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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780174/cereal-progenitors-differ-in-stand-harvest-characteristics-from-related-wild-grasses
#1
Catherine Preece, Natalie F Clamp, Gemma Warham, Michael Charles, Mark Rees, Glynis Jones, Colin P Osborne
The domestication of crops in the Fertile Crescent began approximately 10,000 years ago indicating a change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, agriculture-based existence. The exploitation of wild plants changed during this transition, such that a small number of crops were domesticated from the broader range of species gathered from the wild. However, the reasons for this change are unclear.Previous studies have shown unexpectedly that crop progenitors are not consistently higher yielding than related wild grass species, when growing without competition...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773666/ancient-genomes-document-multiple-waves-of-migration-in-southeast-asian-prehistory
#2
Mark Lipson, Olivia Cheronet, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Marc Oxenham, Michael Pietrusewsky, Thomas Oliver Pryce, Anna Willis, Hirofumi Matsumura, Hallie Buckley, Kate Domett, Nguyen Giang Hai, Trinh Hoang Hiep, Aung Aung Kyaw, Tin Tin Win, Baptiste Pradier, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Piya Changmai, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Eadaoin Harney, Jatupol Kampuansai, Wibhu Kutanan, Megan Michel, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Pavel Flegontov, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100-1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Vietnam exhibit a mixture of East Asian (southern Chinese agriculturalist) and deeply diverged eastern Eurasian (hunter-gatherer) ancestry characteristic of Austroasiatic speakers, with similar ancestry as far south as Indonesia providing evidence for an expansive initial spread of Austroasiatic languages...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746569/5000-years-of-dietary-variations-of-prehistoric-farmers-in-the-great-hungarian-plain
#3
Beatriz Gamarra, Rachel Howcroft, Ashley McCall, János Dani, Zsigmond Hajdú, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, László D Szabó, László Domboróczki, Ildikó Pap, Pál Raczky, Antónia Marcsik, Zsuzsanna K Zoffmann, Tamás Hajdu, Robin N M Feeney, Ron Pinhasi
The development of farming was a catalyst for the evolution of the human diet from the varied subsistence practices of hunter-gatherers to the more globalised food economy we depend upon today. Although there has been considerable research into the dietary changes associated with the initial spread of farming, less attention has been given to how dietary choices continued to develop during subsequent millennia. A paleogenomic time transect for 5 millennia of human occupation in the Great Hungarian Plain spanning from the advent of the Neolithic to the Iron Age, showed major genomic turnovers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743675/137-ancient-human-genomes-from-across-the-eurasian-steppes
#4
Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen, Michaël Peyrot, Gabriel Renaud, Thorfinn Korneliussen, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Amy Goldberg, Emma Usmanova, Nurbol Baimukhanov, Valeriy Loman, Lotte Hedeager, Anders Gorm Pedersen, Kasper Nielsen, Gennady Afanasiev, Kunbolot Akmatov, Almaz Aldashev, Ashyk Alpaslan, Gabit Baimbetov, Vladimir I Bazaliiskii, Arman Beisenov, Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Choduraa Dorzhu, Sturla Ellingvag, Diimaajav Erdenebaatar, Rana Dajani, Evgeniy Dmitriev, Valeriy Evdokimov, Karin M Frei, Andrey Gromov, Alexander Goryachev, Hakon Hakonarson, Tatyana Hegay, Zaruhi Khachatryan, Ruslan Khaskhanov, Egor Kitov, Alina Kolbina, Tabaldiev Kubatbek, Alexey Kukushkin, Igor Kukushkin, Nina Lau, Ashot Margaryan, Inga Merkyte, Ilya V Mertz, Viktor K Mertz, Enkhbayar Mijiddorj, Vyacheslav Moiyesev, Gulmira Mukhtarova, Bekmukhanbet Nurmukhanbetov, Z Orozbekova, Irina Panyushkina, Karol Pieta, Václav Smrčka, Irina Shevnina, Andrey Logvin, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Tereza Štolcová, Kadicha Tashbaeva, Alexander Tkachev, Turaly Tulegenov, Dmitriy Voyakin, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Sainbileg Undrakhbold, Victor Varfolomeev, Andrzej Weber, Nikolay Kradin, Morten E Allentoft, Ludovic Orlando, Rasmus Nielsen, Martin Sikora, Evelyne Heyer, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev
For thousands of years the Eurasian steppes have been a centre of human migrations and cultural change. Here we sequence the genomes of 137 ancient humans (about 1× average coverage), covering a period of 4,000 years, to understand the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age migrations. We find that the genetics of the Scythian groups that dominated the Eurasian steppes throughout the Iron Age were highly structured, with diverse origins comprising Late Bronze Age herders, European farmers and southern Siberian hunter-gatherers...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743352/the-first-horse-herders-and-the-impact-of-early-bronze-age-steppe-expansions-into-asia
