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Mental health

Kathryn L Humphreys, Lucy S King, Peter Choi, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Parent-child interactions set the stage for child mental health and development. Given that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with poorer observed caregiving behaviors, examining potential cognitive mediators is important for identifying mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of risk and possible targets for intervention. METHODS: We assessed depressive symptoms and levels of self-focus and psychological distancing from infant-centered verbal narratives obtained from 54 mothers, and examined caregiving behaviors in a structured interaction with their six-month-old infants...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Eleonora Iob, Clemens Kirschbaum, Andrew Steptoe
INTRODUCTION: While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health...
June 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sepali Guruge, Kenneth Po-Lun Fung, Souraya Sidani, David Este, Marina Morrow, Kwame McKenzie, Josephine Pui-Hing Wong
BACKGROUND: The available evidence on interventions addressing the stigma of mental illness is limited because of small samples, lack of diversity in study samples, and exclusion of people living with mental illness. To date, no published studies have evaluated anti-stigma interventions for Asian men in Canada. Aim This paper describes the protocol of a study to evaluate psychological and collective empowerment interventions (ACT, CEE, and ACT+CEE) in addressing self-stigma and social stigma in Asian communities in three urban settings in Canada: Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver...
June 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Yuki Yoshikawa, Junji Uchida, Chiharu Akazawa, Nobuhiko Suganuma
Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among kidney transplant recipients is associated with physical and psychosocial characteristics. Furthermore, pregnancy and childcare may be particularly challenging for women. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between patients' psychosocial characteristics and HRQOL, specifically for recipients who have given birth after their kidney transplant. Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Alain Chamoux, Céline Lambert, Audrey Vilmant, Charlotte Lanhers, Raymond Agius, Mounir Boutaleb, Vincent Bonneterre, Geraldine Naughton, Bruno Pereira, Khalid Djeriri, Eric Ben-Brik, Christine Breton, Caroline De Clavière, Corinne Letheux, Anne-Gaëlle Paolillo, Madeleine Valenty, Odile Vandenberghe, Marie-Pierre Aeschlimann, Gérard Lasfargues, Francois-Xavier Lesage, Frédéric Dutheil
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders in the workplace are a major public health problem. Knowledge of the impact of the psychosocial work environment on mental and behavioral disorders can assist occupational physicians in the identification and description of occupational risk situations, and help to define priority actions. However, no classification for occupational exposure factors is currently available. We aimed to build a thesaurus of "Organizational, Relational, Ethical and other Contributing Factors" (FOREC) linked with the onset of mental and behavioral disorders...
2018: PloS One
James Stanley, Elinor Millar, Kelly Semper, Cheryl Davies, Anthony Dowell, Dee Mangin, Ross Lawrenson, Diana Sarfati
AIMS: To describe the experiences of people living with multimorbidity in New Zealand. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults with multimorbidity enrolled in two primary health organisations in New Zealand. Potential participants with multimorbidity were identified using retrospective hospital discharge data coded for long-term conditions. Sampling was stratified by ethnicity (Māori, Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific). Analysis was descriptive, with some responses compared to the general population estimates from the New Zealand Health Survey...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Beth A Evans, Claudia J Beverly, Pao-Feng Tsai, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Leanne L Lefler, Rachida F Parks
Adoption of electronic personal health records by older adults offers multiple advantages to healthcare and is being encouraged by federal agencies and health associations. However, obstacles have limited older adults' rates of adoption to approximately 10%. This study examined the initial proficiency of older adults at entering 21 standard health elements into an electronic personal health record. Entry completeness, accuracy, elapsed time, and help requests were measured. A combination of standard technology adoption model and older adult characteristics accounted for 52% of variability in proficiency at entering electronic personal health record data...
June 21, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Zainab Ahmadi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom globally. It is associated with major adverse health outcomes. This review provides an overview of new evidence about the prevalence of chronic breathlessness in the population. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE database including studies on prevalence of chronic breathlessness and its impact on the community published between 2016 and 2018. Identified studies were divided into four themes: breathlessness in relation to sex, BMI, quality of life and age (the elderly)...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Lilian Assunção Felippe, Pedro Rippel Salgado, Diego de Souza Silvestre, Suhaila Mahmoud Smaili Santos, Gustavo Christofoletti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 6-month exercise program on cognition and mobility in participants with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Prospective, single blind, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: A community rehabilitation program within a large metropolitan health service. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight patients with multiple sclerosis, referred for outpatient rehabilitation. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were allocated to one of two groups and undertook a cognitive-motor exercise program or monitoring (control group)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
J Reid Meloy
The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for threat assessment of the individual terrorist. It is a rationally derived theoretical model comprising eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Empirical research on the TRAP-18 is reviewed, including both nomothetic and idiographic studies of individual terrorists in both the United States and Europe. Mean interrater reliability is 0.895 (Cohen's kappa), ranging from 0.69 to 1...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Robert P Archer
The incidents of mass violence that have occurred in the United States have been deeply disturbing to the public as well as to mental health professionals. The public, the media, as well as our patients, family members, and friends have reached out to mental health professionals in the hope that we can provide an understanding of these events that might serve to reduce their frequency in the future. This article explores how we can best respond to these requests, including the current limitations of psychologists in the prediction of mass violence...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
D E Smith, I J Woolley, D B Russell, F Bisshop, V Furner
As treatment improves, people living with HIV (PLWHIV) can now expect to live longer, which means that the foci of HIV-related care for them and their medical practitioners continue to change. With an increasingly older cohort of patients with HIV infection, practitioners' key considerations are shifting from issues of acute treatment and patient survival to multiple comorbidities, toxicities associated with chronic therapy, and ongoing health maintenance. Within this context, this paper explores the current standard of practice for the management of HIV infection in Australia...
