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Jincai Zhao, Wanhong Ma
HO-adduct radicals have been investigated and confirmed as the common initial intermediates in TiO2 photocatalysis and Fenton degradations of water-insoluble aromatics. However, the evolution of HO-adduct radicals to phenols has not been completely clarified. In this study, we discovered that when 4-deuterium-toluene (4-d-toluene) and p-xylene were degraded by TiO2-photocatalysis and Fenton reactions, respectively, a portion of the 4-deuterium or 4-CH3 group (18~100%) at the attacked ipso position shifted to the adjacent position of the ring in the formed phenols (NIH shift)...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Maxime Cailleret, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M R Robert, Lucía Desoto, Tuomas Aakala, Joseph A Antos, Barbara Beikircher, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianiga, Vojtěch Čada, J Julio Camarero, Paolo Cherubini, Hervé Cochard, Marie R Coyea, Katarina Čufar, Adrian J Das, Hendrik Davi, Sylvain Delzon, Michael Dorman, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo, Sten Gillner, Laurel J Haavik, Henrik Hartmann, Ana-Maria Hereş, Kevin R Hultine, Pavel Janda, Jeffrey M Kane, Vyacheslav I Kharuk, Thomas Kitzberger, Tamir Klein, Koen Kramer, Frederic Lens, Tom Levanic, Juan Carlos Linares Calderon, Francisco Lloret, Raquel Lobo-Do-Vale, Fabio Lombardi, Rosana López Rodríguez, Harri Mäkinen, Stefan Mayr, Ilona Mészáros, Juha M Metsaranta, Francesco Minunno, Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Papadopoulos, Mikko Peltoniemi, Any Mary Petritan, Brigitte Rohner, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Dimitrios Sarris, Jeremy M Smith, Amanda B Stan, Frank Sterck, Dejan B Stojanović, Maria Laura Suarez, Miroslav Svoboda, Roberto Tognetti, José M Torres-Ruiz, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Ricardo Villalba, Floor Vodde, Alana R Westwood, Peter H Wyckoff, Nikolay Zafirov, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2,970 dead and 4,224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca...
October 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
Donald B Sanders, Janice M Massey
OBJECTIVE: To determine if single-fiber EMG (SFEMG) jitter accurately reflects change in severity in myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We reviewed jitter and outcome data from all MG patients in our clinic who had at least 2 jitter measurements in the extensor digitorum (ED) or frontalis muscle. RESULTS: Change in all parameters of jitter measured with SFEMG electrodes predicted clinical change with acceptable accuracy. Absolute and percentage change in mean MCD were equally accurate in predicting clinical change and were more accurate than change in the proportion of fiber pairs with blocking or normal jitter...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Allison P O'Leary, Vladimir M Sloutsky
Two experiments investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring and control, and conditions under which children engage these processes. In Experiment 1, 5-year-olds (N = 30) and 7-year-olds (N = 30), unlike adults (N = 30), showed little evidence of either monitoring or control. In Experiment 2, 5-year-olds (N = 90) were given performance feedback (aimed at improving monitoring), instruction to follow a particular strategy (aimed at improving control), or both. Across conditions, feedback improved children's monitoring, and instruction improved both monitoring and control...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Paloma de Souza Cavalcante Pissinati, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço Haddad, José Carlos Dalmas, Marcela Maria Birolim
The aim was to analyze socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university. In an exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative survey, employees (n = 164) approaching retirement in a public university in northern Paraná State, Brazil, assigned scales of importance to gains and losses. The data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression, based on the sizes of the scales, with socio-demographic and occupational variables as predictors...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Pool Aguilar-León, Fiorela Solano-Zapata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Robson Azevedo Dutra, Adriana Cartafina Perez Boscollo
Background: The anorectal anomalies consist in a complex group of birth defects. Laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty improved visualization of the rectal fistula and the ability to place the pull-through segment within the elevator muscle complex with minimal dissection. There is no consensus on how the fistula should be managed. Aim: To evaluate the laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty and the treatment of the rectal urinary fistula by a bipolar sealing device...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Vanessa Bellini Bardella, Sebastián Pita, André Luis Laforga Vanzela, Cleber Galvão, Francisco Panzera
The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Mohammadreza Hojat, Joseph S Gonnella
In their study published in this issue of Academic Medicine, Costa and colleagues confirmed the underlying constructs of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) in medical students. The authors of this Commentary propose that in comparing two instruments that both purport to measure empathy, researchers or test users must pay close attention to the target populations, the conceptualizations of empathy, and the validity evidence in relation to pertinent criterion measures...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Marcela R Jiménez, Helena Rocchetto, Paula S Ferreira, Martin Sangueza, Silvia V Lourenço, Marcello M S Nico
