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Ahuva Y Segal, Tracey L Sletten, Erin E Flynn-Evans, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
While previous studies have demonstrated short-wavelength sensitivity to the acute alerting effects of light during the biological night, fewer studies have assessed the alerting effect of light during the daytime. This study assessed the wavelength-dependent sensitivity of the acute alerting effects of daytime light exposure following chronic sleep restriction in 60 young adults (29 men, 31 women; 22.5 ± 3.1 mean ± SD years). Participants were restricted to 5 h time in bed the night before laboratory admission and 3 h time in bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Károly Takács, Andreas Flache, Michael Mäs
Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed...
2016: PloS One
Nicole Piela, Steven Kornweiss, Alfred Sacchetti, Amanda Gallagher, Allen Abrams
PURPOSE: Placement of TVPs is a core EM procedure. Despite this, there is no specific outcome data on this procedure in the ED setting. This study examines the success of Emergency Physician (EP) attempted TVPs as well as their hospital courses and survivals. METHODS: The charts of patients undergoing TVP placement in the ED of an urban community hospital were prospectively collected by a department billing abstractor and then underwent a structured review. All patients had a TVP placed by a board eligible or board certified EP or by a PGY2 EM resident under the direct supervision of an attending EP...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Carla C Winter, Kritika S Katiyar, Nicole S Hernandez, Yeri J Song, Laura A Struzyna, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
UNLABELLED: Neurotrauma, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease may result in widespread loss of neural cells as well as the complex interconnectivity necessary for proper central nervous system function, generally resulting in permanent functional deficits. Potential regenerative strategies involve the recruitment of endogenous neural stem cells and/or directed axonal regeneration through the use of tissue engineered "living scaffolds" built to mimic features of three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo migratory or guidance pathways...
July 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Guoning Yang, Lihua Cun, Ya Ma, Jingyan Duan
OBJECTIVE: To summary and analyze the bleeding causes after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty(UPPP) with endotherm knife, and preventive measures will be given to effectively reduce postoperation hemorrhage. METHOD: Two hundred and twenty-six cases of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) adult patients, were carryed out UPPP under general anesthesia with endotherm knife to observe postoperation hemorrhage. RESULT: Eight cases out of 226 patients or 3...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Marziyeh Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Molamma P Prabhakaran, S Hajir Bahrami, Seeram Ramakrishna
Nanofibrous nerve guides have gained huge interest in supporting the peripheral nerve regeneration due to their abilities to simulate the topography, mechanical, biological and extracellular matrix morphology of native tissue. Gum tragacanth (GT) is a biocompatible mixture of polysaccharides that has been used in biomedical applications. During this study, we fabricated aligned and random nanofibers from poly(l-lactic acid) and gum tragacanth (PLLA/GT) in various ratios (100:0, 75:25, and 50:50) by electrospinning...
April 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sara Heidl, Isabella Ellinger, Verena Niederberger, Eva E Waltl, Renate Fuchs
The airway epithelium is a central player in the defense against pathogens including efficient mucociliary clearance and secretion of immunoglobulins, mainly polymeric IgA, but also IgG. Pulmonary administration of therapeutic antibodies on one hand, and intranasal immunization on the other, are powerful tools to treat airway infections. In either case, the airway epithelium is the primary site of antibody transfer. In various epithelia, bi-polar transcytosis of IgG and IgG immune complexes is mediated by the human neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, but FcRn expression in the nasal epithelium had not been demonstrated, so far...
December 3, 2015: Protoplasma
Pablo Balenzuela, Juan Pablo Pinasco, Viktoriya Semeshenko
The effects of interpersonal interactions on individual's agreements result in a social aggregation process which is reflected in the formation of collective states, as for instance, groups of individuals with a similar opinion about a given issue. This field, which has been a longstanding concern of sociologists and psychologists, has been extended into an area of experimental social psychology, and even has attracted the attention of physicists and mathematicians. In this article, we present a novel model of opinion formation in which agents may either have a strict preference for a choice, or be undecided...
2015: PloS One
P Naresh, Ankur Patel, Archana Sharma
Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system...
September 2015: Review of Scientific Instruments
Christian P Crisostomo, Liang-Zi Yao, Zhi-Quan Huang, Chia-Hsiu Hsu, Feng-Chuan Chuang, Hsin Lin, Marvin A Albao, Arun Bansil
A large gap two-dimensional (2D) topological insulator (TI), also known as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator, is highly desirable for low-power-consuming electronic devices owing to its spin-polarized backscattering-free edge conducting channels. Although many freestanding films have been predicted to harbor the QSH phase, band topology of a film can be modified substantially when it is placed or grown on a substrate, making the materials realization of a 2D TI challenging. Here we report a first-principles study of possible QSH phases in 75 binary combinations of group III (B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl) and group V (N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) elements in the 2D buckled honeycomb structure, including hydrogenation on one or both sides of the films to simulate substrate effects...
October 14, 2015: Nano Letters
T Hirahara, T Shirai, T Hajiri, M Matsunami, K Tanaka, S Kimura, S Hasegawa, K Kobayashi
We performed high-resolution photon-energy and polarization-dependent ARPES measurements on ultrathin Bi(111) films [6-180 bilayers (BL), 2.5-70 nm thick] formed on Si(111). In addition to the extensively studied surface states (SSs), the edge of the bulk valence band was clearly measured by using S-polarized light. We found direct evidence that this valence band edge, which forms a hole pocket in the bulk Bi crystal, does not cross the Fermi level for the 180 BL thick film. This is consistent with the predicted semimetal-to-semiconductor transition due to the quantum-size effect [V...
