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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545248/ephedra-treated-donor-derived-gut-microbiota-transplantation-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#1
Jing-Hua Wang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kyungsun Han, Hojun Kim
Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545148/mitochondrial-genome-evolution-in-alismatales-size-reduction-and-extensive-loss-of-ribosomal-protein-genes
#2
Gitte Petersen, Argelia Cuenca, Athanasios Zervas, Gregory T Ross, Sean W Graham, Craig F Barrett, Jerrold I Davis, Ole Seberg
The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545019/circulating-soluble-programmed-death-1-levels-may-differentiate-immune-tolerant-phase-from-other-phases-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-other-clinical-diseases-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#3
Na Li, Zhihua Zhou, Fang Li, Jiao Sang, Qunying Han, Yi Lv, Wenxuan Zhao, Chunyan Li, Zhengwen Liu
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is involved in the immune dysfunction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study analyzed the association of circulating soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) levels with the phases and clinical diseases in chronic HBV infection. Serum sPD-1 levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with different phases and liver diseases of chronic HBV infection. The sPD-1 levels in patients with chronic HBV infection were significantly elevated compared with HBV infection resolvers or healthy controls...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545018/fixed-differences-in-the-3-utr-of-buffalo-prnp-gene-provide-binding-sites-for-mirnas-post-transcriptional-regulation
#4
Hui Zhao, Siqi Wang, Lixia Guo, Yanli Du, Linlin Liu, Tengfei Ma, Newton O Otecko, Canpeng Li, Yaping Zhang
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, a member of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, has not been reported in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. Prion protein (PrP), encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP), is fundamental in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. We previously showed that buffaloes express more PrP proteins but lower PRNP mRNA than cattle in several pivotal tissues like the obex. Therefore, we sought to establish whether genetic variability in PRNP 3'UTR, mediated by miRNA down-regulation, causes PrP expression differences between cattle and buffaloes...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544836/aortic-valve-replacement-with-the-labcor-tlpb-supra%C3%A2-porcine-bioprosthesis-intermediate-clinical-and-echocardiographic-outcomes
#5
Markus Schlömicher, Zulfugar Taghiyev, Yazan Al-Jabery, Peter Lukas Haldenwang, Leif Markthaler, Vadim Moustafine, Axel Maria Laczkovics, Justus Thomas Strauch, Matthias Bechtel
BACKGROUND: The Labcor TBLP Supra™ prosthesis is a second-generation tissue valve that has evolved from the Labcor TBLP™ prosthesis, first introduced in 1984. The Supra prosthesis is a triple-composite porcine valve, with no specific anticalcification treatment being used in its production other than standard tissue fixation with 0.4% glutaraldehyde. To date, more than 100,000 Supra valves have been implanted, mainly in South America. Despite this remarkably high number of implants, only marginal data exist concerning durability and safety issues...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544652/brownmillerite-type-ca2fecoo5-as-a-practicable-oxygen-evolution-reaction-catalyst
#6
Etsushi Tsuji, Teruki Motohashi, Hiroyuki Noda, Damian Kowalski, Yoshitaka Aoki, Hajime Tanida, Junji Niikura, Yukinori Koyama, Masahiro Mori, Hajime Arai, Tsutomu Ioroi, Naoko Fujiwara, Yoshiharu Uchimoto, Zempachi Ogumi, Hiroki Habazaki
Here, we report remarkable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalytic activity of brownmillerite (BM)-type Ca2FeCoO5. The OER activity of this oxide is comparable to or beyond those of the state-of-the-art perovskite (PV)-catalyst Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) and a precious-metal catalyst RuO2, emphasizing the importance of the characteristic BM structure with multiple coordination environments of transition metal (TM) species. Also, Ca2FeCoO5 is obviously advantageous in terms of expense/laboriousness of the material synthesis...
May 25, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544598/from-extended-nano-fluidics-to-an-autonomous-solar-light-driven-micro-fuel-cell-device
#7
Yuriy Pihosh, Jin Uemura, Ivan Turkevych, Kazuma Mawatari, Yutaka Kazoe, Adelina Smirnova, Takehiko Kitamori
Autonomous micro/nano mechanical, chemical and biomedical sensors require persistent power sources scaled to their size. Realization of autonomous micro-power sources is a challenging task, as it requires combination of wireless energy supply, conversion, storage and delivery to the sensor. In this work, we realized solar light driven power source that consists of a micro fuel cell (μFC) and a photocatalytic micro fuel generator (μFG) integrated on a single microfluidic chip. The μFG produces hydrogen by photocatalytic water splitting under solar light...
