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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808025/knee-osteoarthritis-has-doubled-in-prevalence-since-the-mid-20th-century
#1
Ian J Wallace, Steven Worthington, David T Felson, Robert D Jurmain, Kimberly T Wren, Heli Maijanen, Robert J Woods, Daniel E Lieberman
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is believed to be highly prevalent today because of recent increases in life expectancy and body mass index (BMI), but this assumption has not been tested using long-term historical or evolutionary data. We analyzed long-term trends in knee OA prevalence in the United States using cadaver-derived skeletons of people aged ≥50 y whose BMI at death was documented and who lived during the early industrial era (1800s to early 1900s; n = 1,581) and the modern postindustrial era (late 1900s to early 2000s; n = 819)...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798105/response-to-comment-on-permanent-human-occupation-of-the-central-tibetan-plateau-in-the-early-holocene
#2
W R Haas, M S Aldenderfer, M C Meyer
Zhang et al contest that Chusang was part of an annual mobility round that "more likely" included seasonal use of high-elevation environments than permanent use. We show that their probabilistic statement hinges on indefensible claims about hunter-gatherer mobility. In the context of quantitative data from hunter-gatherer ethnography, our travel model shows that seasonal-use models are highly unlikely to explain Chusang.
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783727/genetic-origins-of-the-minoans-and-mycenaeans
#3
Iosif Lazaridis, Alissa Mittnik, Nick Patterson, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Saskia Pfrengle, Anja Furtwängler, Alexander Peltzer, Cosimo Posth, Andonis Vasilakis, P J P McGeorge, Eleni Konsolaki-Yannopoulou, George Korres, Holley Martlew, Manolis Michalodimitrakis, Mehmet Özsait, Nesrin Özsait, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Michael Richards, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Yannis Tzedakis, Robert Arnott, Daniel M Fernandes, Jeffery R Hughey, Dimitra M Lotakis, Patrick A Navas, Yannis Maniatis, John A Stamatoyannopoulos, Kristin Stewardson, Philipp Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich, Johannes Krause, George Stamatoyannopoulos
The origins of the Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have puzzled archaeologists for more than a century. We have assembled genome-wide data from 19 ancient individuals, including Minoans from Crete, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece, and their eastern neighbours from southwestern Anatolia. Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus and Iran...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781734/hadza-color-terms-are-sparse-diverse-and-distributed-and-presage-the-universal-color-categories-found-in-other-world-languages
#4
Delwin T Lindsey, Angela M Brown, David H Brainard, Coren L Apicella
In our empirical and theoretical study of color naming among the Hadza, a Tanzanian hunter-gatherer group, we show that Hadza color naming is sparse (the color appearance of many stimulus tiles was not named), diverse (there was little consensus in the terms for the color appearance of most tiles), and distributed (the universal color categories of world languages are revealed in nascent form within the Hadza language community, when we analyze the patterns of how individual Hadza deploy color terms). Using our Hadza data set, Witzel shows an association between two measures of color naming performance and the chroma of the stimuli...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770831/the-deep-human-prehistory-of-global-tropical-forests-and-its-relevance-for-modern-conservation
#5
REVIEW
Patrick Roberts, Chris Hunt, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Damian Evans, Nicole Boivin
Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today...
August 3, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770823/the-deep-human-prehistory-of-global-tropical-forests-and-its-relevance-for-modern-conservation
#6
REVIEW
Patrick Roberts, Chris Hunt, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Damian Evans, Nicole Boivin
Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today...
