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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333060/optimising-human-community-sizes
#1
Robin I M Dunbar, Richard Sosis
We examine community longevity as a function of group size in three historical, small scale agricultural samples. Community sizes of 50, 150 and 500 are disproportionately more common than other sizes; they also have greater longevity. These values mirror the natural layerings in hunter-gatherer societies and contemporary personal networks. In addition, a religious ideology seems to play an important role in allowing larger communities to maintain greater cohesion for longer than a strictly secular ideology does...
January 2018: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#2
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315301/population-genomics-of-mesolithic-scandinavia-investigating-early-postglacial-migration-routes-and-high-latitude-adaptation
#3
Torsten Günther, Helena Malmström, Emma M Svensson, Ayça Omrak, Federico Sánchez-Quinto, Gülşah M Kılınç, Maja Krzewińska, Gunilla Eriksson, Magdalena Fraser, Hanna Edlund, Arielle R Munters, Alexandra Coutinho, Luciana G Simões, Mário Vicente, Anders Sjölander, Berit Jansen Sellevold, Roger Jørgensen, Peter Claes, Mark D Shriver, Cristina Valdiosera, Mihai G Netea, Jan Apel, Kerstin Lidén, Birgitte Skar, Jan Storå, Anders Götherström, Mattias Jakobsson
Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the routes and genetic composition of these postglacial migrants remain unclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57× coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavated across Scandinavia and dated from 9,500-6,000 years before present (BP). Surprisingly, among the Scandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient that opposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285967/the-genomic-health-of-ancient-hominins
#4
Ali J Berens, Taylor L Cooper, Joseph Lachance
The genomes of ancient humans, Neandertals, and Denisovans contain many alleles that influence disease risks. Using genotypes at 3,180 disease-associated loci, we estimated the disease burden of 147 ancient genomes. After correcting for missing data, genetic risk scores (GRS) were generated for nine disease categories and the set of all combined diseases. We used these genetic risk scores to examine the effects of different types of subsistence, geography, and sample age on the number of risk alleles in each ancient genome...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282314/productivity-biodiversity-and-pathogens-influence-the-global-hunter-gatherer-population-density
#5
Miikka Tallavaara, Jussi T Eronen, Miska Luoto
The environmental drivers of species distributions and abundances are at the core of ecological research. However, the effects of these drivers on human abundance are not well-known. Here, we report how net primary productivity, biodiversity, and pathogen stress affect human population density using global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data. Our results show that productivity has significant effects on population density globally. The most important direct drivers, however, depend on environmental conditions: biodiversity influences population density exclusively in low-productivity regions, whereas pathogen stress does so in high-productivity regions...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225776/the-sedentary-r-evolution-have-we-lost-our-metabolic-flexibility
#6
Jens Freese, Rainer Johannes Klement, Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, Sebastian Schwarz, Helmut Lötzerich
During the course of evolution, up until the agricultural revolution, environmental fluctuations forced the human species to develop a flexible metabolism in order to adapt its energy needs to various climate, seasonal and vegetation conditions. Metabolic flexibility safeguarded human survival independent of food availability. In modern times, humans switched their primal lifestyle towards a constant availability of energy-dense, yet often nutrient-deficient, foods, persistent psycho-emotional stressors and a lack of exercise...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220707/hunter-gatherer-health-and-development-policy-how-the-promotion-of-sedentism-worsens-the-agta-s-health-outcomes
#7
Abigail E Page, Tessa Minter, Sylvain Viguier, Andrea Bamberg Migliano
Many hunter-gatherer groups live on the outskirts of wider society, experiencing poor health outcomes with little access to medical care. From a development perspective, key interventions include the sedentarisation of these mobile peoples into camps nearby larger towns with sanitation infrastructure and medical care, as increased access to services is assumed to improve outcomes. However, recent research in the Agta (Philippine foragers from North-east Luzon) has demonstrated that individuals residing in more 'developed' communities suffer from increased morbidity and mortality...