May 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544419/photo-induced-cyclization-of-o-alkylbenzoyl-phosphonates-to-benzocyclobutenols
#8
Naoki Ishida, Takaaki Yano, Tatsuya Yuhki, Masahiro Murakami
(o-Alkylbenzoyl)phosphonates readily cyclize to highly strained benzocyclobutenols simply upon irradiation with UV light. The remarkable efficiency is ascribed to the electron-accepting character of the phosphonate substituent, which facilitates thermal ring closing of the o-quinodimethane intermediate and suppresses reversion to the starting carbonyl compound.
May 23, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544285/salmonella-typhi-genomics-envisaging-the-future-of-typhoid-eradication
#9
REVIEW
Kien-Pong Yap, Kwai Lin Thong
Next-generation whole genome sequencing has revolutionized the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of S. typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S...
May 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544255/a-new-polyoxometalate-pom-based-composite-%C3%AF-fabrication-through-pom-assisted-polymerization-of-dopamine-and-properties-as-anode-materials-for-high-performance-lithium-ion-battery
#10
Yan-Hong Ding, Jun Peng, Shifa-Ullah Khan, Yue Yuan
Organic substrates are indispensable to fabricate multi-functional polyoxometalate (POM)-based composites for various application fields. A new Molybdovanadophosphoric heteropolyacid (PMo10V2)-based polydopamine (PDA) composite (PMo10V2/PDA) has been firstly synthesized through a facile in-situ polymerization method under hydrothermal conditions without adding extra buffer solution. The obtained PMo10V2/PDA composite shows homogeneous microsphere morphology. By utilizing the adhesive ability of PDA, the composite can be used as an anode material without additional binder for rechargeable lithium ion batteries...
May 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544205/the-impact-of-a-structured-preoperative-protocol-on-day-of-surgery-cancellations
#11
Elina Turunen, Merja Miettinen, Leena Setälä, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of implementing an evidence-based, structured preoperative protocol on day of surgery cancellations in 13 operative specialties. BACKGROUND: Surgery cancellations cause unnecessary harm for patients and organizations since many cancellations could be prevented. Preoperative care has developed in recent years, and several preoperative interventions have been introduced. However, the optimal model for organizing preoperative care remains unknown...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544196/analysis-of-transcriptional-and-epigenetic-changes-in-hybrid-vigor-of-allopolyploid-brassica-napus-uncovers-key-roles-for-small-rnas
#12
Yifei Shen, Shuo Sun, Shuijin Hua, Enhui Shen, Chu-Yu Ye, Daguang Cai, Michael P Timko, Qian-Hao Zhu, Longjiang Fan
Heterosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon characterized by the superior performance of a hybrid compared to its parents. The underlying molecular basis for heterosis, particularly for allopolyploids, remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of Brassica napus parental lines and their F1 hybrids at three stages of early flower development. Phenotypically, the F1 hybrids show remarkable heterosis in silique number and grain yield. Transcriptome analysis revealed that various phytohormones (auxin and salicylic acid) response genes are significantly altered in the F1 hybrids relative to the parental lines...
May 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544098/crystal-structure-of-the-sensor-domain-of-baes-from-serratia-marcescens-fs14
#13
Ya Zhang, Shenshen Qiu, Shanshan Jia, Dongqing Xu, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang
The sensor histidine kinases of two-component signal-transduction systems (TCSs) are essential for bacteria to adapt to variable environmental conditions. The two-component regulatory system BaeS/R increases multidrug and metal resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In this study, we report the X-ray structure of the periplasmic sensor domain of BaeS from Serratia marcescens FS14. The BaeS sensor domain (34-160) adopts a mixed α/β-fold containing a central four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet flanked by a long N-terminal α-helix and additional loops and a short C-terminal α-helix on each side...
May 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543724/predicting-binding-modes-of-reversible-peptide-based-inhibitors-of-falcipain-2-consistent-with-structure-activity-relationships
#14
Jorge Enrique Hernández González, Lilian Hernández Alvarez, Pedro Geraldo Pascutti, Pedro Alberto Valiente
Falcipain-2 (FP-2) is a major hemoglobinase of Plasmodium falciparum, considered an important drug target for the development of antimalarials. A previous study reported a novel series of twenty reversible peptide-based inhibitors of FP-2. However, the lack of tridimensional structures of the complexes hinders further optimization strategies to enhance the inhibitory activity of the compounds. Here we report the prediction of the binding modes of the aforementioned inhibitors to FP-2. A computational approach combining previous knowledge on the determinants of binding to the enzyme, docking and post-docking refinement steps, is employed...