#5
Peter de Barros Damgaard, Rui Martiniano, Jack Kamm, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Guus Kroonen, Michaël Peyrot, Gojko Barjamovic, Simon Rasmussen, Claus Zacho, Nurbol Baimukhanov, Victor Zaibert, Victor Merz, Arjun Biddanda, Ilja Merz, Valeriy Loman, Valeriy Evdokimov, Emma Usmanova, Brian Hemphill, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Fulya Eylem Yediay, Inam Ullah, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Katrine Højholt Iversen, Jeremy Choin, Constanza de la Fuente, Melissa Ilardo, Hannes Schroeder, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Andrey Gromov, Andrei Polyakov, Sachihiro Omura, Süleyman Yücel Senyurt, Habib Ahmad, Catriona McKenzie, Ashot Margaryan, Abdul Hameed, Abdul Samad, Nazish Gul, Muhammad Hassan Khokhar, O I Goriunova, Vladimir I Bazaliiskii, John Novembre, Andrzej W Weber, Ludovic Orlando, Morten E Allentoft, Rasmus Nielsen, Kristian Kristiansen, Martin Sikora, Alan K Outram, Richard Durbin, Eske Willerslev
The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyze 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after but not at the time of Yamnaya culture...
May 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741686/african-genetic-diversity-provides-novel-insights-into-evolutionary-history-and-local-adaptations
#6
Ananyo Choudhury, Shaun Aron, Dhriti Sengupta, Scott Hazelhurst, Michèle Ramsay
Genetic variation and susceptibility to disease are shaped by human demographic history. We can now study the genomes of extant Africans and uncover traces of population migration, admixture, assimilation and selection by applying sophisticated computational algorithms. There are four major ethnolinguistic divisions among present day Africans: Hunter-gatherer populations in southern and central Africa; Nilo-Saharan speakers from north and northeast Africa; Afro-Asiatic speakers from east Africa; and Niger-Congo speakers who are the predominant ethnolinguistic group spread across most of sub-Saharan Africa...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730035/infant-allocare-in-traditional-societies
#7
Karen L Kramer, Amanda Veile
Across human societies infants receive care from both their mothers and others. Reproductive cooperation raises two important questions: how does allocare benefit mothers and infants, and why do caretakers help mothers when they could spend their time in other, perhaps more valuable ways? We use behavioral and biological data from three small-scale societies to evaluate 1) how allocare affects a nursing mother's time, 2) whether a mother's birth interval length, surviving fertility and infant weight vary as a function of the childcare help that she receives, and 3) the opportunity cost for helpers to spend time caring for children...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727585/tales-of-human-migration-admixture-and-selection-in-africa
#8
Carina M Schlebusch, Mattias Jakobsson
In the last three decades, genetic studies have played an increasingly important role in exploring human history. They have helped to conclusively establish that anatomically modern humans first appeared in Africa roughly 250,000-350,000 years before present and subsequently migrated to other parts of the world. The history of humans in Africa is complex and includes demographic events that influenced patterns of genetic variation across the continent. Through genetic studies, it has become evident that deep African population history is captured by relationships among African hunter-gatherers, as the world's deepest population divergences occur among these groups, and that the deepest population divergence dates to 300,000 years before present...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700885/social-networks-cooperative-breeding-and-the-human-milk-microbiome
#9
Courtney L Meehan, Kimberly A Lackey, Edward H Hagen, Janet E Williams, Jennifer Roulette, Courtney Helfrecht, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
OBJECTIVES: We present the first available data on the human milk microbiome (HMM) from small-scale societies (hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists in the Central African Republic [CAR]) and explore relationships among subsistence type and seasonality on HMM diversity and composition. Additionally, as humans are cooperative breeders and, throughout our evolutionary history and today, we rear offspring within social networks, we examine associations between the social environment and the HMM...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626394/microbiome-and-health-ramifications-of-intelligent-deception
#10
George B Stefano, Rachel Fine, Richard M Kream
Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitating medical consequences of a progressively narrowed high caloric diet incorporating processed carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fat and cholesterol, are translated into a global epidemic of obesity linked to metabolic and endocrine disorders, which, in part, emerged from the enhancement of our longevity...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581589/the-resilience-of-postglacial-hunter-gatherers-to-abrupt-climate-change
