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Taeik Hwang, Eunyoung Noh, Ji Hye Jeong, Sung-Kwan Park, Dongwoo Shin, Hoil Kang
A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) method combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of grayanotoxins I and III in dietary supplements and homemade wine. Grayanotoxins I and III were successfully extracted using solid-phase extraction cartridges, characterized by LC-QTOF-MS, and quantitated by LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS calibration curves were linear over concentrations of 10-100 ng/mL (grayanotoxin I) and 20-400 ng/mL (grayanotoxin III)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aynur Sahin, Suha Turkmen, Nizamettin Guzel, Ahmet Mentese, Suleyman Turedi, Suleyman Caner Karahan, Esin Yulug, Selim Demir, Osman Aynaci, Orhan Deger, Abdulkadir Gunduz
OBJECTIVES: Delayed healing and non-union of fractures have a significant effect upon patient morbidity. Studies have therefore largely concentrated on accelerating fracture healing. This study was intended to compare the effect of "mad honey" and propolis on fracture healing using radiological and histopathological analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Femur fracture was surgically performed on 48 rats, followed by fixation. Animals were then divided into 8 groups: 2 control groups (15- and 30-day) and 6 treatment groups (15- and 30-day normal honey, 15- and 30-day "mad honey," and 15- and 30-day propolis)...
2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Hong Lak Choi, Kyung Hye Park, Jung Soo Park, Hye Young Choi, Hoon Kim, Sun Moon Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate grayanotoxin (GTX) levels in the blood of patients with GTX intoxication and in the consumed Rhododendron liqueur, and to determine whether there was an association between blood GTX level and the patient's clinical status. METHODS: In September 2015, six patients were concurrently presented to the emergency department with various toxicity symptoms, which occurred after the consumption of Rhododendron liqueur at the same toxin concentration...
November 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Prabha Nini Gupta, B Krishna Kumar, Praveen Velappan, M D Sudheer
We report the case of a patient who, ∼3 weeks after multiple bee stings, developed a prolonged heart block, syncope and cardiac arrest. This required a temporary pacemaker to be implanted, which was later replaced with a permanent pacemaker. An ECG taken following surgery for a fractured humerus 6 years earlier was reportedly normal. The patient had been a rubber tapper who walked ∼1.5 km/day, but after the bee attack he was no longer able to walk or get up from the bed without experiencing syncope...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Ryo Koda, Miho Honma, Kazuo Suzuki, Akio Kasai, Tetsuro Takeda, Ichiei Narita, Kazukiyo Yoshida
A 61-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the complaints of dizziness, severe nausea and abdominal discomfort after consuming approximately 50 g of the flowers of Rhododendron japonicum. On admission, hypotension and sinus bradycardia were evident. Symptoms including hypotension and bradycardia completely recovered within 12 hours following normal saline infusion and intravenous atropine. The ingestion of certain types of Rhododendron species can cause intoxication, referred to as "mad honey poisoning", due to the action of grayanotoxins...
2016: Internal Medicine
S Silici, Z Doğan, H Sahin, T Atayoğlu, B Yakan
The aim of the study is to evaluate the acute biochemical and histological changes in rat kidneys after treatment with grayanotoxin (GTX) of rhododendron honey (RH). A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into five groups of 12 rats each, one being a control group (group 1) and group 2 was treated with 0.015 mg/kg/bw of GTX standard preparation via intraperitoneal injection. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were given RH at doses of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 g/kg/bw, respectively, via oral gavage. Compared to the control group, significant increases were observed in glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels of the GTX-injected groups after 1 h...
February 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ali Aygun, Abdulkadir Gunduz, Suleyman Turedi, Suha Turkmen, Yunus Karaca, Faik Ahmet Ayaz, Su Youn Ahn, Suncheun Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intoxications related to "mad honey" are frequently encountered in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Intoxication is established on the basis of whether honey was consumed when history was taken at presentation. The search for a simple and reliable method for showing the grayanotoxins (GTXs) in mad honey in body fluids and in honey consumed by patients is still at the research stage. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate GTX levels in blood, urine, and honey consumed by patients with mad honey intoxication and to determine whether there is an association with clinical status...
March 2015: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Caitlin J Oliver, Samantha Softley, Sally M Williamson, Philip C Stevenson, Geraldine A Wright
Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i...
2015: PloS One
Huseyin Sahin, Oktay Yildiz, Sevgi Kolayli
The aims of this study were to determine grayanotoxin (GTX-III) toxin level in mad honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and examine the dynamic changes of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of rats that consumed mad honey. For the experimental animal study, 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 5 groups of 4 rats each, with one group being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2-5). Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were, respectively, given mad honey extract at doses of 0...
