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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077451/the-increasing-use-of-cannabis-among-older-americans-a-public-health-crisis-or-viable-policy-alternative
#1
Brian Kaskie, Padmaja Ayyagari, Gary Milavetz, Dan Shane, Kanika Arora
Cannabis use among older Americans is increasing. Although much of this growth has been attributed to the entry of a more tolerant baby boom cohort into older age, recent evidence suggests the pathways to cannabis are more complex. Some older persons have responded to changing social and legal environments and are increasingly likely to take cannabis recreationally. Other older persons are experiencing age-related health care needs, and some take cannabis for symptom management, as recommended by a medical doctor...
January 11, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074379/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-essay
#2
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Andrea Poretti, Thierry A G M Huisman, Heron Werner, Elham Keshavarz, Edward Araujo Júnior
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It had caused several epidemics since its discovery in 1947, but there was no significant attention to this virus until the recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. The main concern is the causal relationship between prenatal ZIKV infection and congenital microcephaly, which has been confirmed recently. Moreover, ZIKV may cause other central nervous system abnormalities such as brain parenchymal atrophy with secondary ventriculomegaly, intracranial calcification, malformations of cortical development (such as polymicrogyria, and lissencephaly-pachygyria), agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, sensorineural hearing-loss, and ocular abnormalities as well as arthrogryposis in the infected fetuses...
January 10, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069666/negative-auto-regulators-trap-p53-in-their-web
#3
REVIEW
Xiang Zhou, Bo Cao, Hua Lu
The transcriptional factor p53 activates the expression of a myriad of target genes involving a complicated signaling network, resulting in various cellular outcomes, such as growth arrest, senescence, apoptosis, and metabolic changes, and leading to consequent suppression of tumor growth and progression. Because of the profoundly adverse effect of p53 on growth and proliferation of cancer cells, several feedback mechanisms have been employed by the cells to constrain p53 activity. Two major antagonists MDM2 and MDMX (the long forms) are transcriptionally induced by p53, but in return block p53 activity, forming a negative feedback circuit and rendering chemoresistance of several cancer cells...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062825/global-family-medicine-a-universal-mnemonic
#4
William B Ventres
In this essay, I borrow the idea of universal precautions from infection control and suggest that family physicians use a set of considerations, based on the mnemonic UNIVERSAL, to nurture cultural humility, enter a metaphoric "space-in-between" in cross-cultural encounters, and foster global fluency. These UNIVERSAL considerations I base on my experiences in global family medicine, attending to economically poor and socially marginalized patients in both international and domestic settings. They are informed by readings in transcultural psychiatry, medical anthropology, development studies, and primary care...
January 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057966/abdominal-manifestations-of-extranodal-lymphoma-pictorial-essay
#5
Laís Fajardo, Guilherme de Araujo Ramin, Thiago José Penachim, Daniel Lahan Martins, Patrícia Prando Cardia, Adilson Prando
In the appropriate clinical setting, certain aspects of extranodal abdominal lymphoma, as revealed by current cross-sectional imaging techniques, should be considered potentially diagnostic and can hasten the diagnosis. In addition, diagnostic imaging in the context of biopsy-proven lymphoma can accurately stage the disease for its appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article was to illustrate the various imaging aspects of extranodal lymphoma in the abdomen.
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053077/animal-research-the-3rs-and-the-internet-of-things-opportunities-and-oversight-in-international-pharmaceutical-development
#6
Steven M Niemi, Gail F Davies
Stages of drug (and vaccine) discovery and evaluation that involve laboratory animals increasingly occur via scientific collaborations across national borders and continents. Many of these research collaborations are between asset-rich institutions and others in less wealthy parts of the world. The care and use of laboratory animals in geographically disparate locations introduces new complexities, such as different oversight requirements and available resources, as well as diverse organizational and cultural milieus...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053011/dismantling-the-silence-lgbtq-aging-emerging-from-the-margins
#7
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
Historical, environmental, and cultural contexts intersect with aging, sexuality, and gender across communities and generations. My scholarship investigates health and well-being over the life course across marginalized communities, including LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) midlife and older adults, native communities experiencing cardiovascular risk, and families in China living with HIV, in order to balance the realities of unique lives in contemporary society. By probing the intersection of age, sexuality, and gender, my analysis is informed by both personal and professional experiences...
