keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Saxitoxin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735058/exposure-assessment-to-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-through-the-shellfish-consumption-in-korea
#1
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705145/paralytic-shellfish-toxin-producing-aphanizomenon-gracile-strains-isolated-from-lake-iznik-turkey
#2
Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J Foss, Andrew I Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy
Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) in Europe, North America and Asia. Three cyanobacteria strains were isolated in Lake Iznik in northwestern Turkey. Morphological characterization of these strains suggested all three strains conformed to classical taxonomic identification of A...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621672/oyster-transcriptome-response-to-alexandrium-exposure-is-related-to-saxitoxin-load-and-characterized-by-disrupted-digestion-energy-balance-and-calcium-and-sodium-signaling
#3
Audrey M Mat, Christophe Klopp, Laura Payton, Céline Jeziorski, Morgane Chalopin, Zouher Amzil, Damien Tran, Gary H Wikfors, Hélène Hégaret, Philippe Soudant, Arnaud Huvet, Caroline Fabioux
Harmful Algal Blooms are worldwide occurrences that can cause poisoning in human seafood consumers as well as mortality and sublethal effets in wildlife, propagating economic losses. One of the most widespread toxigenic microalgal taxa is the dinoflagellate Genus Alexandrium, that includes species producing neurotoxins referred to as PST (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins). Blooms cause shellfish harvest restrictions to protect human consumers from accumulated toxins. Large inter-individual variability in toxin load within an exposed bivalve population complicates monitoring of shellfish toxicity for ecology and human health regulation...
March 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597338/dose-response-modelling-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-psp-in-humans
#4
Nathalie Arnich, Anne Thébault
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted to identify reported cases of human poisoning associated with the ingestion of shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Raw data were collected from 143 exposed individuals (113 with symptoms, 30 without symptoms) from 13 studies...
March 28, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576658/insights-in-the-determination-of-saxitoxin-with-fluorogenic-crown-ethers-in-water
#5
Bernhard J Müller, Günter Mistlberger, Ingo Klimant
In this contribution, we present new insights and a critical discussion in the optical detection of saxitoxin using fluorophores with crown ethers. Fluorescence enhancement is caused by the reduction of photoinduced electron transfer upon complexation with the analyte. Our attempts to improve this detection method neither did yield a functioning sensor nor were the attempts to reproduce published data in this area successful. Due to the fact that only low concentrations of saxitoxin are available, multiple surrogates were investigated at high concentrations...
2018: Monatshefte Für Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495385/fatal-canine-intoxications-linked-to-the-presence-of-saxitoxins-in-stranded-marine-organisms-following-winter-storm-activity
#6
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495289/algal-blooms-and-cyanotoxins-in-jordan-lake-north-carolina
#7
Daniel Wiltsie, Astrid Schnetzer, Jason Green, Mark Vander Borgh, Elizabeth Fensin
The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions), but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β- N -methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina...
February 24, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426529/potentiometric-chemical-sensors-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins
#8
Nádia S Ferreira, Marco G N Cruz, Maria Teresa S R Gomes, Alisa Rudnitskaya
Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins have been developed. Four toxins typically encountered in Portuguese waters, namely saxitoxin, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, gonyautoxin GTX5 and C1&C2, were selected for the study. A series of miniaturized sensors with solid inner contact and plasticized polyvinylchloride membranes containing ionophores, nine compositions in total, were prepared and their characteristics evaluated. Sensors displayed cross-sensitivity to four studied toxins, i...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390180/chemistry-of-a-unique-polyketide-like-synthase
#9
Stephanie W Chun, Meagan E Hinze, Meredith A Skiba, Alison R H Narayan
Like many complex natural products, the intricate architecture of saxitoxin (STX) has hindered full exploration of this scaffold's utility as a tool for studying voltage-gated sodium ion channels and as a pharmaceutical agent. Established chemical strategies can provide access to the natural product; however, a chemoenzymatic route to saxitoxin that could provide expedited access to related compounds has not been devised. The first step toward realizing a chemoenzymatic approach toward this class of molecules is the elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic pathway...