October 2016: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Mengke Zhang, Yangyang Xie, Guanqun Zhan, Liang Lei, Penghua Shu, Yongli Chen, Yongbo Xue, Zengwei Luo, Qian Wan, Guangmin Yao, Yonghui Zhang
Eleven grayanane diterpenoids, 1-epi-grayanotoxin IV, 1-epi-grayanotoxin II, 6-deoxy-1-epi-grayanotoxin XVII, 6-deoxygrayanotoxin XVII, 16-acetylgrayanotoxin II, 3-oxograyanotoxin IX, 14-deoxygrayanotoxin VIII, 14-acetylisograyanotoxin II, rhodomicranols C-E, and a leucothane diterpenoid, rhodomicranol F, together with eleven known diterpenoids were isolated from leaves of Rhododendron micranthum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, with the absolute configurations of 1-epi-grayanotoxin IV and rhodomicranol C determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation, and the structures of 14-acetylisograyanotoxin II and known grayanotoxins IX and X confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
September 2015: Phytochemistry
Anja These, Dorina Bodi, Samuel Uecker, Katharina Reimers, Stefan Ronczka, Angelika Preiss-Weigert, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was applied for the detection of grayanotoxins (GrTx) in a contaminated honey sample. This sample was provided by a hospital due to a suspicion of intoxication after a patient had shown the typical symptoms of GrTx poisoning. Subsequent analysis proved the contamination with high amounts of GrTx and other toxins belonging to grayanane-type diterpenoids. This group of natural toxins is synthesised by the plant family Ericaceae and comprises more than 60 individual toxins, but only one compound is available as a reference standard...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ali Dur, Ertan Sonmez, Cemil Civelek, Kenan AhmetTurkdogan, Mehmet AkifVatankulu, Ozgur Sogut
Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations...
September 2014: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Ali Kemal Erenler
Mad honey poisoning occurs when honey containing grayanotoxin is digested. The most common clinical signs and symptoms of poisoning involve findings of digestive system irritation, severe bradycardia and hypotension and central nervous system reaction. In this review, we aimed to underline the cardiac effects of mad honey poisoning. We also aimed to raise the awareness of physicians about early diagnosis and treatment of this rare entity.
January 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Matthias Lechtenberg, Frauke Dierks, Jandirk Sendker, Andrea Louis, Hartwig Schepker, Andreas Hensel
For quantitative determination of grayanotoxin I (1) in plant material, a GC/MS method was developed after trimethylsilyl derivatisation of the analytes. Forskolin (5) was used as an internal standard for quantification. ICH-compliant method validation indicated sufficient specificity, precision, quantitation (15 µg/mL) and detection (5 µg/mL) limits. Regression analysis showed that a non-linear (polynomial) model was preferable to a linear one. For isolation of grayanotoxin I reference material from Rhododendron ponticum leaves, an efficient two-step fast centrifugal partition chromatography isolation protocol is described...
October 2014: Planta Medica
Serkan Emre Eroğlu, Oğuz Urgan, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Arzu Denizbaşı, Haldun Akoğlu
BACKGROUND: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as "mad honey" in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. AIMS: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis...
September 2013: Balkan Medical Journal
Karyn Bischoff, Mary C Smith, Samuel Stump
Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE)...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Silici Sibel, Yonar M Enis, Sahin Hüseyin, Atayoğlu A Timucin, Ozkok Duran
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhododendron honey, locally known as "mad honey", contains gryanotoksin (GTX) and thus induces toxic effects when consumed in large amounts. But, it is still popularly used for treating medical conditions such as high blood pressure or gastro-intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GTX on antioxidant parameters measured from rats fed with Rhododendron honey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of sixty Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into five groups of 12 rats each, one being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2 to 5)...
October 28, 2014: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anna Dampc, Maria Luczkiewicz
Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity...
June 2015: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Pinar Kuru, Merve Torun, Hande Melike Halac, Gozde Temiz, Ece Iskender, Tugba Karamahmutoglu, Medine Gulcebi Idrizoglu, Filiz Yilmaz Onat
Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups...
December 2014: Neurological Sciences
P Engel, R Blank, C Nalenz
A 52-year-old man with Turkish background presented with nausea, emesis, one experience of syncope with loss of consciousness for a few seconds, and documented sinus bradycardia. During monitoring, several phases of bradycardia were observed. After 24 h of monitoring, the patient was free of complaints. The patient's wife reported regular consumption of pontin honey. Because of the anamnesis and the typical characteristics, grayanotoxin poisoning was diagnosed. Typical symptoms of this poisoning are hypotension, bradycardia, syncope, and loss of consciousness...
September 2014: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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