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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712569/extensive-farming-in-estonia-started-through-a-sex-biased-migration-from-the-steppe
#1
Lehti Saag, Liivi Varul, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Jesper Stenderup, Morten E Allentoft, Lauri Saag, Luca Pagani, Maere Reidla, Kristiina Tambets, Ene Metspalu, Aivar Kriiska, Eske Willerslev, Toomas Kivisild, Mait Metspalu
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition-both material and genetic-varied in different parts of Europe [1-7]. Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe, and the extent to which they involve change in genetic ancestry is not fully understood due to the lack of relevant ancient DNA data. Here we present the results from new low-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five first farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#2
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701566/chronotype-variation-drives-night-time-sentinel-like-behaviour-in-hunter-gatherers
#3
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
Sleep is essential for survival, yet it also represents a time of extreme vulnerability to predation, hostile conspecifics and environmental dangers. To reduce the risks of sleeping, the sentinel hypothesis proposes that group-living animals share the task of vigilance during sleep, with some individuals sleeping while others are awake. To investigate sentinel-like behaviour in sleeping humans, we investigated activity patterns at night among Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Using actigraphy, we discovered that all subjects were simultaneously scored as asleep for only 18 min in total over 20 days of observation, with a median of eight individuals awake throughout the night-time period; thus, one or more individuals was awake (or in light stages of sleep) during 99...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700598/tracing-social-interactions-in-pleistocene-north-america-via-3d-model-analysis-of-stone-tool-asymmetry
#4
Sabrina B Sholts, Joseph A M Gingerich, Stefan Schlager, Dennis J Stanford, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696282/accurate-age-estimation-in-small-scale-societies
#5
Yoan Diekmann, Daniel Smith, Pascale Gerbault, Mark Dyble, Abigail E Page, Nikhil Chaudhary, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Mark G Thomas
Precise estimation of age is essential in evolutionary anthropology, especially to infer population age structures and understand the evolution of human life history diversity. However, in small-scale societies, such as hunter-gatherer populations, time is often not referred to in calendar years, and accurate age estimation remains a challenge. We address this issue by proposing a Bayesian approach that accounts for age uncertainty inherent to fieldwork data. We developed a Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that produces posterior distributions of ages for each individual, based on a ranking order of individuals from youngest to oldest and age ranges for each individual...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#6
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680685/humans-permanently-occupied-the-andean-highlands-by-at-least-7%C3%A2-ka
#7
Randall Haas, Ioana C Stefanescu, Alexander Garcia-Putnam, Mark S Aldenderfer, Mark T Clementz, Melissa S Murphy, Carlos Viviano Llave, James T Watson
High-elevation environments above 2500 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.) were among the planet's last frontiers of human colonization. Research on the speed and tempo of this colonization process is active and holds implications for understanding rates of genetic, physiological and cultural adaptation in our species. Permanent occupation of high-elevation environments in the Andes Mountains of South America tentatively began with hunter-gatherers around 9 ka according to current archaeological estimates, though the timing is currently debated...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679454/the-cultural-evolution-of-shamanism
#8
Manvir Singh
Shamans, including medicine-men, mediums, and the prophets of religious movements, recur across human societies. Shamanism also existed among nearly all documented hunter-gatherers, likely characterized the religious lives of many ancestral humans, and is often proposed by anthropologists to be the "first profession", representing the first institutionalized division of labor beyond age and sex. This paper proposes a cultural evolutionary theory to explain why shamanism consistently develops, and in particular, (1) why shamanic traditions exhibit recurrent features around the world, (2) why shamanism professionalizes early, often in the absence of other specialization, and (3) how shifting social conditions affect the form or existence of shamanism...
