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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034862/ultrastructural-and-microbial-analyses-of-cellulose-degradation-in-leaf-cutter-ant-colonies
#1
Rolando Daniel Moreira-Soto, Ethel Sanchez, Cameron R Currie, Adrian A Pinto-Tomás
Leaf-cutter ants (Atta and Acromyrmex) use fresh leaves to cultivate a mutualistic fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) for food in underground gardens. A new ant queen propagates the cultivar by taking a small fragment of fungus from her parent colony on her nuptial flight and uses it to begin her own colony. Recent research has shown that the ants' fungus gardens are colonized by symbiotic bacteria that perform important functions related to nitrogen fixation and have been implicated in contributing to plant biomass degradation...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033964/management-of-fruit-species-in-urban-home-gardens-of-argentina-atlantic-forest-as-an-influence-for-landscape-domestication
#2
Violeta Furlan, María L Pochettino, Norma I Hilgert
Home gardens are considered germplasm repositories and places for experimentation, thus they are key sites for the domestication of plants. Domestication is considered a constant process that occurs along a continuum from wild to managed to domesticated populations. Management may lead to the modification of populations and in other cases to their distribution, changing population structure in a landscape. Our objective is focused on the management received in home gardens by perennial species of fruits. For this, the management practices applied to native and exotic perennial fruits species by a group of 20 women in the periurban zone of Iguazú, Argentina, were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033651/premna-bhamoensis-lamiaceae-premnoideae-a-new-species-from-kachin-state-northeastern-myanmar
#3
Yunhong Tan, Derong Li, Yongjun Chen, Bo Li
In the present study, we describe and illustrate a new species, Premna bhamoensis Y. T. Tan & B. Li (Lamiaceae), from Myanmar. In the 1980s, this species was transplanted from Bhamo County in northeastern Myanmar to the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The species shows striking morphological similarity to P. menglaensis B. Li, and thus, has been misidentified as the latter for a long period of time. However, morphological comparison revealed that P. bhamoensis is distinct from P...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033562/associations-between-the-psychological-health-of-patients-and-carers-in-advanced-copd
#4
Ella Mi, Emma Mi, Gail Ewing, Ravi Mahadeva, A Carole Gardener, Hanne Holt Butcher, Sara Booth, Morag Farquhar
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in patients with COPD and their informal carers, and associated with numerous risk factors. However, few studies have investigated these in primary care or the link between patient and carer anxiety and depression. We aimed to determine this association and factors associated with anxiety and depression in patients, carers, and both (dyads), in a population-based sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 119 advanced COPD patients and their carers...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032636/tokyo-guidelines-2018-diagnostic-criteria-and-severity-grading-of-acute-cholecystitis-with-videos
#5
Masamichi Yokoe, Jiro Hata, Tadahiro Takada, Steven M Strasberg, Horacio J Asbun, Go Wakabayashi, Kazuto Kosaka, Itaru Endo, Daniel J Deziel, Fumihiko Miura, Kohji Okamoto, Tsann-Long Hwang, Wayne Shih-Wei Huang, Chen-Guo Ker, Miin-Fu Chen, Ho-Seong Han, Yoo-Seok Yoon, In-Seok Choi, Dong-Sup Yoon, Yoshinori Noguchi, Satoru Shikata, Tomohiko Ukai, Ryota Higuchi, Toshifumi Gabata, Yasuhisa Mori, Yukio Iwashita, Taizo Hibi, Palepu Jagannath, Eduard Jonas, Kui-Hin Liau, Christos Dervenis, Dirk Joan Gouma, Daniel Cherqui, Giulio Belli, O James Garden, Mariano Eduardo Giménez, Eduardo de Santibañes, Kenji Suzuki, Akiko Umezawa, Avinash Nivritti Supe, Henry A Pitt, Harjit Singh, Angus C W Chan, Wan Yee Lau, Anthony Yuen Bun Teoh, Goro Honda, Atsushi Sugioka, Koji Asai, Harumi Gomi, Takao Itoi, Seiki Kiriyama, Masahiro Yoshida, Toshihiko Mayumi, Naoki Matsumura, Hiromi Tokumura, Seigo Kitano, Koichi Hirata, Kazuo Inui, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Masakazu Yamamoto
TG13 Tokyo guidelines for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were globally disseminated and various clinical researches about the management of acute cholecystitis were reported by lots of researchers and clinicians from all over the world. The 1(st) edition of Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) was revised in 2013. According to that revision, the TG13 diagnostic criteria of acute cholecystitis provided better specificity and higher diagnostic accuracy. Thorough our literature search about diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis, new and strong evidence that had been released from 2013 to 2017 was not found with serious and important issues about using TG13 diagnostic criteria of acute cholecystitis...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031945/assessing-colour-preference-in-aldabra-giant-tortoises-geochelone-gigantea
#6
Caterina Spiezio, Carola Leonardi, Barbara Regaiolli
Tortoises perceive different colours and rely on the visual system to find food. However, few studies have considered colour preference in tortoises, especially in land species. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) housed in Parco Natura Viva (VR), an Italian zoological garden, show a specific colour preference in their social context. The study was divided into two different periods in which red and yellow balls of the same size were scattered around in the outdoor enclosure...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030716/prevalence-transmission-and-host-specificity-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-various-animal-groups-from-two-french-zoos
#7
Marwan Osman, Dima El Safadi, Sadia Benamrouz-Vanneste, Amandine Cian, Romain Moriniere, Nausicaa Gantois, Pilar Delgado-Viscogliosi, Karine Guyot, Stéphanie Bosc, Magali Chabé, Thierry Petit, Eric Viscogliosi, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium represents a major cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals including domestic, wild, and in captivity animals, and more than 30 validated species of Cryptosporidium are recognized as infectious to different hosts such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted worldwide in order to shed light on the epidemiology of this parasite and to explore its potential reservoirs. Few surveys, targeting humans and animals have been carried out regarding the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp...