February 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356586/fate-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii-during-cooking-concentration-composition-and-distribution
#10
Alison Turnbull, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, D Tim Harwood, Thomas Madigan
Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing microalgal blooms have a significant economic impact on the Southern Rock Lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) fishery in Tasmania, Australia. The regulatory level of 0.8 mg of saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg in place for bivalve shellfish fisheries is applied to lobster hepatopancreas during blooms of toxic algae, resulting in harvest closures and ongoing risk management implications for the fishery. This cooking study was undertaken to inform a human health risk assessment, in conjunction with studies on the uptake and elimination of PST in J...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333869/quantitation-of-saxitoxin-in-human-urine-using-immunocapture-extraction-and-lc-ms
#11
William A Bragg, Alaine Garrett, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rebecca M Coleman, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott, Rudolph C Johnson
AIM: An immunomagnetic capture protocol for use with LC-MS was developed for the quantitation of saxitoxin (STX) in human urine. MATERIALS & METHODS: This method uses monoclonal antibodies coupled to magnetic beads. STX was certified reference material grade from National Research Council, Canada. Analysis was carried out using LC-MS. RESULTS: With an extraction efficiency of 80%, accuracy and precision of 93.0-100.2% and 5.3-12.6%, respectively, and a dynamic range of 1...
February 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316695/difference-in-uptake-of-tetrodotoxin-and-saxitoxins-into-liver-tissue-slices-among-pufferfish-boxfish-and-porcupinefish
#12
Yuji Nagashima, Akira Ohta, Xianzhe Yin, Shoichiro Ishizaki, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Doi, Toshiaki Ishibashi
Although pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in the liver, some species of pufferfish, boxfish of the family Ostraciidae, and porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae do not. To clarify the mechanisms, uptake of TTX and saxitoxins (STXs) into liver tissue slices of pufferfish, boxfish and porcupinefish was examined. Liver tissue slices of the pufferfish (toxic species Takifugu rubripes and non-toxic species Lagocephalus spadiceus , L. cheesemanii and Sphoeroides pachygaster ) incubated with 50 µM TTX accumulated TTX (0...
January 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306392/effects-of-increased-zooplankton-biomass-on-phytoplankton-and-cyanotoxins-a-tropical-mesocosm-study
#13
Juliana Dos Santos Severiano, Viviane Lúcia Dos Santos Almeida-Melo, Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Mathias Ahii Chia, Ariadne do Nascimento Moura
Zooplankton are important biocontrol agents for algal blooms in temperate lakes, while their potential in tropical and subtropical environments is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increased zooplankton biomass on phytoplankton community and cyanotoxins (microcystins and saxitoxin) content of a tropical reservoir (Ipojuca reservoir, Brazil) using in situ mesocosms. Mesocosms consisted of 50L transparent polyethylene bags suspended in the reservoir for twelve days...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247940/cyanotoxins-as-the-common-suspects-for-the-dalmatian-pelican-pelecanus-crispus-deaths-in-a-mediterranean-reconstructed-reservoir
#14
T Papadimitriou, M Katsiapi, K Vlachopoulos, A Christopoulos, C Laspidou, M Moustaka-Gouni, K Kormas
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have been implicated for their negative consequences on many terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Water birds belong to the most common members of the freshwater food chains and are most likely to be affected by the consumption of toxic cyanobacteria as food. However, the contribution of cyanotoxins in bird mortalities is under-studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the likely role of cyanotoxins in a mass mortality event of the Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) in the Karla Reservoir, in Greece...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228856/uncovering-the-proteome-response-of-murine-neuroblastoma-cells-against-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin
#15
Xiao Chen, Ye Sun, Haiyan Huang, Wei Liu, Panpan Hu, Xinfeng Huang, Fei Zou, Jianjun Liu
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton causes paralytic shellfish poisoning syndrome. The toxicity and mode of action of the acute exposure of high-dose saxitoxin have been intensively studied for decades; however, the potential risk of exposure of low-dose saxitoxin remained to be uncovered. Here we present a proteomics study of murine neuroblastoma N2A cell with low-dose saxitoxin exposure (1 nM and 10 nM, 24-h intoxication). Differential proteins were profiled by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