December 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215793/genetic-history-of-the-african-sahelian-populations
#8
REVIEW
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara Desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the savannah bordering it in the south, is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
December 7, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209243/love-influences-reproductive-success-in-humans
#9
Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Marina Butovskaya, Maciej Karwowski, Agata Groyecka, Bogdan Wojciszke, Bogusław Pawłowski
As love seems to be universal, researchers have attempted to find its biological basis. However, no studies till date have shown its direct association with reproductive success, which is broadly known to be a good measure of fitness. Here, we show links between love, as defined by the Sternberg Triangular Theory of Love, and reproductive success among the Hadza-traditional hunter-gatherer population. We found that commitment and reproductive success were positively and consistently related in both sexes, with number of children showing negative and positive associations with intimacy and passion, respectively, only among women...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208949/cooperation-and-the-evolution-of-hunter-gatherer-storytelling
#10
Daniel Smith, Philip Schlaepfer, Katie Major, Mark Dyble, Abigail E Page, James Thompson, Nikhil Chaudhary, Gul Deniz Salali, Ruth Mace, Leonora Astete, Marilyn Ngales, Lucio Vinicius, Andrea Bamberg Migliano
Storytelling is a human universal. From gathering around the camp-fire telling tales of ancestors to watching the latest television box-set, humans are inveterate producers and consumers of stories. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to understanding the function and evolution of storytelling. Here we explore the impact of storytelling on hunter-gatherer cooperative behaviour and the individual-level fitness benefits to being a skilled storyteller. Stories told by the Agta, a Filipino hunter-gatherer population, convey messages relevant to coordinating behaviour in a foraging ecology, such as cooperation, sex equality and egalitarianism...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198391/spondylolysis-in-the-past-a-case-study-of-hunter-gatherers-from-southern-patagonia
#11
M D D'Angelo Del Campo, J A Suby, P García-Laborde, R A Guichón
Spondylolysis is a fracture of the pars interarticularis, the portion of the neural arch that lies between the superior articular facets and the inferior articular facets. Clinical evidence has suggested repetitive trauma to be the most probable cause, even though morphological weakness of the vertebra is probably also involved. Prevalence is between 3% and 8% in modern populations, while in archaeological samples it varies from 0% to 71.4%. Considering that very little data about this condition is available in past populations from the southern extreme of South America, the aim of this paper is to analyze the spondylolysis in a human skeletal sample from Southern Patagonia and, at the same time, to explore the prevalence of spondylolysis in archaeological contexts around the world to gain a better understanding of the results presented here...
December 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179581/hadza-men-with-lower-voice-pitch-have-a-better-hunting-reputation
#12
Kristopher M Smith, Yevgeniy M Olkhov, David A Puts, Coren L Apicella
Previous research with hunter-gatherers has found that women perceive men with voices manipulated to be lower in pitch to be better hunters, and men perceive women with lower pitch to be better gatherers. Here, we test if actual voice pitch is associated with hunting and gathering reputations in men and women, respectively. We find that voice pitch does relate to foraging reputation in men, but not in women, with better hunters having a lower voice pitch. In addition, we find that the previously documented relationship between voice pitch and reproductive success no longer holds when controlling for hunting reputation, but hunting reputation remains a significant predictor of reproductive success when controlling for voice pitch...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167366/archaeogenomic-analysis-of-the-first-steps-of-neolithization-in-anatolia-and-the-aegean
#13
Gülşah Merve Kılınç, Dilek Koptekin, Çiğdem Atakuman, Arev Pelin Sümer, Handan Melike Dönertaş, Reyhan Yaka, Cemal Can Bilgin, Ali Metin Büyükkarakaya, Douglas Baird, Ezgi Altınışık, Pavel Flegontov, Anders Götherström, İnci Togan, Mehmet Somel
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather than immigrants from the Levant or Iran...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165844/oral-microbiomes-from-hunter-gatherers-and-traditional-farmers-reveal-shifts-in-commensal-balance-and-pathogen-load-linked-to-diet
#14
Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in close proximity in the Philippines...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144465/parallel-palaeogenomic-transects-reveal-complex-genetic-history-of-early-european-farmers
#15
