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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923921/color-naming-across-languages-reflects-color-use
#1
Edward Gibson, Richard Futrell, Julian Jara-Ettinger, Kyle Mahowald, Leon Bergen, Sivalogeswaran Ratnasingam, Mitchell Gibson, Steven T Piantadosi, Bevil R Conway
What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894281/the-ancient-cline-of-haplogroup-k-implies-that-the-neolithic-transition-in-europe-was-mainly-demic
#2
Neus Isern, Joaquim Fort, Víctor L de Rioja
Using a database with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 513 Neolithic individuals, we quantify the space-time variation of the frequency of haplogroup K, previously proposed as a relevant Neolithic marker. We compare these data to simulations, based on a mathematical model in which a Neolithic population spreads from Syria to Anatolia and Europe, possibly interbreeding with Mesolithic individuals (who lack haplogroup K) and/or teaching farming to them. Both the data and the simulations show that the percentage of haplogroup K (%K) decreases with increasing distance from Syria and that, in each region, the %K tends to decrease with increasing time after the arrival of farming...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852094/unraveling-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-long-lived-naked-mole-rat
#3
Tewodros Debebe, Elena Biagi, Matteo Soverini, Susanne Holtze, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt, Claudia Birkemeyer, Dereje Wyohannis, Alemayehu Lemma, Patrizia Brigidi, Vulk Savkovic, Brigitte König, Marco Candela, Gerd Birkenmeier
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean mouse-sized African mammal that shows astonishingly few age-related degenerative changes and seems to not be affected by cancer. These features make this wild rodent an excellent model to study the biology of healthy aging and longevity. Here we characterize for the first time the intestinal microbial ecosystem of the naked mole-rat in comparison to humans and other mammals, highlighting peculiarities related to the specific living environment, such as the enrichment in bacteria able to utilize soil sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to sustain an anaerobic oxidative metabolism...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839072/seasonal-cycling-in-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-hadza-hunter-gatherers-of-tanzania
#4
Samuel A Smits, Jeff Leach, Erica D Sonnenburg, Carlos G Gonzalez, Joshua S Lichtman, Gregor Reid, Rob Knight, Alphaxard Manjurano, John Changalucha, Joshua E Elias, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Justin L Sonnenburg
Although humans have cospeciated with their gut-resident microbes, it is difficult to infer features of our ancestral microbiome. Here, we examine the microbiome profile of 350 stool samples collected longitudinally for more than a year from the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The data reveal annual cyclic reconfiguration of the microbiome, in which some taxa become undetectable only to reappear in a subsequent season. Comparison of the Hadza data set with data collected from 18 populations in 16 countries with varying lifestyles reveals that gut community membership corresponds to modernization: Notably, the taxa within the Hadza that are the most seasonally volatile similarly differentiate industrialized and traditional populations...
August 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832931/the-characteristic-mid-shaft-cross-sectional-shape-of-the-ulna-in-jomon-hunter-gatherers
#5
Yasuo Hagihara, Takashi Nara
OBJECTIVES: The Jomon people were hunter-gatherers who inhabited the Japanese archipelago between 10,000 BC and 300 BC. Here, we focus on the mid-shaft cross-sectional shape of the ulna in the Jomon population and compare it with modern Japanese people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Jomon specimens, including 32 males and 22 females, were excavated from shell mound sites in the Pacific and Seto inland coastal area of Honshu island in the Japanese archipelago dated to the Late-to-Final Jomon phase (between 2,000 BC and 300 BC)...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815964/sex-biased-dispersal-of-human-ancestors
#6
Yukimaru Sugiyama
Some anthropologists and primatologists have argued that, judging by extant chimpanzees and humans, which are female-biased dispersers, the common ancestors of humans and chimpanzees were also female-biased dispersers. It has been thought that sex-biased dispersal patterns have been genetically transmitted for millions of years. However, this character has changed many times with changes in environment and life-form during human evolution and historical times. I examined life-form and social organization of nonhuman primates, among them gatherers (foragers), hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists, industrialists, and modern and extant humans...
