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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352392/impact-of-dexamethasone-concentration-on-cartilage-tissue-formation-from-human-synovial-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro
#1
Ryota Chijimatsu, Masato Kobayashi, Kosuke Ebina, Toru Iwahashi, Yosuke Okuno, Makoto Hirao, Atsunori Fukuhara, Norimasa Nakamura, Hideki Yoshikawa
Human synovial mesenchymal stem cells (hSMSCs) are a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration because of their superior chondrogenic potential in vitro. This study aimed to further optimize the conditions for inducing chondrogenesis of hSMSCs, focusing on the dose of dexamethasone in combination with transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3) and/or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). When hSMSCs-derived aggregates were cultured with TGFβ3, dexamethasone up to 10 nM promoted chondrogenesis, but attenuated it with heterogeneous tissue formation when used at concentrations over than 100 nM...
January 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352372/improving-pet-quantification-of-small-animal-68ga-dota-labeled-pet-ct-studies-by-using-a-ct-based-positron-range-correction
#2
Jacobo Cal-Gonzalez, Juan José Vaquero, Joaquín L Herraiz, Mailyn Pérez-Liva, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Santiago Peña-Zalbidea, Manuel Desco, José Manuel Udías
PURPOSE: Image quality of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers that emits high-energy positrons, such as Ga-68, Rb-82, or I-124, is significantly affected by positron range (PR) effects. PR effects are especially important in small animal PET studies, since they can limit spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of the images. Since generators accessibility has made Ga-68 tracers wide available, the aim of this study is to show how the quantitative results of [68Ga]DOTA-labeled PET/X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of neuroendocrine tumors in mice can be improved using positron range correction (PRC)...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352300/5-aminosalicylic-acid-improves-lipid-profile-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-through-its-dual-effects-on-intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#3
Zheng Wang, Debby Koonen, Marten Hofker, Zhijun Bao
Obesity is associated with a series of metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that lack effective therapies. In recent years, intestinal inflammation has been suggested to contribute to obesity related metabolic syndrome and targeting gut inflammation with 5-ASA improves diet induced IR, however, its role in dyslipidemia is unknown and has never been explored. In the present study, we reported for the first time that administration of 5-ASA for 12 weeks significantly improved lipid profile by repressing plasma triglycerides and free cholesterol levels in mice fed high-fat cholesterol diet (HFC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352292/rna-seq-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-reveals-alterations-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
For Yue Tso, Andrew V Kossenkov, Salum J Lidenge, Owen Ngalamika, John R Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Eun Hee Kwon, John T West, Paul M Lieberman, Charles Wood
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352177/photonic-spin-hall-effect-enabled-refractive-index-sensor-using-weak-measurements
#5
Xinxing Zhou, Lijuan Sheng, Xiaohui Ling
In this work, we theoretically propose an optical biosensor (consists of a BK7 glass, a metal film, and a graphene sheet) based on photonic spin Hall effect (SHE). We establish a quantitative relationship between the spin-dependent shift in photonic SHE and the refractive index of sensing medium. It is found that, by considering the surface plasmon resonance effect, the refractive index variations owing to the adsorption of biomolecules in sensing medium can effectively change the spin-dependent displacements...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352169/chaski-a-novel-drosophila-lactate-pyruvate-transporter-required-in-glia-cells-for-survival-under-nutritional-stress
#6
María Graciela Delgado, Carlos Oliva, Estefanía López, Andrés Ibacache, Alex Galaz, Ricardo Delgado, L Felipe Barros, Jimena Sierralta
The intercellular transport of lactate is crucial for the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), a model of brain energetics according to which neurons are fueled by astrocytic lactate. In this study we show that the Drosophila chaski gene encodes a monocarboxylate transporter protein (MCT/SLC16A) which functions as a lactate/pyruvate transporter, as demonstrated by heterologous expression in mammalian cell culture using a genetically encoded FRET nanosensor. chaski expression is prominent in the Drosophila central nervous system and it is particularly enriched in glia over neurons...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352113/polo-like-kinase-4-mediates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-neuroblastoma-via-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#7
Xiangdong Tian, Dejun Zhou, Lu Chen, Yao Tian, Benfu Zhong, Yanna Cao, Qiuping Dong, Meng Zhou, Jie Yan, Yalei Wang, Yanli Qiu, Lianmin Zhang, Zhongyuan Li, Huijuan Wang, Daowei Wang, Guoguang Ying, Qiang Zhao
