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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902716/large-scale-anthropogenic-reduction-of-forest-cover-in-last-glacial-maximum-europe
#1
Jed O Kaplan, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Jan C A Kolen, Basil A S Davis
Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900469/holocene-changes-in-the-trophic-ecology-of-an-apex-marine-predator-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#2
Damián G Vales, Luis Cardona, Atilio F Zangrando, Florencia Borella, Fabiana Saporiti, R Natalie P Goodall, Larissa Rosa de Oliveira, Enrique A Crespo
Predators may modify their diets as a result of both anthropogenic and natural environmental changes. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in bone collagen have been used to reconstruct the foraging ecology of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean since the Middle Holocene, a region inhabited by hunter-gatherers by millennia and modified by two centuries of whaling, sealing and fishing. Results suggest that the isotopic niche of fur seals from Patagonia has not changed over the last two millennia (average for the period: δ(13)C2200-0BP = -13...
November 29, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#3
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886812/foraging-potential-of-underground-storage-organ-plants-in-the-southern-cape-south-africa
#4
Elzanne Singels, Alastair J Potts, Richard M Cowling, Curtis W Marean, Jan De Vynck, Karen J Esler
Underground storage organs (USOs) serve as a staple source of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherer societies and they feature prominently in discussions of diets of early modern humans. While the way of life of hunter-gatherers in South Africa's Cape no longer exists, there is extensive ethnographic, historical, and archaeological evidence of hunter-gatherers' use of USOs. This is to be expected, given that the Cape supports the largest concentration of plant species with USOs globally. The southern Cape is the location of several Middle Stone Age sites that are highly significant to research on the origins of behaviourally modern humans, and this provided the context for our research...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880839/composite-sickles-and-cereal-harvesting-methods-at-23-000-years-old-ohalo-ii-israel
#5
Iris Groman-Yaroslavski, Ehud Weiss, Dani Nadel
Use-wear analysis of five glossed flint blades found at Ohalo II, a 23,000-years-old fisher-hunter-gatherers' camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Northern Israel, provides the earliest evidence for the use of composite cereal harvesting tools. The wear traces indicate that tools were used for harvesting near-ripe semi-green wild cereals, shortly before grains are ripe and disperse naturally. The studied tools were not used intensively, and they reflect two harvesting modes: flint knives held by hand and inserts hafted in a handle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821432/inferring-heterozygosity-from-ancient-and-low-coverage-genomes
#6
Athanasios Kousathanas, Christoph Leuenberger, Vivian Link, Christian Sell, Joachim Burger, Daniel Wegmann
While genetic diversity can be quantified accurately from high coverage sequencing data, it is often desirable to obtain such estimates from data with low coverage, either to save costs or because of low DNA quality, as is observed for ancient samples. Here we introduce a method to accurately infer heterozygosity probabilistically from sequences with average coverage < 1 X of a single individual. The method relaxes the infinite sites assumption of previous methods, does not require a reference sequence except for the initial alignment of the sequencing data, and takes into account both variable sequencing errors and potential post-mortem damage...
November 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790997/resource-scarcity-drives-lethal-aggression-among-prehistoric-hunter-gatherers-in-central-california
#7
Mark W Allen, Robert Lawrence Bettinger, Brian F Codding, Terry L Jones, Al W Schwitalla
The origin of human violence and warfare is controversial, and some scholars contend that intergroup conflict was rare until the emergence of sedentary foraging and complex sociopolitical organization, whereas others assert that violence was common and of considerable antiquity among small-scale societies. Here we consider two alternative explanations for the evolution of human violence: (i) individuals resort to violence when benefits outweigh potential costs, which is likely in resource poor environments, or (ii) participation in violence increases when there is coercion from leaders in complex societies leading to group level benefits...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783683/site-formation-processes-and-hunter-gatherers-use-of-space-in-a-tropical-environment-a-geo-ethnoarchaeological-approach-from-south-india
#8
David E Friesem, Noa Lavi, Marco Madella, P Ajithprasad, Charles French
Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783225/odor-color-associations-differ-with-verbal-descriptors-for-odors-a-comparison-of-three-linguistically-diverse-groups
#9
Josje M de Valk, Ewelina Wnuk, John L A Huisman, Asifa Majid
People appear to have systematic associations between odors and colors. Previous research has emphasized the perceptual nature of these associations, but little attention has been paid to what role language might play. It is possible odor-color associations arise through a process of labeling; that is, participants select a descriptor for an odor and then choose a color accordingly (e.g., banana odor → "banana" label → yellow). If correct, this would predict odor-color associations would differ as odor descriptions differ...
