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Ryo Koda, Miho Honma, Kazuo Suzuki, Akio Kasai, Tetsuro Takeda, Ichiei Narita, Kazukiyo Yoshida
A 61-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the complaints of dizziness, severe nausea and abdominal discomfort after consuming approximately 50 g of the flowers of Rhododendron japonicum. On admission, hypotension and sinus bradycardia were evident. Symptoms including hypotension and bradycardia completely recovered within 12 hours following normal saline infusion and intravenous atropine. The ingestion of certain types of Rhododendron species can cause intoxication, referred to as "mad honey poisoning", due to the action of grayanotoxins...
2016: Internal Medicine
S Silici, Z Doğan, H Sahin, T Atayoğlu, B Yakan
The aim of the study is to evaluate the acute biochemical and histological changes in rat kidneys after treatment with grayanotoxin (GTX) of rhododendron honey (RH). A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into five groups of 12 rats each, one being a control group (group 1) and group 2 was treated with 0.015 mg/kg/bw of GTX standard preparation via intraperitoneal injection. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were given RH at doses of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 g/kg/bw, respectively, via oral gavage. Compared to the control group, significant increases were observed in glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels of the GTX-injected groups after 1 h...
February 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ali Aygun, Abdulkadir Gunduz, Suleyman Turedi, Suha Turkmen, Yunus Karaca, Faik Ahmet Ayaz, Su Youn Ahn, Suncheun Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intoxications related to "mad honey" are frequently encountered in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Intoxication is established on the basis of whether honey was consumed when history was taken at presentation. The search for a simple and reliable method for showing the grayanotoxins (GTXs) in mad honey in body fluids and in honey consumed by patients is still at the research stage. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate GTX levels in blood, urine, and honey consumed by patients with mad honey intoxication and to determine whether there is an association with clinical status...
March 2015: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Caitlin J Oliver, Samantha Softley, Sally M Williamson, Philip C Stevenson, Geraldine A Wright
Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i...
2015: PloS One
Huseyin Sahin, Oktay Yildiz, Sevgi Kolayli
The aims of this study were to determine grayanotoxin (GTX-III) toxin level in mad honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and examine the dynamic changes of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of rats that consumed mad honey. For the experimental animal study, 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 5 groups of 4 rats each, with one group being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2-5). Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were, respectively, given mad honey extract at doses of 0...
October 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Mengke Zhang, Yangyang Xie, Guanqun Zhan, Liang Lei, Penghua Shu, Yongli Chen, Yongbo Xue, Zengwei Luo, Qian Wan, Guangmin Yao, Yonghui Zhang
Eleven grayanane diterpenoids, 1-epi-grayanotoxin IV, 1-epi-grayanotoxin II, 6-deoxy-1-epi-grayanotoxin XVII, 6-deoxygrayanotoxin XVII, 16-acetylgrayanotoxin II, 3-oxograyanotoxin IX, 14-deoxygrayanotoxin VIII, 14-acetylisograyanotoxin II, rhodomicranols C-E, and a leucothane diterpenoid, rhodomicranol F, together with eleven known diterpenoids were isolated from leaves of Rhododendron micranthum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, with the absolute configurations of 1-epi-grayanotoxin IV and rhodomicranol C determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation, and the structures of 14-acetylisograyanotoxin II and known grayanotoxins IX and X confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
September 2015: Phytochemistry
Anja These, Dorina Bodi, Samuel Uecker, Katharina Reimers, Stefan Ronczka, Angelika Preiss-Weigert, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was applied for the detection of grayanotoxins (GrTx) in a contaminated honey sample. This sample was provided by a hospital due to a suspicion of intoxication after a patient had shown the typical symptoms of GrTx poisoning. Subsequent analysis proved the contamination with high amounts of GrTx and other toxins belonging to grayanane-type diterpenoids. This group of natural toxins is synthesised by the plant family Ericaceae and comprises more than 60 individual toxins, but only one compound is available as a reference standard...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ali Dur, Ertan Sonmez, Cemil Civelek, Kenan AhmetTurkdogan, Mehmet AkifVatankulu, Ozgur Sogut
Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations...
September 2014: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Ali Kemal Erenler
Mad honey poisoning occurs when honey containing grayanotoxin is digested. The most common clinical signs and symptoms of poisoning involve findings of digestive system irritation, severe bradycardia and hypotension and central nervous system reaction. In this review, we aimed to underline the cardiac effects of mad honey poisoning. We also aimed to raise the awareness of physicians about early diagnosis and treatment of this rare entity.
