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Mojave toxin

Esteban Cantú, Sahiti Mallela, Matthew Nyguen, Raúl Báez, Victoria Parra, Rachel Johnson, Kyle Wilson, Montamas Suntravat, Sara Lucena, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta, Elda E Sánchez
Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs)...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Noah L Dowell, Matt W Giorgianni, Victoria A Kassner, Jane E Selegue, Elda E Sanchez, Sean B Carroll
The genetic origin of novel traits is a central but challenging puzzle in evolutionary biology. Among snakes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-related toxins have evolved in different lineages to function as potent neurotoxins, myotoxins, or hemotoxins. Here, we traced the genomic origin and evolution of PLA2 toxins by examining PLA2 gene number, organization, and expression in both neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic rattlesnakes. We found that even though most North American rattlesnakes do not produce neurotoxins, the genes of a specialized heterodimeric neurotoxin predate the origin of rattlesnakes and were present in their last common ancestor (∼22 mya)...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Cara Francesca Smith, Stephen P Mackessy
Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Giulia Zancolli, Timothy G Baker, Axel Barlow, Rebecca K Bradley, Juan J Calvete, Kimberley C Carter, Kaylah de Jager, John Benjamin Owens, Jenny Forrester Price, Libia Sanz, Amy Scholes-Higham, Liam Shier, Liam Wood, Catharine E Wüster, Wolfgang Wüster
Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous...
2016: Toxins
Bruno Lomonte, Diana Mora-Obando, Julián Fernández, Libia Sanz, Davinia Pla, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete
Bothriechis nigroviridis is an arboreal Neotropical pitviper found in Costa Rica and Panamá. A previous proteomic profiling of its venom revealed the presence of proteins with homology to the A and B subunits of crotoxin/Mojave toxin, a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) complex only described in rattlesnake venoms (genera Crotalus and Sistrurus). The native crotoxin-like heterodimer, named nigroviriditoxin, and its A and B subunits were isolated in the present work, and the complete amino acid sequence of the B subunit was determined...
January 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ruben K Dagda, Sardar Gasanov, Ysidro De La Oiii, Eppie D Rael, Carl S Lieb
The metalloproteinase composition and biochemical profiles of rattlesnake venom can be highly variable among rattlesnakes of the same species. We have previously shown that the neurotoxic properties of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are associated with the presence of the Mojave toxin A subunit suggesting the existence of a genetic basis for rattlesnake venom composition. In this report, we hypothesized the existence of a genetic basis for intraspecies variation in metalloproteinase-associated biochemical properties of rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake...
2013: Biochemistry Research International
Darin R Rokyta, Kenneth P Wray, Mark J Margres
BACKGROUND: Snake venoms generally show sequence and quantitative variation within and between species, but some rattlesnakes have undergone exceptionally rapid, dramatic shifts in the composition, lethality, and pharmacological effects of their venoms. Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave (Crotalus scutulatus), South American (C. durissus), and timber (C. horridus) rattlesnakes, resulting in some populations with extremely potent, neurotoxic venoms without the hemorrhagic effects typical of rattlesnake bites...
2013: BMC Genomics
Shaun D Carstairs, Allyson A Kreshak, David A Tanen
BACKGROUND: Patients sustaining rattlesnake envenomation often develop thrombocytopenia, the etiology of which is not clear. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that venom from several species, including the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus), can inhibit platelet aggregation. In humans, administration of crotaline Fab antivenom has been shown to result in transient improvement of platelet levels; however, it is not known whether platelet aggregation also improves after antivenom administration...
May 2013: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Daniel J Massey, Juan J Calvete, Elda E Sánchez, Libia Sanz, Kelvin Richards, Ryan Curtis, Keith Boesen
Twenty-one Mojave rattlesnakes, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (C. s. scutulatus), were collected from Arizona and New Mexico U.S.A. Venom proteome of each specimen was analyzed using reverse-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE. The toxicity of venoms was analyzed using lethal dose 50 (LD(50)). Health severity outcomes between two Arizona counties U.S.A., Pima and Cochise, were determined by retrospective chart review of the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center (APDIC) database between the years of 2002 and 2009...
May 17, 2012: Journal of Proteomics
Sarah R Hoggan, Amy Carr, Karen A Sausman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and case management of a dog that developed ascending flaccid paralysis after being envenomated by a Southern Pacific rattlesnake. CASE SUMMARY: A dog was presented after it was bitten by a Southern Pacific rattlesnake. Only mild local edema and a minor coagulapathy developed, which is atypical for the Southern Pacific envenomation where hemotoxic effects are more commonly observed. Instead, a severe, rapidly progressing, ascending flaccid paralysis leading to acute respiratory failure, consistent with Mojave toxin, was seen...
October 2011: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Juan J Calvete, Alicia Pérez, Bruno Lomonte, Elda E Sánchez, Libia Sanz
We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7-8 gene products from 6 toxin families; the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA(2), Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66 and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1-2 PIII-SVMPs each represent 0...