August 3, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760768/evolution-of-male-strategies-with-sex-ratio-dependent-pay-offs-connecting-pair-bonds-with-grandmothering
#7
Sara L Loo, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
Men's provisioning of mates and offspring has been central to ideas about human evolution because paternal provisioning is absent in our closest evolutionary cousins, the great apes, and is widely assumed to result in pair bonding, which distinguishes us from them. Yet mathematical modelling has shown that paternal care does not readily spread in populations where competition for multiple mates is the common male strategy. Here we add to models that point to the mating sex ratio as an explanation for pairing as pay-offs to mate guarding rise with a male-biased sex ratio...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760759/adult-sex-ratios-and-partner-scarcity-among-hunter-gatherers-implications-for-dispersal-patterns-and-the-evolution-of-human-sociality
#8
Karen L Kramer, Ryan Schacht, Adrian Bell
Small populations are susceptible to high genetic loads and random fluctuations in birth and death rates. While these selective forces can adversely affect their viability, small populations persist across taxa. Here, we investigate the resilience of small groups to demographic uncertainty, and specifically to fluctuations in adult sex ratio (ASR), partner availability and dispersal patterns. Using 25 years of demographic data for two Savannah Pumé groups of South American hunter-gatherers, we show that in small human populations: (i) ASRs fluctuate substantially from year to year, but do not consistently trend in a sex-biased direction; (ii) the primary driver of local variation in partner availability is stochasticity in the sex ratio at maturity; and (iii) dispersal outside of the group is an important behavioural means to mediate locally constrained mating options...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749934/the-population-genomics-of-archaeological-transition-in-west-iberia-investigation-of-ancient-substructure-using-imputation-and-haplotype-based-methods
#9
Rui Martiniano, Lara M Cassidy, Ros Ó'Maoldúin, Russell McLaughlin, Nuno M Silva, Licinio Manco, Daniel Fidalgo, Tania Pereira, Maria J Coelho, Miguel Serra, Joachim Burger, Rui Parreira, Elena Moran, Antonio C Valera, Eduardo Porfirio, Rui Boaventura, Ana M Silva, Daniel G Bradley
We analyse new genomic data (0.05-2.95x) from 14 ancient individuals from Portugal distributed from the Middle Neolithic (4200-3500 BC) to the Middle Bronze Age (1740-1430 BC) and impute genomewide diploid genotypes in these together with published ancient Eurasians. While discontinuity is evident in the transition to agriculture across the region, sensitive haplotype-based analyses suggest a significant degree of local hunter-gatherer contribution to later Iberian Neolithic populations. A more subtle genetic influx is also apparent in the Bronze Age, detectable from analyses including haplotype sharing with both ancient and modern genomes, D-statistics and Y-chromosome lineages...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712569/extensive-farming-in-estonia-started-through-a-sex-biased-migration-from-the-steppe
#10
Lehti Saag, Liivi Varul, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Jesper Stenderup, Morten E Allentoft, Lauri Saag, Luca Pagani, Maere Reidla, Kristiina Tambets, Ene Metspalu, Aivar Kriiska, Eske Willerslev, Toomas Kivisild, Mait Metspalu
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition-both material and genetic-varied in different parts of Europe [1-7]. Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe, and the extent to which they involve change in genetic ancestry is not fully understood due to the lack of relevant ancient DNA data. Here we present the results from new low-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five first farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#11
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701566/chronotype-variation-drives-night-time-sentinel-like-behaviour-in-hunter-gatherers
#12
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
Sleep is essential for survival, yet it also represents a time of extreme vulnerability to predation, hostile conspecifics and environmental dangers. To reduce the risks of sleeping, the sentinel hypothesis proposes that group-living animals share the task of vigilance during sleep, with some individuals sleeping while others are awake. To investigate sentinel-like behaviour in sleeping humans, we investigated activity patterns at night among Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Using actigraphy, we discovered that all subjects were simultaneously scored as asleep for only 18 min in total over 20 days of observation, with a median of eight individuals awake throughout the night-time period; thus, one or more individuals was awake (or in light stages of sleep) during 99...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700598/tracing-social-interactions-in-pleistocene-north-america-via-3d-model-analysis-of-stone-tool-asymmetry
#13