Mark Lipson, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Swapan Mallick, Annamária Pósa, Balázs Stégmár, Victoria Keerl, Nadin Rohland, Kristin Stewardson, Matthew Ferry, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Eadaoin Harney, Susanne Nordenfelt, Bastien Llamas, Balázs Gusztáv Mende, Kitti Köhler, Krisztián Oross, Mária Bondár, Tibor Marton, Anett Osztás, János Jakucs, Tibor Paluch, Ferenc Horváth, Piroska Csengeri, Judit Koós, Katalin Sebők, Alexandra Anders, Pál Raczky, Judit Regenye, Judit P Barna, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Zoltán Toldi, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, János Dani, Erika Molnár, György Pálfi, László Márk, Béla Melegh, Zsolt Bánfai, László Domboróczki, Javier Fernández-Eraso, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Ruth Bollongino, Jörg Orschiedt, Kerstin Schierhold, Harald Meller, Alan Cooper, Joachim Burger, Eszter Bánffy, Kurt W Alt, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Wolfgang Haak, David Reich
Ancient DNA studies have established that Neolithic European populations were descended from Anatolian migrants who received a limited amount of admixture from resident hunter-gatherers. Many open questions remain, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of population interactions and admixture during the Neolithic period. Here we investigate the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe using a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with a total of 180 samples, of which 130 are newly reported here, from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods of Hungary (6000-2900 bc, n = 100), Germany (5500-3000 bc, n = 42) and Spain (5500-2200 bc, n = 38)...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142317/the-maternal-genetic-make-up-of-the-iberian-peninsula-between-the-neolithic-and-the-early-bronze-age
#16
Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Christina Roth, Guido Brandt, Cristina Rihuete-Herrada, Cristina Tejedor-Rodríguez, Petra Held, Íñigo García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Héctor Arcusa Magallón, Stephanie Zesch, Corina Knipper, Eszter Bánffy, Susanne Friederich, Harald Meller, Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann, Ana M Herrero-Corral, Raúl Flores Fernández, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarria, Laura Rindlisbacher, Camila Oliart, María-Inés Fregeiro, Ignacio Soriano, Oriol Vicente, Rafael Micó, Vicente Lull, Jorge Soler Díaz, Juan Antonio López Padilla, Consuelo Roca de Togores Muñoz, Mauro S Hernández Pérez, Francisco Javier Jover Maestre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Katina T Lillios, Ana Maria Silva, Miguel Magalhães Ramalho, Luiz Miguel Oosterbeek, Claudia Cunha, Anna J Waterman, Jordi Roig Buxó, Andrés Martínez, Juana Ponce Martínez, Mark Hunt Ortiz, Juan Carlos Mejías-García, Juan Carlos Pecero Espín, Rosario Cruz-Auñón Briones, Tiago Tomé, Eduardo Carmona Ballestero, João Luís Cardoso, Ana Cristina Araújo, Corina Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck, Concepción Blasco Bosqued, Patricia Ríos Mendoza, Ana Pujante, José I Royo-Guillén, Marco Aurelio Esquembre Beviá, Victor Manuel Dos Santos Goncalves, Rui Parreira, Elena Morán Hernández, Elena Méndez Izquierdo, Jorge Vega Y Miguel, Roberto Menduiña García, Victoria Martínez Calvo, Oscar López Jiménez, Johannes Krause, Sandra L Pichler, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Michael Kunst, Roberto Risch, Manuel A Rojo-Guerra, Wolfgang Haak, Kurt W Alt
Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139168/hunter-gatherer-dental-pathology-do-historic-accounts-of-aboriginal-australians-correspond-to-the-archeological-record-of-dental-disease
#17
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: Studies of hunter-gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127307/climate-induced-human-demographic-and-cultural-change-in-northern-europe-during-the-mid-holocene
#18
L Warden, M Moros, T Neumann, S Shennan, A Timpson, K Manning, M Sollai, L Wacker, K Perner, K Häusler, T Leipe, L Zillén, A Kotilainen, E Jansen, R R Schneider, R Oeberst, H Arz, J S Sinninghe Damsté
The transition from hunter-gatherer-fisher groups to agrarian societies is arguably the most significant change in human prehistory. In the European plain there is evidence for fully developed agrarian societies by 7,500 cal. yr BP, yet a well-established agrarian society does not appear in the north until 6,000 cal. yr BP for unknown reasons. Here we show a sudden increase in summer temperature at 6,000 cal. yr BP in northern Europe using a well-dated, high resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) from the Baltic Sea...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#19
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054171/the-evolution-of-human-sleep-technological-and-cultural-innovation-associated-with-sleep-wake-regulation-among-hadza-hunter-gatherers
#20
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla
Sleep is necessary for the survival of all mammalian life. In humans, recent investigations have generated critical data on the relationship between sleep and ecology in small-scale societies. Here, we report the technological and social strategies used to alter sleep environments and influence sleep duration and quality among a population of hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. Specifically, we investigated the effects that grass huts, sound levels, and fire had on sleep. We quantitatively compared thermal stress in outdoor environments to that found inside grass hut domiciles to test whether the huts function as thermoregulated microhabitats during the rainy season...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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