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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214997/the-human-rit2-core-promoter-short-tandem-repeat-predominant-allele-is-species-specific-in-length-a-selective-advantage-for-human-evolution
#1
Babak Emamalizadeh, Abofazl Movafagh, Hossein Darvish, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Monavvar Andarva, Pegah Namdar-Aligoodarzi, Mina Ohadi
Evolutionary analyses of the critical core promoter interval support a selective advantage for expanding the length of certain short tandem repeats (STRs) in humans. We recently reported genome-wide data on human core promoter STRs that are "exceptionally long" (≥6-repeats). Near the top of the list, the neuron-specific gene, RIT2, contains one of the longest GA-STRs at 11-repeats. In the present study, we analyzed the evolutionary implications of this STR across species. We also studied this STR in a sample of 2,143 Iranian human subjects that encompassed a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and controls...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198087/meta-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-from-urbanized-and-pre-agricultural-populations
#2
REVIEW
Leonardo Mancabelli, Christian Milani, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Metagenomic studies of the human gut microbiome have only recently begun to explore the differences in taxonomic composition between subjects from diverse geographical origins. Here, we compared taxonomy, resistome and functional metabolic properties of publicly available shotgun datasets of human fecal samples collected from different geographical regions (Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania). Such datasets encompassed gut microbiota information corresponding to 13 developed/industrialized societies, as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer, pre-agricultural communities (Tanzanian and Peruvian individuals)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177051/dental-caries-at-lapa-do-santo-central-eastern-brazil-an-early-holocene-archaeological-site
#3
Pedro DA-Gloria, Rodrigo E Oliveira, Walter A Neves
The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses...
February 6, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167923/cultural-and-species-differences-in-gazing-patterns-for-marked-and-decorated-objects-a-comparative-eye-tracking-study
#4
Cordelia Mühlenbeck, Thomas Jacobsen, Carla Pritsch, Katja Liebal
Objects from the Middle Paleolithic period colored with ochre and marked with incisions represent the beginning of non-utilitarian object manipulation in different species of the Homo genus. To investigate the visual effects caused by these markings, we compared humans who have different cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German city dwellers) to one species of non-human great apes (orangutans) with respect to their perceptions of markings on objects. We used eye-tracking to analyze their fixation patterns and the durations of their fixations on marked and unmarked stones and sticks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164156/genome-wide-data-from-two-early-neolithic-east-asian-individuals-dating-to-7700-years-ago
#5
Veronika Siska, Eppie Ruth Jones, Sungwon Jeon, Youngjune Bhak, Hak-Min Kim, Yun Sung Cho, Hyunho Kim, Kyusang Lee, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Tatiana Balueva, Marcos Gallego-Llorente, Michael Hofreiter, Daniel G Bradley, Anders Eriksson, Ron Pinhasi, Jong Bhak, Andrea Manica
Ancient genomes have revolutionized our understanding of Holocene prehistory and, particularly, the Neolithic transition in western Eurasia. In contrast, East Asia has so far received little attention, despite representing a core region at which the Neolithic transition took place independently ~3 millennia after its onset in the Near East. We report genome-wide data from two hunter-gatherers from Devil's Gate, an early Neolithic cave site (dated to ~7.7 thousand years ago) located in East Asia, on the border between Russia and Korea...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162894/the-neolithic-transition-in-the-baltic-was-not-driven-by-admixture-with-early-european-farmers
#6
Eppie R Jones, Gunita Zarina, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Emma Lightfoot, Philip R Nigst, Andrea Manica, Ron Pinhasi, Daniel G Bradley
The Neolithic transition was a dynamic time in European prehistory of cultural, social, and technological change. Although this period has been well explored in central Europe using ancient nuclear DNA [1, 2], its genetic impact on northern and eastern parts of this continent has not been as extensively studied. To broaden our understanding of the Neolithic transition across Europe, we analyzed eight ancient genomes: six samples (four to ∼1- to 4-fold coverage) from a 3,500 year temporal transect (∼8,300-4,800 calibrated years before present) through the Baltic region dating from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic and two samples spanning the Mesolithic-Neolithic boundary from the Dnieper Rapids region of Ukraine...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148921/subdivisions-of-haplogroups-u-and-c-encompass-mitochondrial-dna-lineages-of-eneolithic-early-bronze-age-kurgan-populations-of-western-north-pontic-steppe
#7
Alexey G Nikitin, Svetlana Ivanova, Dmytro Kiosak, Jessica Badgerow, Jeff Pashnick
Prehistoric Europe experienced a marked cultural and economic shift around 4000 years ago, when the established Neolithic agriculture-based economy was replaced by herding-pastoralist industry. In recent years new data about the genetic structure of human communities living during this transition period began to emerge. At the same time, the genetic identities of the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age (EBA) inhabitants from a prehistoric cultural crossroad in western North Pontic steppe region remain understudied...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109124/domestication-and-human-demographic-history-in-south-america
#8
S Ivan Perez, María Bárbara Postillone, Diego Rindel
OBJECTIVES: The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105723/current-views-on-hunter-gatherer-nutrition-and-the-evolution-of-the-human-diet
#9
Alyssa N Crittenden, Stephanie L Schnorr
Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#10
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063234/hadza-sleep-biology-evidence-for-flexible-sleep-wake-patterns-in-hunter-gatherers
#11
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: Cross-cultural sleep research is critical to deciphering whether modern sleep expression is the product of recent selective pressures, or an example of evolutionary mismatch to ancestral sleep ecology. We worked with the Hadza, an equatorial, hunter-gatherer community in Tanzania, to better understand ancestral sleep patterns and to test hypotheses related to sleep segmentation. METHODS: We used actigraphy to analyze sleep-wake patterns in thirty-three volunteers for a total of 393 days...
