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Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Margaret E Hunter, Robert M Dorazio, John S S Butterfield, Gaia Meigs-Friend, Leo G Nico, Jason A Ferrante
A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low-concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species' presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
V S Manu, Gianluigi Veglia
Identity operation in the form of π pulses is widely used in NMR spectroscopy. For an isolated single spin system, a sequence of even number of π pulses performs an identity operation, leaving the spin state essentially unaltered. For multi-spin systems, trains of π pulses with appropriate phases and time delays modulate the spin Hamiltonian to perform operations such as decoupling and recoupling. However, experimental imperfections often jeopardize the outcome, leading to severe losses in sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate that a newly designed Genetic Algorithm (GA) is able to optimize a train of π pulses, resulting in a robust identity operation...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
David Dobnik, Dejan Štebih, Andrej Blejec, Dany Morisset, Jana Žel
The advantages of the digital PCR technology are already well documented until now. One way to achieve better cost efficiency of the technique is to use it in a multiplexing strategy. Droplet digital PCR platforms, which include two fluorescence filters, support at least duplex reactions and with some developments and optimization higher multiplexing is possible. The present study not only shows a development of multiplex assays in droplet digital PCR, but also presents a first thorough evaluation of several parameters in such multiplex digital PCR...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jungeun Kim, Jin-Soo Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Jeff Lyon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Paromita Kundu, Manasi Das, Kalpalata Tripathy, Sanjeeb K Sahoo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most widespread form of dementia where there is an age related degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Accumulation of α-synuclein (αS) protein aggregate, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuronal cell death are the pathological hallmarks of PD. In this context, amalgamation of curcumin and piperine having profound cognitive properties, and antioxidant activity seems beneficial. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the major impediment for delivery of neurotherapeutics to the brain...
October 3, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Xiaoli Xu, Cheng Peng, Xiaofu Wang, Xiaoyun Chen, Qiang Wang, Junfeng Xu
This study evaluated the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) as a tool for maize zygosity determination using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) as a reference technology. Quantitative real-time PCR is commonly used to determine transgene copy number or GMO zygosity characterization. However, its effectiveness is based on identical reaction efficiencies for the transgene and the endogenous reference gene. Additionally, a calibrator sample should be utilized for accuracy. Droplet digital PCR is a DNA molecule counting technique that directly counts the absolute number of target and reference DNA molecules in a sample, independent of assay efficiency or external calibrators...
September 8, 2016: Transgenic Research
José Antonio Curiel, Zoel Salvadó, Jordi Tronchoni, Pilar Morales, Alda Joao Rodrigues, Manuel Quirós, Ramón Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Aerobic fermentation of grape must, leading to respiro-fermentative metabolism of sugars, has been proposed as way of reducing alcohol content in wines. Two factors limit the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for this application, the Crabtree effect, and excess volatile acidity under aerobic conditions. This work aimed to explore the impact on ethanol acetate production of different S. cerevisiae strains deleted for genes previously related with the Crabtree phenotype...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Xiao Jin, Haiyang Li, Dongyu Li, Qin Zhang, Feng Li, Weifu Sun, Zihan Chen, Qinghua Li
Insufficient harvest of solar light energy is one of the obstacles for current photovoltaic devices to achieve high performance. Especially, conventional organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on PTB7 as p-type semiconductor can only utilize 400-800 nm solar spectrum. One effective strategy to overcome this obstacle is the introduction of up-conversion nanophosphors (NPs), in the virtue of utilizing the near infrared region (NIR) of solar radiation. Up-conversion can convert low-energy photons to high-energy ones through multi-photon processes, by which the solar spectrum is tailored to well match the absorptive domain of the absorber...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Vaishali Thakkar, Vaishali Korat, Lalji Baldaniya, Mukesh Gohel, Tejal Gandhi, Nirav Patel
INTRODUCTION: The aim of burn management and therapy is fast healing and epithelisation to prevent infection. The present study is concerned with the development and characterization of a novel nanaoparticulate system; cubosomes, loaded with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and Aloe vera for topical treatment of infected burns. METHODS: Cubosome dispersions were formulated by an emulsification technique using different concentrations of a lipid phase Glyceryl Monooleate (GMO) and Poloxamer 407...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