October 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026501/typology-of-street-substance-users-communities-in-tehran-iran
#8
Masoomeh Maarefvand, Mohammad Sadegh Shirazi, Raha Peyravi, Ali Farhoudian
BACKGROUND: There are different street substance users' communities (SSUCs). Typology of SSUCs in Tehran, Iran was approached in this qualitative study. METHODS: Using content analysis and saturation principles, 22 street-outreach workers were recruited and interviewed. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. FINDINGS: Three types of SSUCs were identified. SSUCs were different in geographic location, the community hierarchy, roles of residents and its function during a 24-hour period...
January 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025695/exploring-the-potential-of-a-wearable-camera-to-examine-the-early-obesogenic-home-environment-comparison-of-sensecam-images-to-the-home-environment-interview
#9
Stephanie Schrempft, Cornelia Hm van Jaarsveld, Abigail Fisher
BACKGROUND: The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of self-report measures. METHODS: A total of 15 primary caregivers of young children (mean age of child 4 years) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023063/effectiveness-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-and-entomopathogenic-nematodes-to-control-oryctes-rhinoceros-larvae-in-the-rainy-season
#10
Dyah Rini Indriyanti, Priyantini Widiyaningrum, Haryuni, Muji Slamet, Yoris Adi Maretta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021315/individual-ant-workers-show-self-control
#11
Stephanie Wendt, Tomer J Czaczkes
Often, the first option is not the best. Self-control can allow humans and animals to improve resource intake under such conditions. Self-control in animals is often investigated using intertemporal choice tasks-choosing a smaller reward immediately or a larger reward after a delay. However, intertemporal choice tasks may underestimate self-control, as test subjects may not fully understand the task. Vertebrates show much greater apparent self-control in more natural foraging contexts and spatial discounting tasks than in intertemporal choice tasks...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018472/germination-and-seedling-growth-of-water-primroses-a-cross-experiment-between-two-invaded-ranges-with-contrasting-climates
#12
Morgane Gillard, Brenda J Grewell, Caryn J Futrell, Carole Deleu, Gabrielle Thiébaut
Aquatic ecosystems are vulnerable to biological invasions, and will also be strongly impacted by climate change, including temperature increase. Understanding the colonization dynamics of aquatic invasive plant species is of high importance for preservation of native biodiversity. Many aquatic invasive plants rely on clonal reproduction to spread, but mixed reproductive modes are common. Under future climate changes, these species may favor a sexual reproductive mode. The aim of this study was to test the germination capacity and the seedling growth of two water primrose species, Ludwigia hexapetala and Ludwigia peploides, both invasive in Europe and in the United States...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018440/human-gut-symbiont-roseburia-hominis-promotes-and-regulates-innate-immunity
#13
Angela M Patterson, Imke E Mulder, Anthony J Travis, Annaig Lan, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Valerie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Karen Garden, Elizabeth Logan, Margaret I Delday, Alistair G P Coutts, Edouard Monnais, Vanessa C Ferraria, Ryo Inoue, George Grant, Rustam I Aminov
OBJECTIVE: Roseburia hominis is a flagellated gut anaerobic bacterium belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family within the Firmicutes phylum. A significant decrease of R. hominis colonization in the gut of ulcerative colitis patients has recently been demonstrated. In this work, we have investigated the mechanisms of R. hominis-host cross talk using both murine and in vitro models. DESIGN: The complete genome sequence of R. hominis A2-183 was determined. C3H/HeN germ-free mice were mono-colonized with R...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018136/dietary-sodium-to-potassium-ratio-and-risk-of-stroke-in-a-multiethnic-urban-population-the-northern-manhattan-study
#14
Joshua Willey, Hannah Gardener, Sandino Cespedes, Ying K Cheung, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is growing evidence that increased dietary sodium (Na) intake increases the risk of vascular diseases, including stroke, at least in part via an increase in blood pressure. Higher dietary potassium (K), seen with increased intake of fruits and vegetables, is associated with lower blood pressure. The goal of this study was to determine the association of a dietary Na:K with risk of stroke in a multiethnic urban population. METHODS: Stroke-free participants from the Northern Manhattan Study, a population-based cohort study of stroke incidence, were followed-up for incident stroke...
