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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345756/the-dawn-of-dentistry-in-the-late-upper-paleolithic-an-early-case-of-pathological-intervention-at-riparo-fredian
#1
Gregorio Oxilia, Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N M Feeney, John C Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
OBJECTIVES: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we report the second earliest probable evidence for dentistry in a Late Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer recovered from Riparo Fredian (Tuscany, Italy)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342040/ancient-parasites-from-endemic-deer-from-cueva-parque-diana-archeological-site-patagonia-argentina
#2
María Ornela Beltrame, Eleonor Tietze, Alberto Enrique Pérez, Agustín Bellusci, Norma Haydée Sardella
The narrow Andean-Patagonian temperate rainforest strip in the west of southern South America is inhabited by two endemic species of cervids, the southern pudu (Pudu puda) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), both cataloged as near threatened and threatened species, respectively. One of the possible causes of their declined number is the susceptibility to livestock diseases. Significant zooarchaeological records of both deer have been found throughout the Holocene from Patagonia. The present contribution reports the first paleoparasitological results obtained from coprolites of endemic deer from the archeological site "Cueva Parque Diana," Neuquén Province, Argentina, and discusses the possible diseases found in ancient times...
March 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332189/technical-intelligence-and-culture-nut-cracking-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#3
Christophe Boesch, Daša Bombjaková, Adam Boyette, Amelia Meier
OBJECTIVES: According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317553/dietary-reconstruction-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neandertal-familial-group%C3%A2-spain-in-the-context-of-other-neandertal-and-modern-hunter-gatherer-groups-a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis
#4
Almudena Estalrrich, Sireen El Zaatari, Antonio Rosas
Here, we present the analysis of occlusal molar microwear textures of eight individuals from the El Sidrón Neandertal group (Spain). The aims of the study were: 1) to document potential age-, sex-, and maternal lineage-related differences in diet within a Neandertal familial group, and 2) to place the diet of El Sidrón individuals in the context of those of other Neandertal groups. This study also offers an interpretation of the diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals by comparing their microwear signatures to those of recent hunter-gatherer populations with diverse but known diets...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302420/a-cryptic-mitochondrial-dna-link-between-north-european-and-west-african-dogs
#5
Adeniyi C Adeola, Sheila C Ommeh, Jiao-Jiao Song, S Charles Olaogun, Oscar J Sanke, Ting-Ting Yin, Guo-Dong Wang, Shi-Fang Wu, Zhong-Yin Zhou, Jacqueline K Lichoti, Bernard R Agwanda, Philip M Dawuda, Robert W Murphy, Min-Sheng Peng, Ya-Ping Zhang
Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302068/late-danubian-mitochondrial-genomes-shed-light-into-the-neolithisation-of-central-europe-in-the-5-th-millennium-bc
#6
Maciej Chyleński, Anna Juras, Edvard Ehler, Helena Malmström, Janusz Piontek, Mattias Jakobsson, Arkadiusz Marciniak, Miroslawa Dabert
BACKGROUND: Recent aDNA studies are progressively focusing on various Neolithic and Hunter - Gatherer (HG) populations, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithisation. The major focus was so far on the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), which introduced the Neolithic way of life in Central Europe in the second half of 6th millennium BC. It is widely agreed that people of this culture were genetically different from local HGs and no genetic exchange is seen between the two groups...
