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Rebecca L Maher, Michelle A Johnston, Marilyn E Brandt, Tyler B Smith, Adrienne M S Correa
Bioerosion, the removal of calcium carbonate from coral frameworks by living organisms, influences a variety of reef features, from their topographic complexity to the net balance of carbonate budgets. Little is known, however, about how macroborers, which bore into reef substrates leaving traces greater than 0.1 mm diameter, are distributed across coral reefs, particularly reef systems with high (>50%) stony coral cover or at mesophotic depths (≥30 m). Here, we present an accurate and efficient method for quantifying macroborer densities from stony coral hosts via image analysis, using the bioeroding barnacle, Lithotrya dorsalis, and its host coral, Orbicella franksi, as a case study...
2018: PloS One
Sarah J Barfield, Galina V Aglyamova, Line K Bay, Mikhail V Matz
Reef-building corals can increase their resistance to heat-induced bleaching through adaptation and acclimatization and/or by associating with a more thermo-tolerant strain of algal symbiont (Symbiodinium sp.). Here, we show that these two adaptive pathways interact. We collected Acropora millepora corals from two contrasting thermal environments on the Great Barrier Reef: cooler, mid-latitude Orpheus Island, where all corals hosted a heat-sensitive clade C Symbiodinium, and warmer, low-latitude Wilkie Island, where corals hosted either a clade C or a more thermotolerant clade D...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Jim Endersby
The early decades of the twentieth century were marked by widespread optimism about biology and its ability to improve the world. A major catalyst for this enthusiasm was new theories about inheritance and evolution (particularly Hugo de Vries's mutation theory and Mendel's newly rediscovered ideas). In Britain and the USA particularly, an astonishingly diverse variety of writers (from elite scientists to journalists and writers of fiction) took up the task of interpreting these new biological ideas, using a wide range of genres to help their fellow citizens make sense of biology's promise...
June 20, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Malek J Hallinger, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, Frank Mutschmann
BACKGROUND: Exotic reptiles such as tortoises, have become increasingly common domestic pets worldwide and are known to host different gastrointestinal parasites. Some of these parasites bear zoonotic potential. In the present survey, we parasitologically examined tortoise faecal samples (n = 1005) from 19 different species held as pets in private German households and German zoological gardens. METHODS: Saline faecal smears were used to generate prevalence data for potentially health-compromising gastrointestinal parasites...
June 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marina García-Llorente, Radha Rubio-Olivar, Inés Gutierrez-Briceño
Green care is an innovative approach that combines simultaneously caring for people and caring for land through three elements that have not been previously connected: (1) multifunctional agriculture and recognition of the plurality of agricultural system values; (2) social services and health care; and (3) the possibility of strengthening the farming sector and local communities. The current research provides a comprehensive overview of green care in Europe as a scientific discipline through a literature review ( n = 98 studies)...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pauline Marsh, Helen Courtney-Pratt, Marina Campbell
A supported community gardening program became appealing and therapeutically beneficial to people living with the impacts of dementia and their carers, despite not targeting either cohort specifically. This paper discusses how this program provides insights into the landscape of dementia inclusivity. The gardens involved were spaces that allowed positive risk-taking opportunities, respectful intersubjectivity and active citizenship. Our research findings indicate that a meaningful response to the rising incidence of dementia may be to build upon social and geographical attributes of community gardens...
June 15, 2018: Health & Place
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, G M E E Geeske Peeters, Robert J Brychta, Kong Y Chen, Wendy J Brown
Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) from accelerometer outputs remains a challenge in older adults. The aim of this study was to validate different ActiGraph (AG) equations for predicting EE in older adults. Forty older adults (age = 77.4 ± 8.1 yrs) completed a set of household/gardening activities in their residence, while wearing an AG at the hip (GT3X+) and a portable calorimeter (MetaMax 3B - criterion). Predicted EEs from AG were calculated using five equations (Freedson, refined Crouter, Sasaki and Santos-Lozano (vertical-axis, vectormagnitude))...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jungsun Hong, Franz Kevin Geronimo, Hyeseon Choi, Lee-Hyung Kim
Low-impact development (LID) techniques are being applied to reduce non-point source (NPS) pollution which are generated from various land uses. Cost-effective LID design requires consideration of influent runoff properties as well as physical and ecological pollutant-removing mechanisms. However, current LID technology design has failed to reflect the different properties of influent water from various land uses, and the biological design factors in LID facilities causing low efficiency and difficulties in maintenance...