January 3, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050791/radiological-diagnosis-of-perinephric-pathology-pictorial-essay-2015
#8
REVIEW
Goran Mitreski, Tom Sutherland
: The perinephric space, shaped as an inverted cone, sits between the anterior and posterior renal fasciae. It can play host to a variety of clinical conditions encountered daily in the reporting schedule for a radiologist. Lesions may be classified and diagnosed based on their imaging characteristics, location and distribution. A broad range of differential diagnoses can be attributed to pathology sitting within this space, often without clinical signs or symptoms. An understanding of commonly encountered conditions affecting the perinephric space, along with characteristic imaging findings, can illustrate and often narrow the likely diagnosis...
January 3, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050636/systematic-radiographic-evaluation-of-tibial-hemimelia-with-orthopedic-implications
#9
Katia Kaplan-List, Nina B Klionsky, James O Sanders, Michael E Katz
Tibial hemimelia is a rare lower-extremity pre-axial longitudinal deficiency characterized by complete or partial absence of the tibia. The reported incidence is 1 in 1 million live births. In this pictorial essay, we define tibial hemimelia and describe associated conditions and principles of preoperative imaging assessment for a child with tibial hemimelia. We also indicate the imaging findings that might influence the choice of treatment, describe the most widely used classification systems, and briefly discuss current treatment approaches...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050513/an-atypical-presentation-of-multiple-central-osteomas-mimicking-craniofacial-fibrous-dysplasia-a-pictorial-essay
#10
Rashmi Kewal Agarwal, Amit A Mhapuskar, Manjula Hebbale, Meenal Tepan, Ayushee
Osteoma is benign neoplasm with slow growth characterized by deposition of compact lamellar cortical or cancellous bone creating a tumour mass. It is still unclear whether osteomas are benign neoplasms or hamartomas. They have typical clinical presentations and are easily diagnosed with the help of radiographs. We present a rare case of non-syndromic multiple osteomas in the craniofacial region which are typically restricted to the midline and presents radiographically as craniofacial fibrous dysplasia causing a diagnostic dilemma...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039957/social-responsibility-and-the-state-s-duty-to-provide-healthcare-an-islamic-ethico-legal-perspective
#11
Aasim I Padela
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights asserts that governments are morally obliged to promote health and to provide access to quality healthcare, essential medicines and adequate nutrition and water to all members of society. According to UNESCO, this obligation is grounded in a moral commitment to promoting fundamental human rights and emerges from the principle of social responsibility. Yet in an era of ethical pluralism and contentions over the universality of human rights conventions, the extent to which the UNESCO Declaration can motivate behaviors and policies rests, at least in part, upon accepting the moral arguments it makes...
December 30, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035515/anesthesia-of-torek-s-operation-the-first-successful-resection-of-a-cancer-in-the-thoracic-esophagus-an-abridged-translation-of-an-essay-in-japanese
#12
REVIEW
Hiromasa Fujita
The first successful resection of a cancer in the thoracic esophagus was performed by Franz Torek around one hundred years ago. Awareness of developments in surgery and the early history can stimulate and foster innovation among surgeons, as well as promote a deeper appreciation of the pioneers of the methods still used today. Here we report the conditions leading to Torek's operation performed in 1913. In the operation, anesthesia was achieved by tracheal insufflation. Ernst Sauerbruch, a surgeon in Germany, first developed a negative-pressure chamber for anesthesia in 1903 and subsequently used this in many open-chest operations...
December 29, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034479/legitimation-dynamics-how-sroi-could-mobilize-resources-for-new-constituencies
#13
Kate Cooney
The following critical essay on the social return on investment (SROI) methodology is broken into two parts. In the first section, focusing on the categorization dynamics of the SROI, I review a set of methodological and ethical tensions surrounding the SROI, using examples from my own work and other published works using SROI. These tensions include the fact that the project requires standardization to achieve comparability while concurrently offering a flexibility in constructing a narrative of impact that is attractive to users...