March 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049708/modeling-human-population-separation-history-using-physically-phased-genomes
#12
Shiya Song, Elzbieta Sliwerska, Sarah Emery, Jeffrey M Kidd
Phased haplotype sequences are a key component in many population genetic analyses since variation in haplotypes reflects the action of recombination, selection, and changes in population size. In humans, haplotypes are typically estimated from unphased sequence or genotyping data using statistical models applied to large reference panels. To assess the importance of correct haplotype phase on population history inference, we performed fosmid pool sequencing and resolved phased haplotypes of five individuals from diverse African populations (including Yoruba, Esan, Gambia, Maasai, and Mende)...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029148/investigating-mitochondrial-dna-relationships-in-neolithic-western-europe-through-serial-coalescent-simulations
#13
Maïté Rivollat, Stéphane Rottier, Christine Couture, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Fanny Mendisco, Mark G Thomas, Marie-France Deguilloux, Pascale Gerbault
Recent ancient DNA studies on European Neolithic human populations have provided persuasive evidence of a major migration of farmers originating from the Aegean, accompanied by sporadic hunter-gatherer admixture into early Neolithic populations, but increasing toward the Late Neolithic. In this context, ancient mitochondrial DNA data collected from the Neolithic necropolis of Gurgy (Paris Basin, France), the largest mitochondrial DNA sample obtained from a single archeological site for the Early/Middle Neolithic period, indicate little differentiation from farmers associated to both the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithic migration routes, as well as from Western European hunter-gatherers...
February 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028536/engineered-feature-used-to-enhance-gardening-at-a-3800-year-old-site-on-the-pacific-northwest-coast
#14
Tanja Hoffmann, Natasha Lyons, Debbie Miller, Alejandra Diaz, Amy Homan, Stephanie Huddlestan, Roma Leon
Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast...
December 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994175/phylogeography-genetic-diversity-and-demographic-history-of-the-iranian-kurdish-groups-based-on-mtdna-sequences
#15
Fatah Zarei, Hassan Rajabi-Maham
Throughout the history of modern humans, the current Kurdish-inhabited area has served as part of a tricontinental crossroad for major human migrations. Also, a significant body of archaeological evidence points to this area as the site of Neolithic transition. To investigate the phylogeography, origins and demographic history, mtDNA D-loop region of individuals representing four Kurdish groups from Iran were analysed. Our data indicated that most of the Kurds mtDNA lineages belong to branches of the haplogroups with the Western Eurasian origin; with small fractions of the Eastern Eurasian and sub-Saharan African lineages...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991880/earliest-direct-evidence-of-plant-processing-in-prehistoric-saharan-pottery
#16
Julie Dunne, Anna Maria Mercuri, Richard P Evershed, Silvia Bruni, Savino di Lernia
The invention of thermally resistant ceramic cooking vessels around 15,000 years ago was a major advance in human diet and nutrition(1-3), opening up new food groups and preparation techniques. Previous investigations of lipid biomarkers contained in food residues have routinely demonstrated the importance of prehistoric cooking pots for the processing of animal products across the world(4). Remarkably, however, direct evidence for plant processing in prehistoric pottery has not been forthcoming, despite the potential to cook otherwise unpalatable or even toxic plants(2,5)...
December 19, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966200/review-of-demography-and-evolutionary-ecology-of-hadza-hunter-gatherers-by-nicholas-blurton-jones-cambridge-university-press-2016
#17
Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965293/reconstructing-genetic-history-of-siberian-and-northeastern-european-populations
#18
Emily H M Wong, Andrey Khrunin, Larissa Nichols, Dmitry Pushkarev, Denis Khokhrin, Dmitry Verbenko, Oleg Evgrafov, James Knowles, John Novembre, Svetlana Limborska, Anton Valouev
Siberia and Northwestern Russia are home to over 40 culturally and linguistically diverse indigenous ethnic groups, yet genetic variation and histories of peoples from this region are largely uncharacterized. We present deep whole-genome sequencing data (∼38×) from 28 individuals belonging to 14 distinct indigenous populations from that region. We combined these data sets with additional 32 modern-day and 46 ancient human genomes to reconstruct genetic histories of several indigenous Northern Eurasian populations...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960261/a-concise-history-of-mycotoxin-research
#19
John I Pitt, J David Miller
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902716/large-scale-anthropogenic-reduction-of-forest-cover-in-last-glacial-maximum-europe
#20
Jed O Kaplan, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Jan C A Kolen, Basil A S Davis
Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires...
2016: PloS One
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