July 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808025/knee-osteoarthritis-has-doubled-in-prevalence-since-the-mid-20th-century
#7
Ian J Wallace, Steven Worthington, David T Felson, Robert D Jurmain, Kimberly T Wren, Heli Maijanen, Robert J Woods, Daniel E Lieberman
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is believed to be highly prevalent today because of recent increases in life expectancy and body mass index (BMI), but this assumption has not been tested using long-term historical or evolutionary data. We analyzed long-term trends in knee OA prevalence in the United States using cadaver-derived skeletons of people aged ≥50 y whose BMI at death was documented and who lived during the early industrial era (1800s to early 1900s; n = 1,581) and the modern postindustrial era (late 1900s to early 2000s; n = 819)...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798105/response-to-comment-on-permanent-human-occupation-of-the-central-tibetan-plateau-in-the-early-holocene
#8
W R Haas, M S Aldenderfer, M C Meyer
Zhang et al contest that Chusang was part of an annual mobility round that "more likely" included seasonal use of high-elevation environments than permanent use. We show that their probabilistic statement hinges on indefensible claims about hunter-gatherer mobility. In the context of quantitative data from hunter-gatherer ethnography, our travel model shows that seasonal-use models are highly unlikely to explain Chusang.
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783727/genetic-origins-of-the-minoans-and-mycenaeans
#9
Iosif Lazaridis, Alissa Mittnik, Nick Patterson, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Saskia Pfrengle, Anja Furtwängler, Alexander Peltzer, Cosimo Posth, Andonis Vasilakis, P J P McGeorge, Eleni Konsolaki-Yannopoulou, George Korres, Holley Martlew, Manolis Michalodimitrakis, Mehmet Özsait, Nesrin Özsait, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Michael Richards, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Yannis Tzedakis, Robert Arnott, Daniel M Fernandes, Jeffery R Hughey, Dimitra M Lotakis, Patrick A Navas, Yannis Maniatis, John A Stamatoyannopoulos, Kristin Stewardson, Philipp Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich, Johannes Krause, George Stamatoyannopoulos
The origins of the Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have puzzled archaeologists for more than a century. We have assembled genome-wide data from 19 ancient individuals, including Minoans from Crete, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece, and their eastern neighbours from southwestern Anatolia. Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus and Iran...
August 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781734/hadza-color-terms-are-sparse-diverse-and-distributed-and-presage-the-universal-color-categories-found-in-other-world-languages
#10
Delwin T Lindsey, Angela M Brown, David H Brainard, Coren L Apicella
In our empirical and theoretical study of color naming among the Hadza, a Tanzanian hunter-gatherer group, we show that Hadza color naming is sparse (the color appearance of many stimulus tiles was not named), diverse (there was little consensus in the terms for the color appearance of most tiles), and distributed (the universal color categories of world languages are revealed in nascent form within the Hadza language community, when we analyze the patterns of how individual Hadza deploy color terms). Using our Hadza data set, Witzel shows an association between two measures of color naming performance and the chroma of the stimuli...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770831/the-deep-human-prehistory-of-global-tropical-forests-and-its-relevance-for-modern-conservation
#11
REVIEW
Patrick Roberts, Chris Hunt, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Damian Evans, Nicole Boivin
Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today...
August 3, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770823/the-deep-human-prehistory-of-global-tropical-forests-and-its-relevance-for-modern-conservation
#12
REVIEW
Patrick Roberts, Chris Hunt, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Damian Evans, Nicole Boivin
Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today...
