...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Hiu-Fai Fong, Margarita Alegria, Megan H Bair-Merritt, William Beardslee
Although child welfare caseworkers are responsible for facilitating mental health services access for maltreated children, little is known about caseworkers' decisions to refer children to services. We aimed to identify factors associated with caseworker referral of children to mental health services after a maltreatment investigation. We analyzed data from 1956 children 2-17 years old from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. We examined associations of children's predisposing, enabling, and need-related factors and caseworkers' work environment characteristics with referral to mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Cliff McKinney, Melanie Stearns, Erica Szkody
The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rebecca J Mitchell, Rebecca Seah, Hsuen P Ting, Kate Curtis, Kim Foster
OBJECTIVE: To examine the magnitude, 10-year temporal trends and treatment cost of intentional injury hospitalisations of children aged ≤16 years in Australia. METHOD: A retrospective examination of linked hospitalisation and mortality data for children aged ≤16 years during 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2012 with self-harm or assault injuries. Negative binomial regression examined temporal trends. RESULTS: There were 18,223 self-harm and 13,877 assault hospitalisations, with a treatment cost of $64 million and $60...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Michael F Lorber, Shu Xu, Richard E Heyman, Amy M Smith Slep, Theodore P Beauchaine
OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify subgroups of individuals based on patterns of psychological health problems (PH; e.g., depressive symptoms, hazardous drinking) and family maltreatment (FM; e.g., child and partner abuse). METHOD: We analyzed data from very large surveys of United States Air Force active duty members with romantic partners and children. RESULTS: Latent class analyses indicated six replicable patterns of PH problems and FM...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Elizabeth D Beatriz, Carmel Salhi, John L Griffith, Beth E Molnar
Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Jennifer O'Brien, Rebecca Macy, Dania Ermentrout, Paul Lanier
Given the overlap between intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment, IPV-exposed child participants in research might disclose instances of child maltreatment. Such disclosures might require researchers to report the maltreatment to child protective services (CPS). However, the literature provides minimal guidance on how to navigate the complex challenges and ethical dilemmas around reporting in the context of research. To help address this gap and stimulate discussion regarding protocols and policies for reporting child maltreatment, this article presents a CPS reporting protocol developed as part of a community-engaged research project evaluating a parenting intervention for system-involved mothers experiencing IPV...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Michael McLaughlin
Prior research suggests that income and child maltreatment are related, but questions remain about the specific types of economic factors that affect the risk of maltreatment. The need to understand the role of economics in child welfare is critical, given the significant public health costs of child maltreatment. One factor that has been overlooked is regressive taxation. This study addresses this need by examining whether state-level changes in cigarette tax rates predict changes in state-level child maltreatment rates...
March 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Eva Frazer, Roger A Mitchell, LaQuandra S Nesbitt, Mallory Williams, Edith P Mitchell, Richard Allen Williams, Doris Browne
While much progress has occurred since the civil rights act of 1964, minorities have continued to suffer disparate and discriminatory access to economic opportunities, education, housing, health care and criminal justice. The latest challenge faced by the physicians and public health providers who serve the African American community is the detrimental, and seemingly insurmountable, causes and effects of violence in impoverished communities of color. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the number one killer of black males ages 10-35 is homicide, indicating a higher rate of violence than any other group...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Yuliang Zha, Hao Liu, Yang Sun, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Surviving an earthquake can greatly increase the risk of suicidality among children and adolescents, especially if they experience physical and emotional neglect or abuse within the family after the earthquake. How various types of childhood adversity affect the vulnerability of adolescents to suicidality after exposure to a natural disaster is not well understood. This study examined the relationships among different types of earthquake exposure, childhood trauma, psychopathology and suicidality...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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