August 2018: HIV Medicine
Alanna C Bridgman, Panteha Eshtiaghi, Amanda Cresswell-Melville, Michele Ramien, Aaron M Drucker
OBJECTIVES: Although atopic dermatitis (AD) has significant impacts on quality of life, data from Canada on the subject are limited. This survey aims to assess the burden of moderate to severe AD on quality of life and disease management for pediatric patients and their caregivers in Canada. METHODS: The Eczema Society of Canada conducted an online national cross-sectional survey in English and French. We included children with self-reported moderate to severe AD...
July 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Bao Dong, Dandan Yu, Qiongqiong Ren, Dongdong Zhao, Jie Li, Ye-Huan Sun
The resilience has become the main trend of the left-behind children's (LBC) mental health research. To evaluate the resilience status of Chinese LBC in rural areas, a meta-analysis was performed. Relevant studies were identified using electronic databases from 1990 to 2017. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated with fixed and random effects models. A total of 14 cross-sectional studies with 9777 individuals were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed there was significant difference in the aspects of family support and RSCA (Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents) total score between LBC and non-left-behind children (NLBC)...
June 21, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Jacqueline Liggett, Martin Sellbom
The current study evaluated the continuity between the diagnostic operationalizations of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, both as traditionally operationalized and from the perspective of the alternative model of personality disorders. Using both self-report and informant measures, the study had the following four aims: (a) to examine the extent to which self-report and informant data correspond, (b) to investigate whether both self-report and informant measures of the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, (c) to determine if any traits additional to those proposed in the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, and (d) to investigate whether a measure of OCPD-specific impairment is better at predicting traditional OCPD than are measures of general impairment in personality functioning...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
John E Pachankis, Timothy J Sullivan, Nora F Moore
While existing research documents the impact of parental rejection on sexual minorities, the present study extends this research to include a subtler, yet potentially more pervasive, challenge facing sexual minorities and their parents, with lasting implications for mental health. Parental unfinished business refers to persistent, unresolved negative thoughts and feelings toward one's parents and is investigated here as a result of parental rejection of their sexual minority sons' sexual orientation. To capture developmental trajectories of parental unfinished business and its prospective predictors (i...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Christina N Caiozzo, Kristen Yule, John Grych
Children who witness violence are at risk for developing a range of developmental problems, including deficits in understanding and regulating. The ability to adaptively manage emotions is associated with children's mental health and their social and academic competence; however, little is known about how parents of at-risk youth can foster the healthy development of emotion regulation. The current study aimed to identify specific parenting practices associated with adaptive emotion regulation in at-risk preschoolers...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Carla L Storr, Maria C Viana, Laura H Andrade, Arthur G Andrade
We investigated the dimensionality and possible measurement bias of ICD-11 Nicotine Dependence (ND) criteria in a sample of smokers from a middle-income country. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Project (part of World Mental Health Surveys) collected between 2005 and 2007 (n = 5,037). The current analyses were restricted to the 1,388 participants who smoked at least once a week for 2 months in their lifetime. Item response theory (IRT) was used to investigate the severity and discrimination properties of 8 selected criteria...
June 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Emma M Parrish, Nancy S Kim, Kristen A Woodberry, Michelle Friedman-Yakoobian
AIM: Schizophrenia is a highly stigmatized disorder. Identification of youth at high risk for psychosis has the potential for improved outcomes. However, identifying youth at risk could subject them to increased public stigma. Using an experimental vignette design, this study examined relative levels of public stigma elicited by the labels "schizophrenia," "clinical high risk (CHR)," "attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS)," a label implying normative adolescent development ("a bad breakup"), and a no-label control condition...
June 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Petr Winkler, Tomáš Formánek, Karolína Mladá, Pavla Cermakova
OBJECTIVES: The CZEch Mental health Study (CZEMS) was launched to inform the ongoing mental health care reform. This paper describes rationale, methods, and the plan for the future analyses of this project. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of the general adult noninstitutionalized population of the Czech Republic was conducted. Two-stage sampling was utilized and respondents were interviewed by centrally trained staff using a paper and pencil interviewing...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
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