Sabrina B Sholts, Joseph A M Gingerich, Stefan Schlager, Dennis J Stanford, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696282/accurate-age-estimation-in-small-scale-societies
#14
Yoan Diekmann, Daniel Smith, Pascale Gerbault, Mark Dyble, Abigail E Page, Nikhil Chaudhary, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Mark G Thomas
Precise estimation of age is essential in evolutionary anthropology, especially to infer population age structures and understand the evolution of human life history diversity. However, in small-scale societies, such as hunter-gatherer populations, time is often not referred to in calendar years, and accurate age estimation remains a challenge. We address this issue by proposing a Bayesian approach that accounts for age uncertainty inherent to fieldwork data. We developed a Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that produces posterior distributions of ages for each individual, based on a ranking order of individuals from youngest to oldest and age ranges for each individual...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#15
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680685/humans-permanently-occupied-the-andean-highlands-by-at-least-7%C3%A2-ka
#16
Randall Haas, Ioana C Stefanescu, Alexander Garcia-Putnam, Mark S Aldenderfer, Mark T Clementz, Melissa S Murphy, Carlos Viviano Llave, James T Watson
High-elevation environments above 2500 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.) were among the planet's last frontiers of human colonization. Research on the speed and tempo of this colonization process is active and holds implications for understanding rates of genetic, physiological and cultural adaptation in our species. Permanent occupation of high-elevation environments in the Andes Mountains of South America tentatively began with hunter-gatherers around 9 ka according to current archaeological estimates, though the timing is currently debated...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679454/the-cultural-evolution-of-shamanism
#17
Manvir Singh
Shamans, including medicine-men, mediums, and the prophets of religious movements, recur across human societies. Shamanism also existed among nearly all documented hunter-gatherers, likely characterized the religious lives of many ancestral humans, and is often proposed by anthropologists to be the "first profession", representing the first institutionalized division of labor beyond age and sex. This paper proposes a cultural evolutionary theory to explain why shamanism consistently develops, and in particular, (1) why shamanic traditions exhibit recurrent features around the world, (2) why shamanism professionalizes early, often in the absence of other specialization, and (3) how shifting social conditions affect the form or existence of shamanism...
July 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678860/multi-scale-ancient-dna-analyses-confirm-the-western-origin-of-michelsberg-farmers-and-document-probable-practices-of-human-sacrifice
#18
Alice Beau, Maïté Rivollat, Hélène Réveillas, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Fanny Mendisco, Yohann Thomas, Philippe Lefranc, Marie-France Deguilloux
In Europe, the Middle Neolithic is characterized by an important diversification of cultures. In northeastern France, the appearance of the Michelsberg culture has been correlated with major cultural changes and interpreted as the result of the settlement of new groups originating from the Paris Basin. This cultural transition has been accompanied by the expansion of particular funerary practices involving inhumations within circular pits and individuals in "non-conventional" positions (deposited in the pits without any particular treatment)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666649/-we-are-a-band-an-anthropological-vision-of-the-medical-community
#19
P Serrano Morón, M Delgado Galán
In this paper we try to explain, using an anthropological point of view, how the medical community behaves like a tribe like those who inhabit the Amazon forests or the African Savanna. The Family as fundamental unit of a band of hunter-gatherers also defines the Primary Care Centre and the professionals who work there, as an egalitarian group in which every member works for the good of the tribe. The leaders of the tribe, also called "Health Centre Managers", are also comparable to the "big men" of Polynesia or the aborigines, who leads hunting parties...
June 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620190/formation-of-biphasic-hydroxylapatite-beta-magnesium-tricalcium-phosphate-in-heat-treated-salmonid-vertebrae
#20
Don H Butler, Ruth Shahack-Gross
Ichthyoarchaeological evidence is uncommon at ancient hunter-gatherer sites from various regions and timeframes. This research contributes to the development of microarchaeological techniques useful for identifying fishing economies in situations where classifiable bones are unavailable. Specifically, traces of heat altered bone mineral in domestic hearths are expected to provide markers for discarded fish remains. We used a series of laboratory incineration experiments to characterize the mineralogy of burned salmonid vertebrae...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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