December 19, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033728/measuring-professional-identity-formation-early-in-medical-school
#14
Adina Kalet, Lynn Buckvar-Keltz, Victoria Harnik, Verna Monson, Steven Hubbard, Ruth Crowe, Hyuksoon S Song, Sandra Yingling
AIM: To assess the feasibility and utility of measuring baseline professional identity formation (PIF) in a theory-based professionalism curriculum for early medical students. METHODS: All 132 entering students completed the professional identity essay (PIE) and the defining issues test (DIT2). Students received score reports with individualized narrative feedback and wrote a structured reflection after a large-group session in which the PIF construct was reviewed...
December 30, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027702/making-a-global-sensation-vanilla-flavor-synthetic-chemistry-and-the-meanings-of-purity
#15
Nadia Berenstein
How did vanilla, once a rare luxury, become a global sensation? Rather than taking the vanilla flavor of vanilla beans as a pre-existing natural fact, this essay argues that the sensory experience that came to be recognized as vanilla was a hybrid artifact produced by an expanding global trade in a diverse set of pleasurable substances, including cured beans from artificially pollinated vanilla orchids, synthetic vanillin, sugar, and a far-flung miscellany of other botanical and chemical materials. Global trade and large-scale production resulted not in the production of a homogenous, stable commodity, but in a range of local vanillas, heterogeneous mixtures with a range of qualities and virtues...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027612/nonobliteration-of-the-processus-vaginalis-sonography-of-related-abnormalities-in-children
#16
Vasileios Rafailidis, Sotirios Varelas, Foteini Apostolopoulou, Dimitrios Rafailidis
The objective of this pictorial essay is to systematically classify processus vaginalis-related disorders in the light of embryology and present illustrative sonograms with corresponding diagrams. Failure of the processus vaginalis to obliterate during gestation results in a wide spectrum of anomalies, including communicating and noncommunicating hydroceles and inguinal and inguinoscrotal hernias, along with other related disorders of the genital system. There are varying classifications in the literature regarding the aforementioned entities...
April 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025901/the-bottom-of-the-universe-flat-earth-science-in-the-age-of-encounter
#17
James J Allegro
This essay challenges the dominance of the spherical earth model in fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century Western European thought. It examines parallel strains of Latin and vernacular writing that cast doubt on the existence of the southern hemisphere. Three factors shaped the alternate accounts of the earth as a plane and disk put forward by these sources: (1) the unsettling effects of maritime expansion on scientific thought; (2) the revival of interest in early Christian criticism of the spherical earth; and (3) a rigid empirical stance toward entities too large to observe in their entirety, including the earth...
December 1, 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018239/crossing-the-boundaries-of-our-current-healthcare-system-by-integrating-ultra-weak-photon-emissions-with-metabolomics
#18
Rosilene C Rossetto Burgos, Eduard P A van Wijk, Roeland van Wijk, Min He, Jan van der Greef
The current healthcare system is hampered by a reductionist approach in which diagnostics and interventions focus on a specific target, resulting in medicines that center on generic, static phenomena while excluding inherent dynamic nature of biological processes, let alone psychosocial parameters. In this essay, we present some limitations of the current healthcare system and introduce the novel and potential approach of combining ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with metabolomics technology in order to provide a dynamic readout of higher organizational systems...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017638/the-influence-of-self-construal-type-on-outcome-evaluation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#19
Xiangru Zhu, Haiyan Wu, Suyong Yang, Ruolei Gu
Recent studies have revealed a close relationship between the self and reward networks. One of our previous studies has found that outcome evaluation (including the processing of reward and punishment) is modulated by self-reflection. A question remaining unclear is how different types of self-construal influence outcome evaluation. Self-construal refers to the way in which people perceive themselves to be linked (or not) with other people. Two subtypes of self-construal have been identified: independent self and interdependent self...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013558/reconciling-technology-and-humanistic-care-lessons-from-the-next-generation-of-physicians
#20
Arabella L Simpkin, Perry B Dinardo, Elizabeth Pine, Elizabeth Gaufberg
PURPOSE: There is concern among physicians that the rising use of technology in medicine may have a negative impact on compassionate patient-centered care. This study explores medical student attitudes and ideas about technology in medicine in order to consider ways to achieve symbiosis between technology use and the delivery of humanistic, patient-centered care. METHODS: This qualitative study uses data from 138 essays written by medical students in the United States and Canada responding to the prompt "Using a real life experience, describe how technology played a role, either negatively or positively, in the delivery of humanistic patient care...
December 25, 2016: Medical Teacher
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