Chenjun Shi, Yujiao Sun, Haiyang Wu, Chengyun Zhu, Guoguang Wei, Jinfeng Li, Tenglan Chan, Defang Ouyang, Shirui Mao
The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic structure of grafted polymeric micelles on drug loading, and elucidate whether drug-polymer compatibility, as predicted by Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs), can be used as a tool for drug-polymer pairs screening and guide the design of grafted polymeric micelles. HSPs of 27 drugs and three grafted copolymers were calculated according to group contribution method. The drug-polymer compatibilities were evaluated using the approaches of Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χFH) and polarity difference (△Xp)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Young-Wook Chin, Woo-Kyung Kang, Hae Won Jang, Timothy L Turner, Hyo Jin Kim
Enormous advances in genome editing technology have been achieved in recent decades. Among newly born genome editing technologies, CRISPR/Cas9 is considered revolutionary because it is easy to use and highly precise for editing genes in target organisms. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has also been applied for removing unfavorable target genes. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to reduce ethyl carbamate (EC), a potential carcinogen, which was formed during the ethanol fermentation process by yeast. Because the yeast CAR1 gene encoding arginase is the key gene to form ethyl carbamate, we inactivated the yeast CAR1 gene by the complete deletion of the gene or the introduction of a nonsense mutation in the CAR1 locus using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chelsea Chuck, Samantha A Fernandes, Lauri L Hyers
In this qualitative study, the process of developing a politicized identity around diet was explored through a social psychological lens. Applying one of the most influencial models of group identity development proposed by Cross (1978) in which an "encounter" experience spurs an awakening into a politicized identity, we asked 36 participants who followed alternative diets due to political reasons to describe their unique encounter experiences that brought them to their politicized awakening. Their self-identified diets included pescetarian, vegetarian, vegan, raw, non-GMO/organic, and reduced meat consumption...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
Elżbieta Jabłonowska, Ewa Nazaruk, Dorota Matyszewska, Chiara Speziale, Raffaele Mezzenga, Ehud M Landau, Renata Bilewicz
The interactions of liquid-crystalline monoolein (GMO) cubic phase nanoparticles with various model lipid membranes spread at the air-solution interface by the Langmuir technique were investigated. Cubosomes have attracted attention as potential biocompatible drug delivery systems, and thus understanding their mode of interaction with membranes is of special interest. Cubosomes spreading at the air-water interface as well as interactions with a monolayer of 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) compressed to different surface pressures were studied by monitoring surface pressure-time dependencies at constant area...
September 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fabrizio Bolognese, Michela Bistoletti, Paola Barbieri, Viviana Teresa Orlandi
The antimicrobial power of honey seems to be ascribable to several factors, including oxidative and osmotic stress. The aim of this study was to find genetic determinants involved in the response to honey stress in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, chosen as model micro-organism. A library of transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was constructed and only four mutants unable to grow in presence of fir honeydew honey were selected. All four mutants were impaired in the major H2O2-scavenging enzyme catalase A (KatA)...
September 2016: Microbiology
Yuhua Wu, Jun Li, Yulei Wang, Xiaofei Li, Yunjing Li, Li Zhu, Jun Li, Gang Wu
The use of analytical controls is essential when performing GMO detection through screening tests. Additionally, the presence of taxon-specific sequences is analyzed mostly for quality control during GMO detection. In this study, 11 commonly used genetic elements involving three promoters (P-35S, P-FMV35S and P-NOS), four marker genes (Bar, NPTII, HPT and Pmi), and four terminators (T-NOS, T-35S, T-g7 and T-e9), together with the reference gene fragments from six major crops of maize, soybean, rapeseed, rice, cotton and wheat, were co-integrated into the same single plasmid to construct a general reference plasmid pBI121-Screening...
August 4, 2016: Plasmid
I Glenn Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Bingfu Guo, Yong Guo, Huilong Hong, Li-Juan Qiu
Molecular characterization of sequence flanking exogenous fragment insertion is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO). In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) method. More than 22.4 Gb sequence data (∼21 × coverage) for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundaries of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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