July 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678860/multi-scale-ancient-dna-analyses-confirm-the-western-origin-of-michelsberg-farmers-and-document-probable-practices-of-human-sacrifice
#9
Alice Beau, Maïté Rivollat, Hélène Réveillas, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Fanny Mendisco, Yohann Thomas, Philippe Lefranc, Marie-France Deguilloux
In Europe, the Middle Neolithic is characterized by an important diversification of cultures. In northeastern France, the appearance of the Michelsberg culture has been correlated with major cultural changes and interpreted as the result of the settlement of new groups originating from the Paris Basin. This cultural transition has been accompanied by the expansion of particular funerary practices involving inhumations within circular pits and individuals in "non-conventional" positions (deposited in the pits without any particular treatment)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666649/-we-are-a-band-an-anthropological-vision-of-the-medical-community
#10
P Serrano Morón, M Delgado Galán
In this paper we try to explain, using an anthropological point of view, how the medical community behaves like a tribe like those who inhabit the Amazon forests or the African Savanna. The Family as fundamental unit of a band of hunter-gatherers also defines the Primary Care Centre and the professionals who work there, as an egalitarian group in which every member works for the good of the tribe. The leaders of the tribe, also called "Health Centre Managers", are also comparable to the "big men" of Polynesia or the aborigines, who leads hunting parties...
June 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620190/formation-of-biphasic-hydroxylapatite-beta-magnesium-tricalcium-phosphate-in-heat-treated-salmonid-vertebrae
#11
Don H Butler, Ruth Shahack-Gross
Ichthyoarchaeological evidence is uncommon at ancient hunter-gatherer sites from various regions and timeframes. This research contributes to the development of microarchaeological techniques useful for identifying fishing economies in situations where classifiable bones are unavailable. Specifically, traces of heat altered bone mineral in domestic hearths are expected to provide markers for discarded fish remains. We used a series of laboratory incineration experiments to characterize the mineralogy of burned salmonid vertebrae...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615641/an-earlier-revolution-genetic-and-genomic-analyses-reveal-pre-existing-cultural-differences-leading-to-neolithization
#12
Michela Leonardi, Guido Barbujani, Andrea Manica
Archaeological evidence shows that, in the long run, Neolitization (the transition from foraging to food production) was associated with demographic growth. We used two methods (patterns of linkage disequilibrium from whole-genome SNPs and MSMC estimates on genomes) to reconstruct the demographic profiles for respectively 64 and 24 modern-day populations with contrasting lifestyles across the Old World (sub-Saharan Africa, south-eastern Asia, Siberia). Surprisingly, in all regions, food producers had larger effective population sizes (N e) than foragers already 20 k years ago, well before the Neolithic revolution...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592672/primate-energy-input-and-the-evolutionary-transition-to-energy-dense-diets-in-humans
#13
Bruno Simmen, Patrick Pasquet, Shelly Masi, Georgius J A Koppert, Jonathan C K Wells, Claude Marcel Hladik
Humans and other large-brained hominins have been proposed to increase energy turnover during their evolutionary history. Such increased energy turnover is plausible, given the evolution of energy-rich diets, but requires empirical confirmation. Framing human energetics in a phylogenetic context, our meta-analysis of 17 wild non-human primate species shows that daily metabolizable energy input follows an allometric relationship with body mass where the allometric exponent for mass is 0.75 ± 0.04, close to that reported for daily energy expenditure measured with doubly labelled water in primates...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579801/meat-intake-and-the-dose-of-vitamin-b3-nicotinamide-cause-of-the-causes-of-disease-transitions-health-divides-and-health-futures
#14
REVIEW
Lisa J Hill, Adrian C Williams
Meat and vitamin B3 - nicotinamide - intake was high during hunter-gatherer times. Intake then fell and variances increased during and after the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Health, height, and IQ deteriorated. Low dietary doses are buffered by 'welcoming' gut symbionts and tuberculosis that can supply nicotinamide, but this co-evolved homeostatic metagenomic strategy risks dysbioses and impaired resistance to pathogens. Vitamin B3 deficiency may now be common among the poor billions on a low-meat diet...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552360/paleogenomic-evidence-for-multi-generational-mixing-between-neolithic-farmers-and-mesolithic-hunter-gatherers-in-the-lower-danube-basin