October 10, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016906/yucca9-mediated-auxin-biosynthesis-and-polar-auxin-transport-synergistically-regulate-regeneration-of-root-systems-following-root-cutting
#15
Dongyang Xu, Jiahang Miao, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Masashi Asahina, Masaaki Watahiki
Recovery of the root system following physical damage is an essential issue for plant survival. An injured root system is able to regenerate by increases in lateral root (LR) number and acceleration of root growth. The horticultural technique of root pruning (root cutting) is an application of this response and is a common garden technique for controlling plant growth. Although root pruning is widely used, the molecular mechanisms underlying the subsequent changes in the root system are poorly understood. In this study, root pruning was employed as a model system to study the molecular mechanisms of root-system regeneration...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992131/continent-wide-climatic-variation-drives-local-adaptation-in-north-american-white-clover
#16
Sara J Wright, Daniel Cui Zhou, Amy Kuhle, Kenneth M Olsen
Climate-associated clines in adaptive polymorphisms are commonly cited as evidence of local adaptation within species. However, the contribution of the clinally varying trait to overall fitness is often unknown. To address this question, we examined survival, vegetative growth, and reproductive output in a central US common garden experiment using 161 genotypes of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) originating from 15 locations across North America. White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release upon tissue damage), a chemical defense against generalist herbivores, and climate-associated cyanogenesis clines have repeatedly evolved across the species range...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989315/on-the-differing-growth-mechanisms-of-black-smoker-and-lost-city-type-hydrothermal-vents
#17
Silvana S S Cardoso, Julyan H E Cartwright
Black smokers and Lost City-type springs are varieties of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floors that emit hot, acidic water and cool, alkaline water, respectively. While both produce precipitation structures as the issuing fluid encounters oceanic water, Lost City-type hydrothermal vents in particular have been implicated in the origin of life on the Earth. We present a parallel-velocity flow model for the radius and flow rate of a cylindrical jet of fluid that forms the template for the growth of a tube precipitated about itself and we compare the solution with previous laboratory experimental results from growth of silicate chemical gardens...
September 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988655/agricultural-experiences-are-positively-associated-with-high-school-students-fruit-and-vegetable-perceptions-and-consumption
#18
Anna E Greer, Stacey Davis, Cristina Sandolo, Nicole Gaudet, Brianna Castrogivanni
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between high school students' agricultural experiences and their (1) attitudes about consuming local fruits and vegetables, (2) willingness to try new fruits and vegetables, and (3) fruit and vegetable consumption. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey research. SETTING: Public high schools in a lower-income, diverse, urban, northeastern community. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 327 students from 3 public high schools...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988383/diversity-of-free-living-amoebae-in-soils-and-their-associated-human-opportunistic-bacteria
#19
Elodie Denet, Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Sylvie Nazaret, Michel Pélandakis, Sabine Favre-Bonté
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa found worldwide in the environment. They feed by phagocytosis on various microorganisms. However, some bacteria, i.e., amoebae-resistant bacteria (ARB) or bacterial endocytobionts, can resist phagocytosis and even multiply inside FLA. This study investigated the diversity of culturable FLA in various soils from agricultural and mining sites and their bacterial endocytobionts. FLA were cultured on non-nutrient agar with alive Escherichia coli and identified by PCR and sequencing...
October 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985449/how-does-climate-change-affect-regeneration-of-mediterranean-high-mountain-plants-an-integration-and-synthesis-of-current-knowledge
#20
REVIEW
L Giménez-Benavides, A Escudero, R García-Camacho, A García-Fernández, J M Iriondo, C Lara-Romero, J Morente-López
Mediterranean mountains are extraordinarily diverse and hold a high proportion of endemic plants but they are particularly vulnerable to climate change and most species distribution models project drastic changes in community composition. Retrospective studies and long-term monitoring also highlight that Mediterranean high-mountain plants are suffering severe range contractions. The aim of this work is to review the current knowledge of climate change impacts on the process of plant regeneration by seed in Mediterranean high-mountain plants, by combining available information from observational and experimental studies...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biology
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