August 3, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760768/evolution-of-male-strategies-with-sex-ratio-dependent-pay-offs-connecting-pair-bonds-with-grandmothering
#13
Sara L Loo, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
Men's provisioning of mates and offspring has been central to ideas about human evolution because paternal provisioning is absent in our closest evolutionary cousins, the great apes, and is widely assumed to result in pair bonding, which distinguishes us from them. Yet mathematical modelling has shown that paternal care does not readily spread in populations where competition for multiple mates is the common male strategy. Here we add to models that point to the mating sex ratio as an explanation for pairing as pay-offs to mate guarding rise with a male-biased sex ratio...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760759/adult-sex-ratios-and-partner-scarcity-among-hunter-gatherers-implications-for-dispersal-patterns-and-the-evolution-of-human-sociality
#14
Karen L Kramer, Ryan Schacht, Adrian Bell
Small populations are susceptible to high genetic loads and random fluctuations in birth and death rates. While these selective forces can adversely affect their viability, small populations persist across taxa. Here, we investigate the resilience of small groups to demographic uncertainty, and specifically to fluctuations in adult sex ratio (ASR), partner availability and dispersal patterns. Using 25 years of demographic data for two Savannah Pumé groups of South American hunter-gatherers, we show that in small human populations: (i) ASRs fluctuate substantially from year to year, but do not consistently trend in a sex-biased direction; (ii) the primary driver of local variation in partner availability is stochasticity in the sex ratio at maturity; and (iii) dispersal outside of the group is an important behavioural means to mediate locally constrained mating options...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749934/the-population-genomics-of-archaeological-transition-in-west-iberia-investigation-of-ancient-substructure-using-imputation-and-haplotype-based-methods
#15
Rui Martiniano, Lara M Cassidy, Ros Ó'Maoldúin, Russell McLaughlin, Nuno M Silva, Licinio Manco, Daniel Fidalgo, Tania Pereira, Maria J Coelho, Miguel Serra, Joachim Burger, Rui Parreira, Elena Moran, Antonio C Valera, Eduardo Porfirio, Rui Boaventura, Ana M Silva, Daniel G Bradley
We analyse new genomic data (0.05-2.95x) from 14 ancient individuals from Portugal distributed from the Middle Neolithic (4200-3500 BC) to the Middle Bronze Age (1740-1430 BC) and impute genomewide diploid genotypes in these together with published ancient Eurasians. While discontinuity is evident in the transition to agriculture across the region, sensitive haplotype-based analyses suggest a significant degree of local hunter-gatherer contribution to later Iberian Neolithic populations. A more subtle genetic influx is also apparent in the Bronze Age, detectable from analyses including haplotype sharing with both ancient and modern genomes, D-statistics and Y-chromosome lineages...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712569/extensive-farming-in-estonia-started-through-a-sex-biased-migration-from-the-steppe
#16
Lehti Saag, Liivi Varul, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Jesper Stenderup, Morten E Allentoft, Lauri Saag, Luca Pagani, Maere Reidla, Kristiina Tambets, Ene Metspalu, Aivar Kriiska, Eske Willerslev, Toomas Kivisild, Mait Metspalu
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition-both material and genetic-varied in different parts of Europe [1-7]. Farming-based economies appear relatively late in Northeast Europe, and the extent to which they involve change in genetic ancestry is not fully understood due to the lack of relevant ancient DNA data. Here we present the results from new low-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequence data from five hunter-gatherers and five first farmers of Estonia whose remains date to 4,500 to 6,300 years before present...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#17
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701566/chronotype-variation-drives-night-time-sentinel-like-behaviour-in-hunter-gatherers
#18
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
Sleep is essential for survival, yet it also represents a time of extreme vulnerability to predation, hostile conspecifics and environmental dangers. To reduce the risks of sleeping, the sentinel hypothesis proposes that group-living animals share the task of vigilance during sleep, with some individuals sleeping while others are awake. To investigate sentinel-like behaviour in sleeping humans, we investigated activity patterns at night among Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Using actigraphy, we discovered that all subjects were simultaneously scored as asleep for only 18 min in total over 20 days of observation, with a median of eight individuals awake throughout the night-time period; thus, one or more individuals was awake (or in light stages of sleep) during 99...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700598/tracing-social-interactions-in-pleistocene-north-america-via-3d-model-analysis-of-stone-tool-asymmetry
#19
Sabrina B Sholts, Joseph A M Gingerich, Stefan Schlager, Dennis J Stanford, Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696282/accurate-age-estimation-in-small-scale-societies
#20
Yoan Diekmann, Daniel Smith, Pascale Gerbault, Mark Dyble, Abigail E Page, Nikhil Chaudhary, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Mark G Thomas
Precise estimation of age is essential in evolutionary anthropology, especially to infer population age structures and understand the evolution of human life history diversity. However, in small-scale societies, such as hunter-gatherer populations, time is often not referred to in calendar years, and accurate age estimation remains a challenge. We address this issue by proposing a Bayesian approach that accounts for age uncertainty inherent to fieldwork data. We developed a Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that produces posterior distributions of ages for each individual, based on a ranking order of individuals from youngest to oldest and age ranges for each individual...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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