October 25, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772897/the-aboriginal-hunter-gatherer-lifestyle-lessons-for-chronic-disease-prevention
#10
Kerin O'Dea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763427/historical-factors-discrimination-and-oral-health-among-aboriginal-australians
#11
Margie Steffens, Lisa Jamieson, Kostas Kapellas
Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760164/risk-reliability-and-resilience-phytolith-evidence-for-alternative-neolithization-pathways-at-kharaneh-iv-in-the-azraq-basin-jordan
#12
Monica N Ramsey, Lisa A Maher, Danielle A Macdonald, Arlene Rosen
'Neolithization' pathway refers to the development of adaptations that characterized subsequent Neolithic life, sedentary occupations, and agriculture. In the Levant, the origins of these human behaviors are widely argued to have emerged during the Early Epipaleolithic (ca. 23 ka cal BP). Consequently, there has been a pre-occupation with identifying and modeling the dietary shift to cereal and grains during this period, which is considered to have been a key development that facilitated increasing sedentism and, eventually, agriculture...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723159/physical-activity-patterns-and-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-hunter-gatherers
#13
David A Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A Harris, Audax Z P Mabulla, Frank W Marlowe, J Josh Snodgrass, Geeta Eick, J Colette Berbesque, Amelia Sancilio, Brian M Wood
OBJECTIVES: Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular health, yet few humans living in industrialized societies meet current recommendations (150 min/week). Researchers have long suggested that human physiological requirements for aerobic exercise reflect an evolutionary shift to a hunting and gathering foraging strategy, and a recent transition to more sedentary lifestyles likely represents a mismatch with our past in terms of physical activity...
October 9, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683248/the-arrival-of-homo-sapiens-into-the-southern-cone-at-14-000-years-ago
#14
Gustavo G Politis, María A Gutiérrez, Daniel J Rafuse, Adriana Blasi
The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670729/traumatic-injury-risk-and-agricultural-transitions-a-view-from-the-american-southeast-and-beyond
#15
Patricia M Lambert, Martin H Welker
OBJECTIVES: Bioarchaeological research has documented a general decline in health with the transition from foraging to farming, primarily with respect to changing patterns of morbidity. Less is known about changes in injury risk, an aspect of health more obviously tied to particular landscapes and behaviors associated with different subsistence regimes. The purpose of this research is to evaluate several hypotheses emerging from the ideal free distribution model (Fretwell & Lucas, ) that predict injury risk based on subsistence-specific practices and land use patterns...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666719/cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-in-evolutionary-perspective-a-critical-role-for-helminths
#16
Michael D Gurven, Benjamin C Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Aaron D Blackwell, David E Michalik, Caleb E Finch, Hillard S Kaplan
Heart disease and type 2 diabetes are commonly believed to be rare among contemporary subsistence-level human populations, and by extension prehistoric populations. Although some caveats remain, evidence shows these diseases to be unusual among well-studied hunter-gatherers and other subsistence populations with minimal access to healthcare. Here we expand on a relatively new proposal for why these and other populations may not show major signs of these diseases. Chronic infections, especially helminths, may offer protection against heart disease and diabetes through direct and indirect pathways...
September 25, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651137/the-disappearing-san-of-southeastern-africa-and-their-genetic-affinities
#17
Carina M Schlebusch, Frans Prins, Marlize Lombard, Mattias Jakobsson, Himla Soodyall
Southern Africa was likely exclusively inhabited by San hunter-gatherers before ~2000 years ago. Around that time, East African groups assimilated with local San groups and gave rise to the Khoekhoe herders. Subsequently, Bantu-speaking farmers, arriving from the north (~1800 years ago), assimilated and displaced San and Khoekhoe groups, a process that intensified with the arrival of European colonists ~350 years ago. In contrast to the western parts of southern Africa, where several Khoe-San groups still live today, the eastern parts are largely populated by Bantu speakers and individuals of non-African descent...
December 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650583/direct-evidence-for-human-exploitation-of-birds-in-the-middle-stone-age-of-south-africa-the-example-of-sibudu-cave-kwazulu-natal
#18
Aurore Val, Paloma de la Peña, Lyn Wadley
Here, we present direct taphonomic evidence for the exploitation of birds by hunter-gatherers in the Middle Stone Age of South Africa as far as ∼77 ka. The bird assemblage from Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, was analysed for bone surface modifications. Cut-marks associated with skinning, defleshing, and disarticulation, perforations on distal humeri produced during disarticulation of the forewing, peeling, and human tooth marks were observed on bird bones (i.e., mostly pigeons, doves, Galliformes, waders, and raptors) recovered from pre-Still Bay, Still Bay, Howiesons Poort, and post-Howiesons Poort techno-complexes...
October 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644073/the-african-diaspora-history-adaptation-and-health
#19
Charles N Rotimi, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Jennifer L Baker, Daniel Shriner
The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities...
September 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624970/fecal-metabolome-of-the-hadza-hunter-gatherers-a-host-microbiome-integrative-view
#20
Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Simone Rampelli, Stephanie L Schnorr, Clarissa Consolandi, Monica Barone, Elena Biagi, Flaminia Fanelli, Marco Mezzullo, Alyssa N Crittenden, Amanda G Henry, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
The recent characterization of the gut microbiome of traditional rural and foraging societies allowed us to appreciate the essential co-adaptive role of the microbiome in complementing our physiology, opening up significant questions on how the microbiota changes that have occurred in industrialized urban populations may have altered the microbiota-host co-metabolic network, contributing to the growing list of Western diseases. Here, we applied a targeted metabolomics approach to profile the fecal metabolome of the Hadza of Tanzania, one of the world's few remaining foraging populations, and compared them to the profiles of urban living Italians, as representative of people in the post-industrialized West...
2016: Scientific Reports
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