#11
Simon Blockley, Ian Candy, Ian Matthews, Pete Langdon, Cath Langdon, Adrian Palmer, Paul Lincoln, Ashley Abrook, Barry Taylor, Chantal Conneller, Alex Bayliss, Alison MacLeod, Laura Deeprose, Chris Darvill, Rebecca Kearney, Nancy Beavan, Richard Staff, Michael Bamforth, Maisie Taylor, Nicky Milner
Understanding the resilience of early societies to climate change is an essential part of exploring the environmental sensitivity of human populations. There is significant interest in the role of abrupt climate events as a driver of early Holocene human activity, but there are very few well-dated records directly compared with local climate archives. Here, we present evidence from the internationally important Mesolithic site of Star Carr showing occupation during the early Holocene, which is directly compared with a high-resolution palaeoclimate record from neighbouring lake beds...
March 26, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574845/hunter-gatherer-studies-and-human-evolution-a-very-selective-review
#12
EDITORIAL
Kristen Hawkes, James O'Connell, Nicholas Blurton Jones
The century long publication of this journal overlapped major changes in the sciences it covers. We have been eyewitnesses to vast changes during the final third of the last century and beginning of this one, momentous enough to fundamentally alter our work separately and collectively. One (NBJ) from animal ethology, another from western North American archaeology (JOC), and a third (KH) from cultural anthropology came to longtime collaboration as evolutionary ecologists with shared focus on studying modern hunter-gatherers to guide hypotheses about human evolution...
April 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566431/dental-size-variability-in-central-african-pygmy-hunter-gatherers-and-bantu-speaking-farmers
#13
Alejandro Romero, Fernando V Ramirez-Rozzi, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: Odontometric studies of African populations show high within-group variation in tooth size. Overall, North Africans exhibit smaller dimensions than groups from eastern and southern sub-Saharan regions, but no previous studies have analyzed the full dental metrics among extant African Pygmy hunter-gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers. Furthermore, the population variability in tooth crown sizes from equatorial rainforest regions remains to be elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of the permanent teeth (I1-M2) were measured in vivo using high-resolution replicas from Baka Pygmies and Mvae and Yassa Bantu-speakers from Cameroon (western Africa)...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549179/different-selected-mechanisms-attenuated-the-inhibitory-interaction-of-kir2dl1-with-c2-hla-c-in-two-indigenous-human-populations-in-southern-africa
#14
Neda Nemat-Gorgani, Hugo G Hilton, Brenna M Henn, Meng Lin, Christopher R Gignoux, Justin W Myrick, Cedric J Werely, Julie M Granka, Marlo Möller, Eileen G Hoal, Makoto Yawata, Nobuyo Yawata, Lies Boelen, Becca Asquith, Peter Parham, Paul J Norman
The functions of human NK cells in defense against pathogens and placental development during reproduction are modulated by interactions of killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) with HLA-A, -B and -C class I ligands. Both receptors and ligands are highly polymorphic and exhibit extensive differences between human populations. Indigenous to southern Africa are the KhoeSan, the most ancient group of modern human populations, who have highest genomic diversity worldwide. We studied two KhoeSan populations, the Nama pastoralists and the ≠Khomani San hunter-gatherers...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543318/diaphyseal-cross-sectional-geometry-of-the-metatarsal-bones-in-the-jomon-population
#15
Yasuo Hagihara, Takashi Nara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate differences in the diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of the metatarsal bones (MTs) between two populations with different habitual activities: the Jomon hunter-gatherers and modern Japanese people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the first through fifth MTs of 117 skeleton samples: 59 (33 men and 26 women) were obtained from Late and Final Jomon period archeological sites and 58 (31 men and 27 women) were from modern Japanese people...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531347/the-origin-and-expansion-of-pama-nyungan-languages-across-australia
#16
Remco R Bouckaert, Claire Bowern, Quentin D Atkinson
It remains a mystery how Pama-Nyungan, the world's largest hunter-gatherer language family, came to dominate the Australian continent. Some argue that social or technological advantages allowed rapid language replacement from the Gulf Plains region during the mid-Holocene. Others have proposed expansions from refugia linked to climatic changes after the last ice age or, more controversially, during the initial colonization of Australia. Here, we combine basic vocabulary data from 306 Pama-Nyungan languages with Bayesian phylogeographic methods to explicitly model the expansion of the family across Australia and test between these origin scenarios...