Syringomas are benign adnexal tumors that are characterized histologically by the presence of small solid and cystic epithelial structures in the upper half of the reticular dermis. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic method that enables in vivo visualization of tissues with a resolution that approximates that of conventional histopathology. The use of this method in skin imaging over the past several years has improved dermatological diagnoses, creating the potential for its wide application in such diagnoses, especially for benign and malignant skin tumors...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Avital Deutsch, Hadas Velan, Tamar Michaly
Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated morphemes: a consonantal root embedded in a nominal or verbal word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels and consonants. The root carries the core meaning of the word, whereas the word-pattern creates variations on this meaning, determines the word's grammatical characteristics, and carries segmental and suprasegmental information about the word's structure. Research on written-word recognition has revealed a robust effect of the roots and the verbal-patterns, but not of the nominal-patterns, on word recognition...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Delfien Van Dyck, Lieze Mertens, Greet Cardon, Katrien De Cocker, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB) and their determinants and about recently retired adults' needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a 'forgotten group', having too few tailored PA initiatives available...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Surendra Kumar
BACKROUND: The outbreak of H1N1 virus had previously reported in India during 2009 flu pandemic. In 2015, the outbreak became widespread throughout India. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan are severely elected. We studied an outbreak of H1N1 Virus in north-west zone of Rajasthan 2015. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the current epidemiological scenario of swine flu (H1N1) in north-west zone of Rajasthan with different demographic factors. METHODS: We screened total 6390 patients...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jeffrey Fagen, Phyllis Ohr, Kimberly Boller
In this article, we reflect upon Carolyn Rovee-Collier's pioneering research on learning and memory in infants, especially that using the mobile conjugate reinforcement task, for our understanding of (a) cognitive development in infants born prematurely and those with Down's syndrome and (b) her prediction that infants' performance in the mobile conjugate reinforcement and similar operant tasks would predict later intellectual functioning. We then examine the implications of her research on time windows (the integration of new information into a memory) and memory reactivation (the retrieval of a forgotten memory as a result of the re-exposure to a component of the original learning experience) for early intervention programs and clinicians treating victims of early trauma...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Suman Chowdhury, Debnarayan Jana
Inspired by the success of graphene, various two dimensional (2D) structures in free standing (FS) (hypothetical) form and on different substrates have been proposed recently. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, is predicted to possess massless Dirac fermions and to exhibit an experimentally accessible quantum spin Hall effect. Since the effective spin-orbit interaction is quite significant compared to graphene, buckling in silicene opens a gap of 1.55 meV at the Dirac point. This band gap can be further tailored by applying in plane stress, an external electric field, chemical functionalization and defects...
October 18, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
David B Nicholas, Sandra Hodgetts, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Leann E Smith, Paul Shattuck, Jeremy R Parr, Olivia Conlon, Tamara Germani, Wendy Mitchell, Lori Sacrey, Margot E Stothers
Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidence-informed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD...
October 17, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Bernd Hohenstein
As a major event in the field of therapeutic apheresis, lipidology and immune-modulating extracorporeal treatments, Dresden hosted the 4(th) International Symposium on Therapeutic Apheresis 17-19 March 2016. In conjunction with the newly founded European Group - International Society for Apheresis, this meeting attracted more than 300 clinicians and scientists from more than a dozen European countries and further developed into an important event for participants, industry and nursing staff. Due to the relevant role of lipoprotein apheresis in Germany and the recent launch of PCSK9 inhibitors corresponding sessions, the symposium reflected all aspects of this new lipidological therapy in a number of sessions...
October 2016: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Georgeta D Vaidean, Marta Manczuk, Jared W Magnani
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and hypertension often coexist and represent risk factors for atrial fibrillation. This study hypothesized that their single and joint effects on atrial remodeling would be reflected in the PR interval and P-wave durations on electrocardiogram (ECG). METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of a community-based study included 11,308 men and women age 45-64. Atrial indices were obtained from digital standard 12-lead resting ECG. Analyses were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
October 18, 2016: Obesity
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