February 3, 2012: Journal of Proteome Research
E Magnanou, J R Malenke, M D Dearing
The ability of herbivores to switch diets is thought to be governed by biotransformation enzymes. To identify potential biotransformation enzymes, we conducted a large-scale study on the expression of biotransformation enzymes in herbivorous woodrats (Neotoma lepida). We compared gene expression in a woodrat population from the Great Basin that feeds on the ancestral diet of juniper to one from the Mojave Desert that putatively switched from feeding on juniper to feeding on creosote. Juniper and creosote have notable differences in secondary chemistry, and thus, should require different biotransformation enzymes for detoxification...
June 2009: Molecular Ecology
Jennifer D Jurado, Eppie D Rael, Carl S Lieb, Ernesto Nakayasu, William K Hayes, Sean P Bush, Jeremy A Ross
Complement inactivating properties were detected in venom from the southern California distribution of Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake). This activity showed strong geographic bias to the San Bernardino Mountain range, and venom from this area reacted strongly with Fraction 5 antiserum (AF5). However, venoms from the San Jacinto Mountain range, which have been previously shown to contain Mojave toxin, did not inhibit complement and did not react with AF5. AF5 has been previously shown to recognize a protease in C...
March 1, 2007: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Elda E Sánchez, Jacob A Galán, Randy L Powell, Steven R Reyes, Julio G Soto, William K Russell, David H Russell, John C Pérez
Venom from the Mohave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, has been reported to be either: (1) neurotoxic; (2) hemorrhagic, or both (3) neurotoxic and hemorrhagic. In this study, 14 Mohave rattlesnakes from Arizona and Texas (USA) were analyzed for the presence of disintegrins and Mojave toxin. All venom samples were analyzed for the presence of hemorrhagic, proteolytic and disintegrin activities. The venoms were each chromatographed by reverse phase and their fractions tested for disintegrin activity...
June 2005: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Wendy J French, William K Hayes, Sean P Bush, Michael D Cardwell, Julia O Bader, Eppie D Rael
Mojave toxin (MT) was detected in five of 25 Crotalus helleri (Southern Pacific rattlesnake) sampled using anti-MT antibodies and nucleotide sequence analysis. All of the venoms that were positive for MT were collected from Mt San Jacinto in Riverside Co., California. Since this population is geographically isolated from C. scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake), it is unlikely that this finding is due to recent hybridization. MT concentration differences between C. helleri and C. s. scutulatus reflected the presence of 'isoforms' of the toxin in the venom...
December 1, 2004: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
R W Nelson, J R Krone, A L Bieber, P Williams
A new, general method of immunoassay is demonstrated. The approach is based on the microscale immunoaffinity capture of target antigens followed by mass-specific identification and quantitation using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Immunoaffinity capture of antigens effectively overcomes signal suppression effects typically encountered during traditional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis of complex biological mixtures while simultaneously concentrating the analyte into a small volume...
April 1, 1995: Analytical Chemistry
Viviana Arce, Ermila Rojas, Charlotte L Ownby, Gustavo Rojas, José María Gutiérrez
Polyvalent (Crotalinae) and anticoral (Elapidae) antivenoms produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Costa Rica, were assessed for their ability to neutralize various toxic activities of the venoms of North American snakes of the genera Crotalus, Agkistrodon and Micrurus, in assays involving preincubation of venom and antivenom. When the intraperitoneal route of injection was utilized, polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom was effective in the neutralization of the venoms of Crotalus atrox, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus viridis viridis, Crotalus horridus atricaudatus, Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix and Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus, whereas the venom of Crotalus scutulatus was not neutralized...
June 2003: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
A M Mangione, D Dearing, W Karasov
We studied the relationship between the use of three detoxification pathways and urine pH and the tolerance of desert woodrats from two populations to a mixture of naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites (mostly phenolics) in resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). The two populations of desert woodrats came from the Mojave desert (Mojave woodrats), where woodrats consume creosote bush, and from the Great Basin desert (Great Basin woodrats), where the plant species is absent. We fed woodrats alfalfa pellets containing increasing levels of the phenolic resin and measured three detoxification pathways and urine pH that are related to detoxification of allelochemicals...
December 2001: Journal of Chemical Ecology
B J Wooldridge, G Pineda, J J Banuelas-Ornelas, R K Dagda, S E Gasanov, E D Rael, C S Lieb
The venom composition of Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) differs in that some individuals have Mojave toxin and others do not. In order to understand the genetic basis for this difference, genomic DNA samples from Mojave rattlesnakes collected in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences that relate to the acidic (Mta) and basic (Mtb) subunits of this toxin. DNA samples were subjected to PCR to amplify nucleotide sequences from second to fourth exons of the acidic and basic subunits...
September 2001: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
G Faure, C Villela, J Perales, C Bon
Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes possess a protein in their blood, named crotoxin inhibitor from Crotalus serum (CICS), which protects them against crotoxin, the main toxin of their venom. CICS neutralizes the lethal potency of crotoxin and inhibits its phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the specificity of CICS towards snake venom neurotoxic PLA2s (beta-neurotoxins) and nontoxic mammalian PLA2s. This investigation shows that CICS does not affect the enzymatic activity of pancreatic and nonpancreatic PLA2s, bee venom PLA2 and Elapidae beta-neurotoxins but strongly inhibits the PLA2 activity of Viperidae beta-neurotoxins...
August 2000: European Journal of Biochemistry
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