April 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531345/the-demographic-history-and-mutational-load-of-african-hunter-gatherers-and-farmers
#17
Marie Lopez, Athanasios Kousathanas, Hélène Quach, Christine Harmant, Patrick Mouguiama-Daouda, Jean-Marie Hombert, Alain Froment, George H Perry, Luis B Barreiro, Paul Verdu, Etienne Patin, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Understanding how deleterious genetic variation is distributed across human populations is of key importance in evolutionary biology and medical genetics. However, the impact of population size changes and gene flow on the corresponding mutational load remains a controversial topic. Here, we report high-coverage exomes from 300 rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers of central Africa, whose distinct subsistence strategies are expected to have impacted their demographic pasts. Detailed demographic inference indicates that hunter-gatherers and farmers recently experienced population collapses and expansions, respectively, accompanied by increased gene flow...
April 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531053/four-millennia-of-iberian-biomolecular-prehistory-illustrate-the-impact-of-prehistoric-migrations-at-the-far-end-of-eurasia
#18
Cristina Valdiosera, Torsten Günther, Juan Carlos Vera-Rodríguez, Irene Ureña, Eneko Iriarte, Ricardo Rodríguez-Varela, Luciana G Simões, Rafael M Martínez-Sánchez, Emma M Svensson, Helena Malmström, Laura Rodríguez, José-María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell, Alfonso Alday, José Antonio Hernández Vera, Anders Götherström, José-Miguel Carretero, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Colin I Smith, Mattias Jakobsson
Population genomic studies of ancient human remains have shown how modern-day European population structure has been shaped by a number of prehistoric migrations. The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514887/the-evolution-of-body-fatness-trading-off-disease-and-predation-risk
#19
REVIEW
John R Speakman
Human obesity has a large genetic component, yet has many serious negative consequences. How this state of affairs has evolved has generated wide debate. The thrifty gene hypothesis was the first attempt to explain obesity as a consequence of adaptive responses to an ancient environment that in modern society become disadvantageous. The idea is that genes (or more precisely, alleles) predisposing to obesity may have been selected for by repeated exposure to famines. However, this idea has many flaws: for instance, selection of the supposed magnitude over the duration of human evolution would fix any thrifty alleles (famines kill the old and young, not the obese) and there is no evidence that hunter-gatherer populations become obese between famines...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514623/association-of-urinary-sodium-excretion-with-blood-pressure-and-risk-factors-associated-with-hypertension-among-cameroonian-pygmies-and-bantus-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Daniel Lemogoum, William Ngatchou, Claude Bika Lele, Cecile Okalla, Marc Leeman, Jean-Paul Degaute, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: High salt intake increases blood pressure (BP) and hypertension risk. This study aimed to examine association of urinary sodium excretion with BP and hypertension correlates among Cameroonian pygmies under hunter-gatherer subsistence mode and Bantus, living in urban area under unhealthy behavioral habits. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cluster sampling study, we randomly enrolled rural pygmies living in Lolodorf and urban Bantus living in Douala. The World Health Organization steps questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and lifestyle data...
March 7, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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