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common malignant tumor in infancy and most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. With the improvement of diagnosis and treatment, the survival rate of patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk NB can reach up to 90%. In contrast, for high-risk NBs, the long-term survival rate is still <40% because of heterogeneity of this tumor. The pathogenesis of NB is still not explicit, therefore it is of great significance to explore the mechanism of NB tumorigenesis and discover new therapeutic targets for NB...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352003/gene-expression-signatures-characterized-by-longitudinal-stability-and-interindividual-variability-delineate-baseline-phenotypic-groups-with-distinct-responses-to-immune-stimulation
#8
Adam D Scheid, Virginia P Van Keulen, Sara J Felts, Steven C Neier, Sumit Middha, Asha A Nair, Robert W Techentin, Barry K Gilbert, Jin Jen, Claudia Neuhauser, Yuji Zhang, Larry R Pease
Human immunity exhibits remarkable heterogeneity among individuals, which engenders variable responses to immune perturbations in human populations. Population studies reveal that, in addition to interindividual heterogeneity, systemic immune signatures display longitudinal stability within individuals, and these signatures may reliably dictate how given individuals respond to immune perturbations. We hypothesize that analyzing relationships among these signatures at the population level may uncover baseline immune phenotypes that correspond with response outcomes to immune stimuli...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351920/exceptional-response-to-pembrolizumab-in-a-metastatic-chemotherapy-radiation-resistant-ovarian-cancer-patient-harboring-a-cd274-pd-l1-genetic-rearrangement
#9
Stefania Bellone, Natalia Buza, Jungmin Choi, Luca Zammataro, Laurie Gay, Julia A Elvin, David L Rimm, Yuting Liu, Elena Ratner, Peter E Schwartz, Alessandro D Santin
PURPOSE: Ovarian carcinoma no longer responsive to surgery and chemotherapy remains an incurable disease. Alternative therapeutic options remain desperately needed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We describe a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient with recurrent disease experiencing a remarkable clinical response to treatment with the anti-PD1 immune check-point inhibitor pembrolizumab. The clinical, pathological, and genomic characteristics of this exceptional ovarian cancer responder were carefully investigated using immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative multiplex fluorescence methods (ie, automated quantitative analysis, AQUA) and whole exome sequencing (WES) techniques...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351812/a-hybrid-protein-containing-msp1a-repeats-and-omp7-omp8-and-omp9-epitopes-protect-immunized-balb-c-mice-against-anaplasmosis
#10
Alex Sander R Cangussu, Luis André M Mariúba, Pritesh Lalwani, Keila Dayane E S Pereira, Spartaco Astolphi-Filho, Patricia P Orlandi, Sabrina Epiphanio, Kelvison F Viana, Mucio Flavio B Ribeiro, Hidelberto M Silva, Claudio R F Marinho, Paulo A Nogueira
Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) has a remarkable impact on livestock production, and an effective vaccine is not currently available due to the inexistence of a small animal model. Recently, BALB/c mice were successfully infected with A. marginale, resulting in an acute and persistent anaplasmosis infection. Here, we designed a hybrid protein containing repeats of polypeptide 1a from major surface protein-1 complex (MSP1a) repeats and common epitopes of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OMP7, OMP8 and OMP9 expressed in Escherichia coli...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351649/sex-dependent-interactions-between-leptin-wasting-and-humoral-immunity-in-two-ethnic-communities-of-school-aged-children-differentially-exposed-to-schistosoma-haematobium
#11
Emmanuel Hermann, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa S Sow, Modou Seck, Andre B Sagna, Simon Senghor, Lydie Bandagny, Clement Brinkhuizen, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Anne-Marie Schacht, Gilles Riveau
Background: Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three villages in northern Senegal. Ninety-eight school-aged children belonging to the Fulani or Wolof villages were enrolled. We performed parasitic diagnosis and anthropometric measurement to evaluate nutritional status...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351619/repairing-folding-defective-%C3%AE-sarcoglycan-mutants-by-cftr-correctors-a-potential-therapy-for-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2d
#12
Marcello Carotti, Justine Marsolier, Michela Soardi, Elisa Bianchini, Chiara Gomiero, Chiara Fecchio, Sara F Henriques, Romeo Betto, Roberta Sacchetto, Isabelle Richard, Dorianna Sandonà
Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D) is a rare autosomal-recessive disease, affecting striated muscle, due to mutation of SGCA, the gene coding for α-sarcoglycan. Nowadays more than 50 different SGCA missense mutations have been reported. They are supposed to impact folding and trafficking of α-sarcoglycan because the defective polypeptide, although potentially functional, is recognized and disposed of by the quality control of the cell. The secondary reduction of α-sarcoglycan partners, β-, γ- and δ-sarcoglycan, disrupts a key membrane complex that, associated to dystrophin, contributes to assure sarcolemma stability during muscle contraction...
