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Yu Zhu, Yingxin Gu, Shichong Qiao, Linyi Zhou, Junyu Shi, Hongchang Lai
Microorganisms are frequently introduced to dental implants during surgery and start the race for the surface with host cells before osseointegration occurs. The aim of the study was to endow implant surfaces with biological functions that reliably select cells over microbes. Nano-structured tantalum (Ta) has exhibited excellent compatibility. Thus, nano-structured Ta films were deposited on the sand-blasted, large grit and acid-etched (SLA) titanium by the magnetron sputtering method, thus forming hierarchical micro/nanostructured surfaces...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Carrie D Patnode, Michelle L Henninger, Caitlyn A Senger, Leslie A Perdue, Evelyn P Whitlock
Importance: Although 80% of infants in the United States start breastfeeding, only 22% are exclusively breastfed up to around 6 months as recommended by a number of professional organizations. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of breastfeeding interventions to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 2008 recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO for studies published in the English language between January 1, 2008, and September 25, 2015...
October 25, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Gema Rebolleda, Beatriz Puerto, Victoria de Juan, Marta Gómez-Mariscal, Francisco José Muñoz-Negrete, Alfonso Casado
Purpose: We investigated the early effects of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) on optic nerve head (ONH) morphology. Methods: All of the participants underwent applanation tonometry and enhanced depth imaging by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography immediately before injection, and within 5 and 30 minutes after IAI. Changes in the anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth, prelaminar tissue thickness (PTT), optic cup width, optic cup depth, and Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) were assessed...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Romain Da Costa, Carsten Röger, Jasmin Segelken, Maya Barben, Christian Grimm, John Neidhardt
Purpose: Gene therapies to treat eye disorders have been extensively studied in the past 20 years. Frequently, adeno-associated viruses were applied to the subretinal or intravitreal space of the eye to transduce retinal cells with nucleotide sequences of therapeutic potential. In this study we describe a novel intravitreal injection procedure that leads to a reproducible adeno-associated virus (AAV)2/8-mediated transduction of more than 70% of the retina. Methods: Prior to a single intravitreal injection of a enhanced green fluorescent protien (GFP)-expressing viral suspension, we performed an aspiration of vitreous tissue from wild-type C57Bl/6J mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matthew J Klebanoff, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Jacob D Nudel, Kathleen E Corey, Lee M Kaplan, Chin Hur
Importance: Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. Design, Setting, and Patients: A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Ahmad A Abdul-Aziz, Rodney A Hayward, Keith D Aaronson, Scott L Hummel
Importance: US hospitals receive financial penalties for excess risk-standardized 30-day readmissions and mortality in Medicare patients. Under current policy, readmission prevention is incentivized over 10-fold more than mortality reduction. Objective: To determine how penalties for US hospitals would change if policy equally weighted 30-day readmissions and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Publicly available hospital-level data for fiscal year 2014 was obtained, including excess readmission ratio (ERR; risk-standardized predicted over expected 30-day readmissions) and 30-day mortality rates for heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction, as well as readmission penalties (as percent of Medicare Diagnosis Group payments)...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Cherif Akladios, Jean-Jacques Baldauf, Frederic Marchal, Michel Hummel, Laure-Emilie Rebstock, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Thierry Petit, Karolina Afors, Carole Mathelin, Lise Lecointre, Stéphanie Schrot-Sanyan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the overall survival (OS) of patients with initially inoperable advanced ovarian cancer, tubal carcinoma, or primary peritoneal carcinoma of stages III or IV undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by cytoreductive surgery, according to the number of cycles performed. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in three main oncology centres in the east of France, reviewing the charts of all patients who underwent NAC between January 1, 1998 and October 31, 2012...
October 27, 2016: Oncology
Ekkehard Grünig, Nicola Benjamin, Tobias J Lange, Ulrich Krueger, Hans Klose, Claus Neurohr, Heinrike Wilkens, Michael Halank, Hans-Jürgen Seyfarth, Matthias Held, Andrew Traube, Michelle Pernow, E Robert Grover, Benjamin Egenlauf, Felix Gerhardt, Thomas Viethen, Stephan Rosenkranz
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous treprostinil has dose-dependent beneficial effects in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, but adverse effects like infusion site pain can lead to treatment discontinuation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate safety, tolerability and clinical effects of a rapid up-titration dosing regimen of subcutaneous treprostinil using proactive infusion site pain management. METHODS: Effects of rapid up-titration dosing regimen on tolerability and clinical parameters were evaluated in this 16-week, open-label multi-centre study...
October 27, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Anders Fytagoridis, Mattias Åström, Jennifer Samuelsson, Patric Blomstedt
BACKGROUND: The caudal zona incerta (cZi) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) are an emerging deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for essential tremor (ET). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of tremor control in relation to the anatomical locations of stimulation fields in 50 patients with ET and DBS of the cZi. METHODS: A total of 240 contacts were evaluated separately with monopolar stimulation, and amplitudes were optimized for improvement of tremor and hand function...