September 4, 2015: Physical Review Letters
H Shao, E Y Chang, C Pauli, S Zanganeh, W Bae, C B Chung, G Tang, J Du
OBJECTIVES: To determine T2* relaxation in articular cartilage using ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging and bi-component analysis, with an emphasis on the deep radial and calcified cartilage. METHODS: Ten patellar samples were imaged using two-dimensional (2D) UTE and Car-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. UTE images were fitted with a bi-component model to calculate T2* and relative fractions. CPMG images were fitted with a single-component model to calculate T2...
February 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Helen B Pearson, Edwina McGlinn, Toby J Phesse, Holger Schlüter, Anuratha Srikumar, Nathan J Gödde, Christina B Woelwer, Andrew Ryan, Wayne A Phillips, Matthias Ernst, Pritinder Kaur, Patrick Humbert
BACKGROUND: The establishment and maintenance of polarity is vital for embryonic development and loss of polarity is a frequent characteristic of epithelial cancers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify a novel role for the polarity protein Scrib as a mediator of epidermal permeability barrier acquisition, skeletal morphogenesis, and as a potent tumor suppressor in cutaneous carcinogenesis. METHODS: To explore the role of Scrib during epidermal development, we compared the permeability of toluidine blue dye in wild-type, Scrib heterozygous and Scrib KO embryonic epidermis at E16...
2015: Molecular Cancer
Sungjin Park, Dambi Park, Kwangsik Jeong, Taeok Kim, SeungJong Park, Min Ahn, Won Jun Yang, Jeong Hwa Han, Hong Sik Jeong, Seong Gi Jeon, Jae Yong Song, Mann-Ho Cho
The thermal conduction characteristics of GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5(GST) nanowires were investigated using an optical method to determine the local temperature by Raman spectroscopy. Since the localization of surface charge in a single-crystalline nanostructure can enhance charge-phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity value (κ) of single crystalline GeTe and GST nanowires was decreased significantly to 1.44 Wm(-1) K(-1) for GeTe and 1.13 Wm(-1) K(-1) for GST, compared to reported values for polycrystalline structures...
October 7, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christian Reimer, Michael Kues, Lucia Caspani, Benjamin Wetzel, Piotr Roztocki, Matteo Clerici, Yoann Jestin, Marcello Ferrera, Marco Peccianti, Alessia Pasquazi, Brent E Little, Sai T Chu, David J Moss, Roberto Morandotti
Nonlinear optical processes are one of the most important tools in modern optics with a broad spectrum of applications in, for example, frequency conversion, spectroscopy, signal processing and quantum optics. For practical and ultimately widespread implementation, on-chip devices compatible with electronic integrated circuit technology offer great advantages in terms of low cost, small footprint, high performance and low energy consumption. While many on-chip key components have been realized, to date polarization has not been fully exploited as a degree of freedom for integrated nonlinear devices...
2015: Nature Communications
Sergian Vianna Cardozo, Bruno Pereira Berto, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca, André Tomás, Fátima Regina P B Thode, Carlos Wilson G Lopes
A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in Quinta de Marim, Olhão, Portugal. Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 26.4 × 23.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 μm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present...
October 2015: Systematic Parasitology
Lei Kang, Xingxing Jiang, Siyang Luo, Pifu Gong, Wei Li, Xiang Wu, Yanchun Li, Xiaodong Li, Chuangtian Chen, Zheshuai Lin
Negative linear compressibility (NLC), a rare and important mechanical effect with many application potentials, in a crystal of α-BiB3O6 (BIBO) is comprehensively investigated using first-principles calculations and high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. The results indicate that the BIBO crystal exhibits the second largest NLC among all known inorganic materials over a broad pressure range. This unusual NLC behaviour is due to the rotation and displacement of the rigid [BO3] and [BO4] building units that result in hinge motion in an umbrella-like topology...
2015: Scientific Reports
Hyejin Choi, Tae Hyeon Kim, Jimin Chae, Juheyuck Baeck, Chul-Sik Kee, Kwang-Ho Jeong, Hong-Sik Jeong, Chul Kang, Mann-Ho Cho
Topological insulators, a new quantum state of matter, have created exciting opportunities for studies in topological quantum physics and for exploring spintronics applications due to their gapless helical metallic surface states. In this study, thin films composed of alternate layers of Bi and Se (Te) ({Bi(3 Å)Te(9 Å)}n/{Bi(3 Å)Se(9 Å)}n) were fabricated by controlling the layer thickness within the atomic scale using thermal evaporation techniques. The high-purity growth of uniform Bi2Se2Te1 thin films has not yet been achieved using a thermal evaporation method...
September 28, 2015: Nanoscale
Hanane Aboulfadl, Jürg Hulliger
The absolute sign of local polarity in relation to the biological growth direction has been investigated for teeth cementum using phase sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy (PS-SHGM) and a crystal of 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine (COANP) as a nonlinear optic (NLO) reference material. A second harmonic generation (SHG) response was found in two directions of cementum: radial (acellular extrinsic fibers that are oriented more or less perpendicular to the root surface) and circumferential (cellular intrinsic fibers that are oriented more or less parallel to the surface)...
October 2015: Journal of Structural Biology
Atsushi Saito, Valeria Cavalli
Neurons are extremely polarized cells. Axon lengths often exceed the dimension of the neuronal cell body by several orders of magnitude. These extreme axonal lengths imply that neurons have mastered efficient mechanisms for long distance signaling between soma and synaptic terminal. These elaborate mechanisms are required for neuronal development and maintenance of the nervous system. Neurons can fine-tune long distance signaling through calcium wave propagation and bidirectional transport of proteins, vesicles, and mRNAs along microtubules...
February 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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