January 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351512/physiology-of-astroglia
#13
Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes are neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that provide for homeostasis and defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in morphological appearance; they express a multitude of receptors, channels, and membrane transporters. This complement underlies their remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS in development and aging. Astrocytes are tightly integrated into neural networks and act within the context of neural tissue; astrocytes control homeostasis of the CNS at all levels of organization from molecular to the whole organ...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351442/measurements-of-pulmonary-gas-exchange-efficiency-using-expired-gas-and-oximetry-results-in-normal-subjects
#14
John B West, Daniel L Wang, Gordon Kim Prisk
We are developing a novel, noninvasive method for measuring the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in patients with lung disease. The patient wears an oximeter, and we measure the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inspired and expired gas using miniature analyzers. The arterial PO2 is then calculated from the oximeter reading and the oxygen dissociation curve, using the end-tidal PCO2 to allow for the Bohr effect. This calculation is only accurate when the oxygen saturation is below 94% and therefore these normal subjects breathed 12...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351323/fire-forbids-fifty-fifty-forest
#15
Egbert H van Nes, Arie Staal, Stijn Hantson, Milena Holmgren, Salvador Pueyo, Rafael E Bernardi, Bernardo M Flores, Chi Xu, Marten Scheffer
Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351309/a-modified-elliptical-formula-to-estimate-kidney-collagen-content-in-a-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Jake A Nieto, Janice Zhu, Bin Duan, Jingsong Li, Ping Zhou, Latha Paka, Michael A Yamin, Itzhak D Goldberg, Prakash Narayan
The extent of scarring or renal interstitial collagen deposition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can only be ascertained by highly invasive, painful and sometimes risky, tissue biopsy. Interestingly, while CKD-related abnormalities in kidney size can often be visualized using ultrasound, not only does the ellipsoid formula used today underestimate true renal size, but the calculated renal size does not inform tubulointerstitial collagen content. We used coronal kidney sections from healthy mice and mice with kidney disease to develop a new formula for estimating renal parenchymal area...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351264/identification-of-cyclic-dipeptides-from-escherichia-coli-as-new-antimicrobial-agents-against-ralstonia-solanacearum
#17
Shihao Song, Shuna Fu, Xiuyun Sun, Peng Li, Ji'en Wu, Tingyan Dong, Fei He, Yinyue Deng
Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have high efficacy in the control of bacterial wilt. Three new bacterial strains with high antimicrobial activity against R. solanacearum GMI1000 were isolated and identified. Our results demonstrated that these bacteria could remarkably inhibit the disease index of host plant infected by R...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351259/dietary-fatty-acids-alter-lipid-profiles-and-induce-myocardial-dysfunction-without-causing-metabolic-disorders-in-mice
#18
Bainian Chen, Yifan Huang, Dong Zheng, Rui Ni, Mark A Bernards
Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets (40% caloric intake from SFA), including a beef tallow (HBD), cocoa butter (HCD), milk fat (HMD) and palm oil diet (HPD), for 6 months. An isocaloric fat diet, containing medium-chain triglycerides, served as a control (CHD)...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351235/quadrilateral-micro-hole-array-machining-on-invar-thin-film-wet-etching-and-electrochemical-fusion-machining
#19
Woong-Kirl Choi, Seong-Hyun Kim, Seung-Geon Choi, Eun-Sang Lee
Ultra-precision products which contain a micro-hole array have recently shown remarkable demand growth in many fields, especially in the semiconductor and display industries. Photoresist etching and electrochemical machining are widely known as precision methods for machining micro-holes with no residual stress and lower surface roughness on the fabricated products. The Invar shadow masks used for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) contain numerous micro-holes and are currently machined by a photoresist etching method...
January 19, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351208/preservation-method-and-phosphate-buffered-saline-washing-affect-the-acute-myeloid-leukemia-proteome
#20
Rebecca Wangen, Elise Aasebø, Andrea Trentani, Stein-Ove Døskeland, Øystein Bruserud, Frode Selheim, Maria Hernandez-Valladares
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primary cells can be isolated from peripheral blood, suspended with media containing bovine serum and cryoprotectant, and stored in liquid nitrogen before being processed for proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). The presence of bovine serum and human blood proteins in AML samples can hamper the identifications of proteins, and thereby reduce the proteome coverage of the study. Herein, we have established the effect of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) washing on AML patient samples stored in media...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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