January 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Matthias Lechtenberg, Frauke Dierks, Jandirk Sendker, Andrea Louis, Hartwig Schepker, Andreas Hensel
For quantitative determination of grayanotoxin I (1) in plant material, a GC/MS method was developed after trimethylsilyl derivatisation of the analytes. Forskolin (5) was used as an internal standard for quantification. ICH-compliant method validation indicated sufficient specificity, precision, quantitation (15 µg/mL) and detection (5 µg/mL) limits. Regression analysis showed that a non-linear (polynomial) model was preferable to a linear one. For isolation of grayanotoxin I reference material from Rhododendron ponticum leaves, an efficient two-step fast centrifugal partition chromatography isolation protocol is described...
October 2014: Planta Medica
Serkan Emre Eroğlu, Oğuz Urgan, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Arzu Denizbaşı, Haldun Akoğlu
BACKGROUND: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as "mad honey" in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. AIMS: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis...
September 2013: Balkan Medical Journal
Karyn Bischoff, Mary C Smith, Samuel Stump
Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE)...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Silici Sibel, Yonar M Enis, Sahin Hüseyin, Atayoğlu A Timucin, Ozkok Duran
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhododendron honey, locally known as "mad honey", contains gryanotoksin (GTX) and thus induces toxic effects when consumed in large amounts. But, it is still popularly used for treating medical conditions such as high blood pressure or gastro-intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GTX on antioxidant parameters measured from rats fed with Rhododendron honey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of sixty Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into five groups of 12 rats each, one being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2 to 5)...
October 28, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anna Dampc, Maria Luczkiewicz
Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity...
June 2015: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Pinar Kuru, Merve Torun, Hande Melike Halac, Gozde Temiz, Ece Iskender, Tugba Karamahmutoglu, Medine Gulcebi Idrizoglu, Filiz Yilmaz Onat
Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups...
December 2014: Neurological Sciences
P Engel, R Blank, C Nalenz
A 52-year-old man with Turkish background presented with nausea, emesis, one experience of syncope with loss of consciousness for a few seconds, and documented sinus bradycardia. During monitoring, several phases of bradycardia were observed. After 24 h of monitoring, the patient was free of complaints. The patient's wife reported regular consumption of pontin honey. Because of the anamnesis and the typical characteristics, grayanotoxin poisoning was diagnosed. Typical symptoms of this poisoning are hypotension, bradycardia, syncope, and loss of consciousness...
September 2014: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Hwang Eui Cho, Su Youn Ahn, Dong-Woo Kim, Sang-Hee Woo, Seung-Hyeok Park, Kyunghwa Hwang, Dong-Cheul Moon, Suncheun Kim
A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of Grayanotoxin I (GTX I) and Grayanotoxin III (GTX III) in rat whole blood. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) and clindamycin as internal standard (IS) were extracted from rat blood via solid-phase extraction using PEP solid-phase extraction cartridges. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved on a Kinetex C18 (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) reversed-phase column using a gradient elution with the mobile phase of 1% acetic acid in water and methanol at a flow rate of 0...
December 2014: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Erin Jo Tiedeken, Jane C Stout, Philip C Stevenson, Geraldine A Wright
Bees visit flowers to collect nectar and pollen that contain nutrients and simultaneously facilitate plant sexual reproduction. Paradoxically, nectar produced to attract pollinators often contains deterrent or toxic plant compounds associated with herbivore defence. The functional significance of these nectar toxins is not fully understood, but they may have a negative impact on pollinator behaviour and health, and, ultimately, plant pollination. This study investigates whether a generalist bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, can detect naturally occurring concentrations of nectar toxins...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
Md Nazmul Islam, Md Ibrahim Khalil, Md Asiful Islam, Siew Hua Gan
There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium...
July 2014: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
H Uzun, H Narci, I Tayfur, K U Karabulut, O Karcioglu
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of adult patients with mad honey intoxication, with special emphasis on its effects on vital signs and blood glucose levels. METHODS: Patients admitted to the Emergency Department of urban hospital in the Black Sea region of Turkey over the 16-months study period due to mad honey intoxication were included. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, rhythm at ECG, heart rate, blood glucose levels and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed...
October 2013: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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