October 27, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
Jonatan Leffler, Zoltán Prohászka, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Katarzyna Ciacma, Péter Farkas, Marienn Réti, Kata Kelen, György S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can stimulate thrombosis, and their degradation is decreased in several autoimmune disorders. It was recently reported that some patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) also fail to degrade NETs and that neutrophils from Shiga toxin-associated HUS are primed to form NETs. METHOD: We used a well-characterized cohort of 74 thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients, with a subset also providing follow-up samples, and 112 age-matched controls to investigate NET degradation and serum nuclease activity in TMA before, during and after treatment...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Kwangwoo Park, Sungjin Park, Mi-Jin Jeon, Jinhyun Choi, Jun Won Kim, Yoon Jin Cho, Won-Seok Jang, Yo Sup Keum, Ik Jae Lee
The 3D-printed boluses were used during the radiation therapy of the chest wall in six patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). We measured the in-vivo skin doses while both conventional and 3D-printed boluses were placed on the chest wall and compared the mean doses delivered to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The homogeneity and conformity of the dose distribution in the chest wall for both types of boluses were also evaluated. The uniformity index on the chest skin was improved when the 3D-printed boluses were used, with the overall average skin dose being closer to the prescribed one in the former case (-0...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Jian Xie, Yan Feng, Ting Lin, Xiao-Yu Huang, Rui-Huan Gan, Yong Zhao, Bo-Hua Su, Lin-Can Ding, Lin She, Jiang Chen, Li-Song Lin, Xu Lin, Da-Li Zheng, You-Guang Lu
The cadherin-4 gene (CDH4) of the cadherin family encodes non-epithelial R-cadherin (R-cad); however, the function of this gene in different types of cancer remains controversial. In this study, we found higher expression of CDH4 mRNA in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line with low metastatic potential (SACC-83) than in a cell line with high metastatic potential (SACC-LM). By analyzing 67 samples of SACC tissues and 40 samples of paraneoplastic normal tissues, we found R-cad highly expressed in 100% of normal paraneoplastic tissue but only expressed in 64% of SACC tumor tissues (P<0...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Justin T Clapp, Jody A Roberts, Britt Dahlberg, Lee Sullivan Berry, Lisa M Jacobs, Edward A Emmett, Frances K Barg
Research on community responses to environmental toxicity has richly described the struggles of citizens to identify unrecognized toxins, collect their own environmental health facts, and use them to lobby authorities for recognition and remediation. Much of this literature is based on an empiricist premise: it is concerned with exploring differences in how laypeople and experts perceive what is presumed to be a singular toxic reality that preexists these varying perspectives. Here, we seek to reexamine this topic by shifting the focus from facts to facticity-that is, by exploring the many types of knowledge that communities develop about toxicity and how these knowledges articulate with the ideas of scientific and governmental authorities about what kinds of information are valid bases for policymaking...
October 20, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Tomasz Molcan, Sylwia Swigonska, Karina Orlowska, Kamil Myszczynski, Anna Nynca, Agnieszka Sadowska, Monika Ruszkowska, Jan Pawel Jastrzebski, Renata E Ciereszko
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are widespread by-products of human industrial activity. They accumulate in tissues of animals and humans, exerting numerous adverse effects on different systems. In living organisms, dioxins are metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family, including CYP1A1. Particular dioxin congeners differ in their toxicity level and ability to undergo biodegradation. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying dioxin susceptibility or resistance to biodegradation are unknown, in the present study the molecular interactions between five selected dioxins and porcine CYP1A1 protein were investigated...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Thomas Tischer, Melina Schuh
Mammalian oocytes are stored in the ovary, where they are arrested in prophase for prolonged periods. The mechanisms that abrogate the prophase arrest in mammalian oocytes and reinitiate meiosis are not well understood. Here, we identify and characterize an essential pathway for the resumption of meiosis that relies on the protein phosphatase DUSP7. DUSP7-depleted oocytes either fail to resume meiosis or resume meiosis with a significant delay. In the absence of DUSP7, Cdk1/CycB activity drops below the critical level required to reinitiate meiosis, precluding or delaying nuclear envelope breakdown...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Luning Chen, Huiqi Li, Wen-Wen Zhan, Zhenming Cao, Jiayu Chen, Qiaorong Jiang, Ya-Qi Jiang, Zhaoxiong Xie, Qin Kuang, Lan-Sun Zheng
For new composite materials with functional nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in metal organic frameworks (MOFs), rational design as well as precise control over their architectures are imperative for achieving enhanced performance and novel functions. Especially in catalysis, the activity and selectivity of such composite materials are strongly determined by the encapsulation state and thickness of the MOF shell, which greatly influences the diffusion and adsorption of substance molecules onto the NP surface. In this study, MOF-74(Ni)-encapsulated Rh-Ni hierarchical heterostructures (Rh-Ni@MOF-74(Ni)) were successfully constructed using magnetic Rh-Ni-alloyed nanoflowers (NFs) as a self-sacrificial template...
October 26, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Katherine A Muratore, Heather M Grundhofer, Edgar A Arriaga
Macroautophagy is a cellular degradation process responsible for the clearance of excess intracellular cargo. Existing methods for bulk quantification of autophagy rely on organelle markers that bind to multiple autophagy organelle types, making it difficult to tease apart the subcellular mechanisms implicated in autophagy dysfunction in liver and other pathologies. To address this issue, methods based on individual organelle measurements are needed. Capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescent detection (CE-LIF) was previously used to count and determine properties of individual autophagy organelles isolated from an LC3-GFP expressing cell line, but has never been used on autophagy organelles originating from a tissue sample...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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