December 11, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195146/fast-and-quantitative-determination-of-saxitoxin-and-neosaxitoxin-in-urine-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-based-on-the-cleanup-of-solid-phase-extraction-with-hydrophilic-interaction-mechanism
#16
Xiao-Min Xu, Bai-Fen Huang, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Zeng-Xuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Qing Chen, Jian-Long Han
Saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) are water-soluble toxins and their cleanup in bio-matrix is a hot topic but difficult problem. A fast and quantitative determination method for STX and NEO in urine was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based on the cleanup of solid phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mechanism. Acetonitrile/methanol/water mixture was used to extract the toxins in urine. Polyamide (PA) was used as HILIC SPE material to clean the toxins in sample matrix...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151643/cyanobacteria-nostoc-punctiforme-from-abyssal-benthos-of-lake-baikal-unique-ecology-and-metabolic-potential
#17
Irina Tikhonova, Anton Kuzmin, Diana Deeva, Ekaterina Sorokovikova, Sergey Potapov, Anna Lomakina, Olga Belykh
A strain of Nostoc punctiforme was isolated from the bottom sediments of the oil seep at Gorevoy Utes (Central Baikal) at a depth of 890 m. The Baikal strain is highly similar (98-99%) to the N. punctiforme CCAP 1453/9 strain and the typical N. punctiforme PCC 73103 strain isolated from soil ecotopes. Based on the analysis of functional genes and mass spectrometry data, we determined that the strain can produce bioactive peptides and polyketides, but does not produce known cyanobacterial toxins, saxitoxin or its analogs, or microcystins...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128272/cytoprotection-of-lipoic-acid-against-toxicity-induced-by-saxitoxin-in-hippocampal-cell-line-ht-22-through-in-silico-modeling-and-in-vitro-assays
#18
Patrícia Ramos, Marcos Schmitz, Sibele Gama, Aline Portantiolo, Michael Gonzalez Durruthy, Ana Paula de Souza Votto, Luisa Rodrigues Cornetet, Karina Dos Santos Machado, Adriano Werhli, Mariana Zancan Tonel, Solange Binotto Fagan, João Sarkis Yunes, José Maria Monserrat
Saxitoxins (STXs) are potent neurotoxins that block voltage-gated channels in neurons and induce cytotoxicity. These toxins not only can generate reactive oxygen species but also can alter antioxidant levels, promoting oxidative stress. Under this pro-oxidant situation, the use of the antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) can represent a chemoprotective alternative to minimize the deleterious effects induced by neurotoxins as STXs. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a well-known ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that plays a crucial role in the extrusion of toxic substances, decreasing their accumulation and potential intracellular effects in virtue of its broad substrate specificity, its expression in many excretory tissues and its large efflux capacity...
January 15, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100123/comparative-studies-of-saxitoxin-stx-induced-cytotoxicity-in-neuro-2a-and-rtg-2-cell-lines-an-explanation-with-respect-to-changes-in-ros
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zhongyuan Zhou, Xuexi Tang, Hongmei Chen, You Wang
Saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) produced from toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellates, was selected to comparatively investigate the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and a possible mechanism based on changes in the antioxidant defence system of two cellular strains: the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a and the rainbow trout fish cell line RTG-2. Increasing concentrations of STX (0-256 nM) presented little cytotoxic or apoptotic effects on the two cell lines. Measurements of cellular viability, lethal ratio and LDH leakage showed slight changes in Neuro-2a and RTG-2 cells (p > 0...
February 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079725/complementary-mechanisms-for-neurotoxin-resistance-in-a-copepod
#20
Vittoria Roncalli, Petra H Lenz, Matthew C Cieslak, Daniel K Hartline
Toxin resistance is a recurring evolutionary response by predators feeding on toxic prey. These adaptations impact physiological interaction and community ecology. Mechanisms for resistance vary depending on the predator and the nature of the toxin. Potent neurotoxins like tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) that are highly toxic to humans and other vertebrates, target conserved voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV ) of nerve and muscle, causing paralysis. The copepod Calanus finmarchicus consumes the STX-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense with no effect on survival...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
21000
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"