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Zhulan Gu, Shumin Li, Zhiping Xiong, Hui Xu, Fei Gao, Yukou Du
Bimetallic nanocatalysts with small particle size benefit from markedly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability during small molecule oxidation. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize binary Pt-Ru nanoparticles dispersed on a carbon support at an optimum temperature. Because of its monodispersed nanostructure, synergistic effects were observed between Pt and Ru and the PtRu/C electrocatalysts showed remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. The peak current density of the Pt1 Ru1 /C electrocatalyst is 3731 mA mg-1 , which is 9...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Marc Sorel, Naaman Zrek, Blanche Locko, Catherine Armessen, Samar S Ayache, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in glutamate/GABA balance of intracortical excitability produced by ketamine, delivered at subanaesthetic dose to treat patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). METHODS: In 19 patients with CRPS, we assessed the effect of a 5-day ketamine protocol on various clinical aspects, including pain and depression, and on cortical excitability parameters provided by transcranial magnetic stimulation testing. RESULTS: The rest motor threshold (RMT) and the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials at 120% of RMT were not modified after ketamine therapy...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Eric J Warrant
For over half a century, the multitudinous mirror eyes of the lowly scallop have continuously amazed us with their visual eccentricities. The latest surprise is the mirror itself, which turns out to be an extraordinary optical wonder.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Andrea Knöller, Stefan Kilper, Achim Diem, Marc Widenmeyer, Tomce Runcevski, Robert E Dinnebier, Joachim Bill, Zaklina Burghard
The demand to outperform current technologies pushes scientists to develop novel strategies to enable fabricating materials with exceptional properties. Along this line, lightweight structural materials are of great interest due to their versatile applicability as sensors, catalysts, battery electrodes and acoustic or mechanical dampers. Here we report a strategy to design ultralight (ρ = 3 mg/cm3) and hierarchically structured ceramic scaffolds of macroscopic size. Such scaffolds exhibit mechanical reversibility comparable to that of microscopic metamaterials, leading to a macroscopically remarkable dynamic mechanical performance...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Lei Hu, Feiyu Qin, Andrea Sanson, Liang-Feng Huang, Zhao Pan, Qiang Li, Qiang Sun, Lu Wang, Fangming Guo, Umut Aydemir, Yang Ren, Chengjun Sun, Jinxia Deng, Giuliana Aquilanti, James M Rondinelli, Jun Chen, Xianran Xing
The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unusual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal ex-pansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an iso-tropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engineered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Josef Parvizi, Kapil Gururangan, Babak Razavi, Chris Chafe
OBJECTIVE: The traditional approach to interpreting electroencephalograms (EEGs) requires physicians with formal training to visually assess the waveforms. This approach can be less practical in critical settings where a trained EEG specialist is not readily available to review the EEG and diagnose ongoing subclinical seizures, such as nonconvulsive status epilepticus. METHODS: We have developed a novel method by which EEG data are converted to sound in real time by letting the underlying electrophysiological signal modulate a voice tone that is in the audible range...
March 20, 2018: Epilepsia
Luis Cruz-Piris, Diego Rivera, Ivan Marsa-Maestre, Enrique de la Hoz, Juan R Velasco
Internet growth has generated new types of services where the use of sensors and actuators is especially remarkable. These services compose what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). One of the biggest current challenges is obtaining a safe and easy access control scheme for the data managed in these services. We propose integrating IoT devices in an access control system designed for Web-based services by modelling certain IoT communication elements as resources. This would allow us to obtain a unified access control scheme between heterogeneous devices (IoT devices, Internet-based services, etc...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Hitoshi Ono, Yasunari Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Yoshikazu Abe, Takuro Endo, Mamoru Kobayashi
1. The pharmacokinetic and metabolite profiles of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 inhibitor designed to act only in the intestine, were investigated in rats. 2. Mizagliflozin administrated intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) and orally (3 mg/kg) declined with a short half-life (0.23 and 1.14 h, respectively). The absolute bioavailability was only 0.02%. Following intravenous administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (0.3 mg/kg), radioactivity in plasma was also rapidly declined. Up to 24 h after oral administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (1 mg/kg), radioactivity was recovered in the faeces (98...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Ning Lu, Zhiwen Zhuo, Hongyan Guo, Ping Wu, Wei Fa, Xiaojun Wu, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with direct and modest bandgap and ultrahigh carrier mobility are highly desired functional materials for nanoelectronic applications. Herein, we predict that monolayer CaP3 is a new 2D functional material that possesses not only a direct bandgap of 1.15 eV (based on HSE06 computation), and also a very high electron mobility up to 19930 cm2 V-1 s-1, comparable to that of monolayer phosphorene. More remarkably, contrary to the bilayer phosphorene which possesses dramatically reduced carrier mobility compared to its monolayer counterpart, CaP3 bilayer possesses even higher electron mobility (22380 cm2 V-1 s-1) than its monolayer counterpart...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Noam Brown, Jiangtao Lei, Chendi Zhan, Linda J W Shimon, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Guanghong Wei, Ehud Gazit
Self-assembly is a process of key importance in natural systems and in nanotechnology. Peptides are attractive building blocks due to their relative facile synthesis, biocompatibility and other unique properties. Diphenylalanine (FF) and its derivatives are known to form nanostructures of various architectures and remarkable characteristics. The larger triphenylalanine (FFF) was found to self-assemble as efficiently as FF, forming related but distinct architectures of plate-like and spherical nanostructures...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Lan Hui, Dianzeng Jia, Huidi Yu, Yurui Xue, Yuliang Li