March 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296885/oral-health-in-transition-the-hadza-foragers-of-tanzania
#7
Alyssa N Crittenden, John Sorrentino, Sheniz A Moonie, Mika Peterson, Audax Mabulla, Peter S Ungar
Conventional wisdom holds that a decline in oral health accompanies the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, given increased consumption of carbohydrates. This widely touted example of the mismatch between our biology and modern lifestyle has been intuited largely from the bioarchaeological record of the Neolithic Revolution in the New World. Recent studies of other populations have, however, challenged the universality of this assertion. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of oral health among a living population in transition from the bush to village life, the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that the shift from foraging to farming, or agricultural intensification, inevitably leads to increased periodontal disease, caries, and orthodontic disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282382/population-genetic-analysis-of-the-darc-locus-duffy-reveals-adaptation-from-standing-variation-associated-with-malaria-resistance-in-humans
#8
Kimberly F McManus, Angela M Taravella, Brenna M Henn, Carlos D Bustamante, Martin Sikora, Omar E Cornejo
The human DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes a membrane-bound chemokine receptor crucial for the infection of red blood cells by Plasmodium vivax, a major causative agent of malaria. Of the three major allelic classes segregating in human populations, the FY*O allele has been shown to protect against P. vivax infection and is at near fixation in sub-Saharan Africa, while FY*B and FY*A are common in Europe and Asia, respectively. Due to the combination of strong geographic differentiation and association with malaria resistance, DARC is considered a canonical example of positive selection in humans...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273114/large-scale-effects-of-migration-and-conflict-in-pre-agricultural-groups-insights-from-a-dynamic-model
#9
Francesco Gargano, Lucia Tamburino, Fabio Bagarello, Giangiacomo Bravo
The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266657/diverse-origin-of-mitochondrial-lineages-in-iron-age-black-sea-scythians
#10
Anna Juras, Maja Krzewińska, Alexey G Nikitin, Edvard Ehler, Maciej Chyleński, Sylwia Łukasik, Marta Krenz-Niedbała, Vitaly Sinika, Janusz Piontek, Svetlana Ivanova, Miroslawa Dabert, Anders Götherström
Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265058/hunter-gatherer-residential-mobility-and-the-marginal-value-of-rainforest-patches
#11
Vivek V Venkataraman, Thomas S Kraft, Nathaniel J Dominy, Kirk M Endicott
The residential mobility patterns of modern hunter-gatherers broadly reflect local resource availability, but the proximate ecological and social forces that determine the timing of camp movements are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that the timing of such moves maximizes foraging efficiency as hunter-gatherers move across the landscape. The marginal value theorem predicts when a group should depart a camp and its associated foraging area and move to another based on declining marginal return rates. This influential model has yet to be directly applied in a population of hunter-gatherers, primarily because the shape of gain curves (cumulative resource acquisition through time) and travel times between patches have been difficult to estimate in ethnographic settings...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252010/extra-metabolic-energy-use-and-the-rise-in-human-hyper-density
#12
Joseph R Burger, Vanessa P Weinberger, Pablo A Marquet
Humans, like all organisms, are subject to fundamental biophysical laws. Van Valen predicted that, because of zero-sum dynamics, all populations of all species in a given environment flux the same amount of energy on average. Damuth's 'energetic equivalence rule' supported Van Valen´s conjecture by showing a tradeoff between few big animals per area with high individual metabolic rates compared to abundant small species with low energy requirements. We use metabolic scaling theory to compare variation in densities and individual energy use in human societies to other land mammals...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214997/the-human-rit2-core-promoter-short-tandem-repeat-predominant-allele-is-species-specific-in-length-a-selective-advantage-for-human-evolution
#13
Babak Emamalizadeh, Abofazl Movafagh, Hossein Darvish, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Monavvar Andarva, Pegah Namdar-Aligoodarzi, Mina Ohadi
Evolutionary analyses of the critical core promoter interval support a selective advantage for expanding the length of certain short tandem repeats (STRs) in humans. We recently reported genome-wide data on human core promoter STRs that are "exceptionally long" (≥6-repeats). Near the top of the list, the neuron-specific gene, RIT2, contains one of the longest GA-STRs at 11-repeats. In the present study, we analyzed the evolutionary implications of this STR across species. We also studied this STR in a sample of 2,143 Iranian human subjects that encompassed a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and controls...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198087/meta-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-from-urbanized-and-pre-agricultural-populations
#14
REVIEW
Leonardo Mancabelli, Christian Milani, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Metagenomic studies of the human gut microbiome have only recently begun to explore the differences in taxonomic composition between subjects from diverse geographical origins. Here, we compared taxonomy, resistome and functional metabolic properties of publicly available shotgun datasets of human fecal samples collected from different geographical regions (Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania). Such datasets encompassed gut microbiota information corresponding to 13 developed/industrialized societies, as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer, pre-agricultural communities (Tanzanian and Peruvian individuals)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177051/dental-caries-at-lapa-do-santo-central-eastern-brazil-an-early-holocene-archaeological-site
#15
Pedro DA-Gloria, Rodrigo E Oliveira, Walter A Neves
The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses...