#15
Gloria González-Fortes, Eppie R Jones, Emma Lightfoot, Clive Bonsall, Catalin Lazar, Aurora Grandal-d'Anglade, María Dolores Garralda, Labib Drak, Veronika Siska, Angela Simalcsik, Adina Boroneanţ, Juan Ramón Vidal Romaní, Marcos Vaqueiro Rodríguez, Pablo Arias, Ron Pinhasi, Andrea Manica, Michael Hofreiter
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved profound cultural and technological changes. In Western and Central Europe, these changes occurred rapidly and synchronously after the arrival of early farmers of Anatolian origin [1-3], who largely replaced the local Mesolithic hunter-gatherers [1, 4-6]. Further east, in the Baltic region, the transition was gradual, with little or no genetic input from incoming farmers [7]. Here we use ancient DNA to investigate the relationship between hunter-gatherers and farmers in the Lower Danube basin, a geographically intermediate area that is characterized by a rapid Neolithic transition but also by the presence of archaeological evidence that points to cultural exchange, and thus possible admixture, between hunter-gatherers and farmers...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533441/trends-in-dna-methylation-with-age-replicate-across-diverse-human-populations
#16
Shyamalika Gopalan, Oana Carja, Maud Fagny, Etienne Patin, Justin W Myrick, Lisa M McEwen, Sarah M Mah, Michael S Kobor, Alain Froment, Marcus W Feldman, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Brenna M Henn
Aging is associated with widespread changes in genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation. Thousands of CpG sites whose tissue-specific methylation levels are strongly correlated with chronological age have been previously identified. However, the majority of these studies have focused primarily on cosmopolitan populations living in the developed world; it is not known if age-related patterns of DNA methylation at these loci are similar across a broad range of human genetic and ecological diversity. We investigated genome-wide methylation patterns using saliva- and whole blood-derived DNA from two traditionally hunting and gathering African populations: the Baka of the western Central African rain forest and the ≠Khomani San of the South African Kalahari Desert...
July 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507529/parkinson-disease-an-evolutionary-perspective
#17
Pedro J Garcia-Ruiz, Alberto J Espay
There are two central premises to this evolutionary view of Parkinson disease (PD). First, PD is a specific human disease. Second, the prevalence of PD has increased over the course of human history. Several lines of evidence may explain why PD appears to be restricted to the human species. The major manifestations of PD are the consequence of degeneration in the dopamine-synthesizing neurons of the mesostriatal neuronal pathway. It is of note the enormous expansion of the human dopamine mesencephalic neurons onto the striatum compared with other mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499932/dietary-customs-and-food-availability-shape-the-preferences-for-basic-tastes-a-cross-cultural-study-among-polish-tsimane-and-hadza-societies
#18
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Robert Pellegrino, Marina Butovskaya, Michalina Marczak, Agnieszka Niemczyk, Tomas Huanca, Piotr Sorokowski
Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced...
May 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489015/tracking-the-evolution-of-causal-cognition-in-humans
#19
Marlize Lombard, Peter Gärdenfors
We suggest a seven-grade model for the evolution of causal cognition as a framework that can be used to gauge variation in the complexity of causal reasoning from the panin-hominin split until the appearance of cognitively modern hunter-gatherer communities. The intention is to put forward a cohesive model for the evolution of causal cognition in humans, which can be assessed against increasingly fine-grained empirical data from the palaeoanthropological and archaeological records. We propose that the tracking behaviour (i...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488767/an-assessment-of-postcranial-indices-ratios-and-body-mass-versus-eco-geographical-variables-of-prehistoric-jomon-yayoi-agriculturalists-and-kumejima-islanders-of-japan
#20
Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku
OBJECTIVES: We explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000-2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500-1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600-1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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