May 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543655/public-practices-and-personal-perspectives
#15
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
I once heard John Arras, who was one of bioethics' bright lights and, toward the end of his life, a member of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, remark that it is hard for an ethics commission not to "do paint-by-numbers ethics." What I think Arras had in mind is an approach that, in the set of essays that make up this special report, Rebecca Dresser describes as a listing of "general, often relatively uncontroversial" moral positions to support largely procedural recommendations...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543083/afferent-and-efferent-projections-of-the-anterior-cortical-amygdaloid-nucleus-in-the-mouse
#16
Bernardita Cádiz-Moretti, María Abellán-Álvaro, Cecília Pardo-Bellver, Fernando Martínez-García, Enrique Lanuza
The anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) is a chemosensory area of the cortical amygdala that receives afferent projections from both the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. The role of this structure is unknown, partially due to a lack of knowledge of its connectivity. In this work, we describe the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the ACo by using fluorogold and biotinylated dextranamines as retrograde and anterograde tracers, respectively. The results show that the ACo is reciprocally connected with the olfactory system and basal forebrain, as well as with the chemosensory and basomedial amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542798/glut-1-receptor-expression-and-circulating-levels-of-fasting-glucose-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#17
L Pizzuti, D Sergi, Chiara Mandoj, B Antoniani, Francesca Sperati, Andrea Chirico, Luigi Di Lauro, Mario Valle, Alfredo Garofalo, Enrico Vizza, Gabriele Corrado, Federica Tomao, Massimo Rinaldi, Silvia Carpano, M Maugeri-Saccà, Laura Conti, Giovanna Digiesi, Paolo Marchetti, Ruggero De Maria, A Giordano, Maddalena Barba, Maria Antonietta Carosi, Patrizia Vici
In recent years, the poorly remarkable goals achieved in terms of patients' important outcomes for ovarian cancer have fueled our interest towards the study of its metabolic roots. Within this research pipeline, we assessed the association between the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, as expressed at the tumor tissue level, and circulating pre-surgical levels of fasting glucose in a case series including data from 40 patients with high FIGO stage serous ovarian cancer. Patients who provided data to the current analysis were randomly selected from a larger cohort...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542730/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-the-tumoral-suppressor-pten-to-modulate-pituitary-cell-growth
#18
Pablo Anibal Perez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Florencia Picech, Carolina Beatriz Guido, Liliana Del Valle Sosa, Ezequiel Grondona, Jorge Humberto Mukdsi, Ana Lucia De Paul, Alicia Ines Torres, Silvina Gutierrez
In this study, we focused on ERβ regulation in the adenohypophysis under different estrogenic milieu, by analyzing whether ER modulates the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression and its subcellular localization on anterior pituitary glands from Wistar rats and GH3 lactosomatotroph cells that over-expressed ERβ. ERβ was regulated in a cyclic manner, and underwent dynamic changes throughout the estrous cycle, with decreased ERβ+ cells in estrus and under E2 treatment, but increased in ovariectomized rats...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542701/two-separate-effects-contribute-to-regulatory-t-cell-defect-in-sle-patients-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#19
Nuno Costa, Oriana Marques, Sandra I Godinho, Cláudia Carvalho, Barbara Leal, Ana M Figueiredo, Carlos Vasconcelos, António Marinho, Maria F Moraes-Fontes, António Gomes da Costa, Cristina Ponte, Raquel Campanilho-Marques, Telma Cóias, Ana R Martins, João F Viana, Margarida Lima, Berta Martins, Constantin Fesel
FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are functionally deficient in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), characterized by reduced surface CD25 (the IL-2 receptor alpha chain). Low-dose IL-2 therapy is a promising current approach to correct this defect. To elucidate the origins of the SLE Treg phenotype, we studied its role through developmentally defined Treg subsets in 45 SLE patients, 103 SLE-unaffected first-degree relatives and 61 unrelated healthy control subjects, and genetic association with the CD25-encoding IL2RA locus...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542609/potent-and-selective-inhibition-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-engineered-ubiquitin-variants
#20
Wei Zhang, Ben A Bailey-Elkin, Robert C M Knaap, Baldeep Khare, Tim J Dalebout, Garrett G Johnson, Puck B van Kasteren, Nigel J McLeish, Jun Gu, Wenguang He, Marjolein Kikkert, Brian L Mark, Sachdev S Sidhu
The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks exemplify the continued threat of (re-)emerging viruses to human health, and our inability to rapidly develop effective therapeutic countermeasures. Many viruses, including MERS-CoV and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) encode deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes that are critical for viral replication and pathogenicity. They bind and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from cellular proteins to suppress host antiviral innate immune responses...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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