We employed a two-step strategy for preparing ultrathin graphdiyne-wrapped iron carbonate hydroxide nanosheets on nickel foam (FeCH@GDY/NF) as the efficient catalysts toward the electrical splitting water. The introduction of naturally porous GDY nanolayers on FeCH surface endows the pristine catalyst with structural advantages for boosting catalytic performances. Benefited from the protection of robust GDY nanolayers with intimate contact between GDY and FeCH, the combined material exhibits high long-term durability of 10 000 cycles for oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) and 9000 cycles for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 1...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Massimo Zimbone, Annalinda Contino, Giuseppe Maccarrone, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Josè Josè Lo Faro, Lucia Calcagno
The stability of silver nanoplatelet suspensions prepared with different concentrations of Trisodium Citrate (TSC) was studied by depolarized dynamic light scattering and UV-vis spectrometry. The morphology of the nanoparticles, as well as the color and stability of the sols, are tuned by the concentration of the capping agent. The nanoparticles prepared with high TSC concentration (> 10-4 M) are blue triangular nanoplatelets showing a slight truncation of the tips with aging. When low TSC concentrations are used, the color of the sols changes from blue to yellow with aging time and a strong modification of the morphology occurs: the nanoparticle shape changes from triangular to spherical...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Huan Liu, Gang Wang, Wei Li, Xingzhong Liu, Erwei Li, Wen-Bing Yin
Trichoderma hypoxylon is a fungicolous species which produces rich secondary metabolites. However, no genetic transformation method is available for further studies. Here, we developed a marker-less transformation system based on the complementation of an uridine/uracil biosynthetic gene by protoplast transformation. An uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutant of Δthpyr4 was obtained by using a positive screening protocol with 5'-fluoroorotic acid as a selective reagent. To improve the homologous integration rates, the orthologues of ku70 and lig4 which play critical roles in non-homologous end-joining recombination were disrupted...
March 19, 2018: Microbiology
Kim Ngan Tran, Jong-Il Choi
PURPOSE: To study gene expression modulation in response to continuous whole-body exposure to low-dose-rate gamma radiation and improve our understanding of the mechanism of this impact at the molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: cDNA microarray method with complete pooling of samples was used to study expression changes in the transcriptome profile of livers from rats treated with prolonged low-dose-rate ionizing radiation relative to that of sham-irradiated rats...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Guozhu Chen, Yong Wang, Yunwei Wei, Wei Zhao, Daowei Gao, Hongxiao Yang, Cuncheng Li
Noble metal nanoparticle based catalysts are widely used for the removal of hazardous materials. During the catalytic reactions, it is of particular importance for developing novel strategies to avoid the leaching or sintering of noble metal nanoparticles. Here, the 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and CO, typical hazardous chemicals in industrial water and exhaust gases from vehicles, are studied for their removal using CeO2@Au@CeO2-MnO2 catalyst. The sandwich hollow structure is achieved by means of successive interfacial redox reaction without any surfactants and involving any surface modifications...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juyoung Yoo, Seung Min Jung, Jason Jungsik Song, Yong-Beom Park, Sang-Won Lee
We investigated the development rate and time, risk factors, predictors, and aetiologies of hospitalised infection in Korean patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 154 patients with AAV. Hospitalised infection was considered only when patients were admitted for serious infection related to AAV or AAV treatment. The gap-time was defined as the period from diagnosis to the first hospitalised infection or to the last visit for uninfected patients...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Wei-Jian Xu, Ying Zeng, Wei Yuan, Rong-Guan Qiu, Wei-Xiong Zhang, Xiao-Ming Chen
We disclosed that acetamidinium perchlorate is a plastic crystal undergoing a near-room-temperature plastic transition. Thanks to drastic symmetry breaking during the plastic transition, it displays remarkable nonlinear optical switching with a high on/off contrast and a superior reversibility, as well as rapid dielectric switching between the high and low dielectric states.
March 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Qianjun Li, Gang Ma, Huimin Guo, Suhua Sun, Ying Xu, Bingjian Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Down-regulation of the growth arrest specific transcript 5 (GAS5) (long non-coding RNA) is associated with cell proliferation of gastric cancer (GC) and a poor prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether the variant rs145204276 of GAS5 is associated with the prognosis of GC in the Chinese population, and to unveil the regulatory mechanism underlying the GAS5 expression in GC tissues. METHOD: 1,253 GC patients and 1,354 healthy controls were included...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Erin V Thomas
Through semi-structured interviews with 36 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) who assist mothers with breastfeeding, this study takes a systematic look at breastfeeding disparities. Specifically, this study documents race-based discrimination against patients in the course of lactation care and links the implicit bias literature to breastfeeding disparities. IBCLCs report instances of race-based discrimination against patients such as unequal care provided to patients of color and overt racist remarks said in front of or behind patient's backs...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Forouzan Mohamadi, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Akbar Ahmadi, Jafar Ai
Regeneration of peripheral nerve defects remained a remarkable clinical challenge. Engineered nerve conduits represent a promising strategy to improve functional recovery in peripheral nerve injury repair. However, nerve conduits require additional factors such as neurotrophic factors to create a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Neurotrophic factors have well-demonstrated abilities to improve neurite outgrowth, making them great candidates for repairing of defected nerves. To this end, we examined the beneficial effects of repairing the transected rat sciatic nerve by loading of nerve growth factor (NGF) in nerve conduits...
March 20, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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