February 6, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167923/cultural-and-species-differences-in-gazing-patterns-for-marked-and-decorated-objects-a-comparative-eye-tracking-study
#16
Cordelia Mühlenbeck, Thomas Jacobsen, Carla Pritsch, Katja Liebal
Objects from the Middle Paleolithic period colored with ochre and marked with incisions represent the beginning of non-utilitarian object manipulation in different species of the Homo genus. To investigate the visual effects caused by these markings, we compared humans who have different cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German city dwellers) to one species of non-human great apes (orangutans) with respect to their perceptions of markings on objects. We used eye-tracking to analyze their fixation patterns and the durations of their fixations on marked and unmarked stones and sticks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164156/genome-wide-data-from-two-early-neolithic-east-asian-individuals-dating-to-7700-years-ago
#17
Veronika Siska, Eppie Ruth Jones, Sungwon Jeon, Youngjune Bhak, Hak-Min Kim, Yun Sung Cho, Hyunho Kim, Kyusang Lee, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Tatiana Balueva, Marcos Gallego-Llorente, Michael Hofreiter, Daniel G Bradley, Anders Eriksson, Ron Pinhasi, Jong Bhak, Andrea Manica
Ancient genomes have revolutionized our understanding of Holocene prehistory and, particularly, the Neolithic transition in western Eurasia. In contrast, East Asia has so far received little attention, despite representing a core region at which the Neolithic transition took place independently ~3 millennia after its onset in the Near East. We report genome-wide data from two hunter-gatherers from Devil's Gate, an early Neolithic cave site (dated to ~7.7 thousand years ago) located in East Asia, on the border between Russia and Korea...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162894/the-neolithic-transition-in-the-baltic-was-not-driven-by-admixture-with-early-european-farmers
#18
Eppie R Jones, Gunita Zarina, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Emma Lightfoot, Philip R Nigst, Andrea Manica, Ron Pinhasi, Daniel G Bradley
The Neolithic transition was a dynamic time in European prehistory of cultural, social, and technological change. Although this period has been well explored in central Europe using ancient nuclear DNA [1, 2], its genetic impact on northern and eastern parts of this continent has not been as extensively studied. To broaden our understanding of the Neolithic transition across Europe, we analyzed eight ancient genomes: six samples (four to ∼1- to 4-fold coverage) from a 3,500 year temporal transect (∼8,300-4,800 calibrated years before present) through the Baltic region dating from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic and two samples spanning the Mesolithic-Neolithic boundary from the Dnieper Rapids region of Ukraine...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148921/subdivisions-of-haplogroups-u-and-c-encompass-mitochondrial-dna-lineages-of-eneolithic-early-bronze-age-kurgan-populations-of-western-north-pontic-steppe
#19
Alexey G Nikitin, Svetlana Ivanova, Dmytro Kiosak, Jessica Badgerow, Jeff Pashnick
Prehistoric Europe experienced a marked cultural and economic shift around 4000 years ago, when the established Neolithic agriculture-based economy was replaced by herding-pastoralist industry. In recent years new data about the genetic structure of human communities living during this transition period began to emerge. At the same time, the genetic identities of the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age (EBA) inhabitants from a prehistoric cultural crossroad in western North Pontic steppe region remain understudied...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109124/domestication-and-human-demographic-history-in-south-america
#20
S Ivan Perez, María Bárbara Postillone, Diego Rindel
OBJECTIVES: The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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