June 9, 2018: Chemosphere
C Keller, C Wenker, T Jermann, R Hirschi, B Schildger, R Meier, H Schmidt-Posthaus
Piscine mycobacteriosis is a lethal disease with zoonotic potential, found worldwide in both fresh and marine fish. More than 20 strains of Mycobacterium spp. are known to persist in fish so far, but the pathogenicity is currently unknown for most of them. However, M. marinum is reported as one of the most pathogenic agents for fish and is involved in zoonotic cases. We examined 47 different cases from two zoological gardens, where fish tuberculosis was identified or previously suspected during the last ten years...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Dariush Naghipour, Seyed Davoud Ashrafi, Kamran Taghavi
Data on this paper describe the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in the surface soils and groundwater's of Kiwi gardens and its relation to chemical fertilizers in Amlash city, Guilan Province, in Iran. The results of this study showed that the average concentration of heavy metals in groundwater and soils of the studied areas was less than the national standards of Iran for irrigation water, Dutch MPA for soils (except Cu and Ni) and Canadian MAC for inorganic fertilizers. Considering that after fertilizing to soils used in gardening, the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater and soil can be increased significantly, so that chemical fertilizers can be considered as an effective factor in increasing the amount of heavy metals in water and soil...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Shannon M Sheppard, Katherine J Midgley, Tracy Love, Lewis P Shapiro, Phillip J Holcomb
This study investigated the interaction of prosody and thematic fit/plausibility information during the processing of sentences containing temporary early closure (correct) or late closure (incorrect) syntactic ambiguities using event-related potentials (ERPs). Early closure sentences with congruent and incongruent prosody were presented where the temporarily ambiguous NP was either a plausible or an implausible continuation for the subordinate verb (e.g. "While the band played the song/beer pleased all the customers...
2018: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Rieta Gols, Nicole M van Dam, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Ciska E Raaijmakers, James M Bullock, Jeffrey A Harvey
Levels of plant secondary metabolites are not static and often change in relation to plant ontogeny. They also respond to abiotic and biotic changes in the environment, e.g., they often increase in response to biotic stress, such as herbivory. In contrast with short-lived annual plant species, especially those with growing periods of less than 2-3 months, investment in defensive compounds of vegetative tissues in biennial and perennial species may also vary over the course of an entire growing season. In garden experiments, we investigated the dynamics of secondary metabolites, i...
2018: Chemoecology
Dorthe Varning Poulsen, Ulrika K Stigsdotter, Annette Sofie Davidsen
Serving in the military leads to mental diseases, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for a percentage of soldiers globally. The number of veterans with PTSD is increasing and, although medication and psychological treatments are offered, treatment results could be improved. Historically, different forms of nature-based therapy have been used for this target group. However, in spite of anecdotally good results, studies measuring the effect of this form of therapy are still lacking. The aim of this study is to explore how veterans with PTSD manage their everyday lives during and after a ten-week nature-based intervention in a therapy garden...
June 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Irene Martín-Forés, Belén Acosta-Gallo, Isabel Castro, José M de Miguel, Alejandro Del Pozo, Miguel A Casado
Scientists have been interested in many topics driven by biological invasions, such as shifts in the area of distribution of plant species and rapid evolution. Invasiveness of exotic plant species depends on variations on morphological and reproductive traits potentially associated with reproductive fitness and dispersal ability, which are expected to undergo changes during the invasion process. Numerous Asteraceae are invasive and display dimorphic fruits, resulting in a bet-hedging dispersal strategy -wind-dispersed fruits versus animal-dispersed fruits-...
2018: PloS One
Melissa Barber, William D Andrews, Fani Memi, Phillip Gardener, Daniel Ciantar, Mathew Tata, Christiana Ruhrberg, John G Parnavelas
Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) is essential for promoting the vascularization of the embryonic murine forebrain. In addition, it directly influences neural development, although its role in the forming forebrain is less well elucidated. It was recently suggested that Vegfa may influence the development of GABAergic interneurons, inhibitory cells with crucial signaling roles in cortical neuronal circuits. However, the mechanism by which it affects interneuron development remains unknown. Here we investigated the developmental processes by which Vegfa may influence cortical interneuron development by analyzing transgenic mice that ubiquitously express the Vegfa120 isoform to perturb its signaling gradient...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Johannes Ingrisch, Stefan Karlowsky, Alba Anadon-Rosell, Roland Hasibeder, Alexander König, Angela Augusti, Gerd Gleixner, Michael Bahn
Climate extremes and land-use changes can have major impacts on the carbon cycle of ecosystems. Their combined effects have rarely been tested. We studied whether and how the abandonment of traditionally managed mountain grassland changes the resilience of carbon dynamics to drought. In an in situ common garden experiment located in a subalpine meadow in the Austrian Central Alps, we exposed intact ecosystem monoliths from a managed and an abandoned mountain grassland to an experimental early-summer drought and measured the responses of gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, phytomass and its components, and of leaf area index during the drought and the subsequent recovery period...
2018: Ecosystems
Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya, Cheruplackal Karunakaran Athira, Mani Saminathan, Avinash Reddy, Manivasagam Aravind, Ashok Kumar
Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in captive wild animal species in India is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of different Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance patterns and genotypic relatedness of recovered isolates. A total of 370 samples including faecal (n = 314), feed and water (n = 26) and caretakers stool swabs (n = 30) were collected from 40 different wild animal species in captivity, their caretakers, feed and water in four zoological gardens and wildlife enclosures in India...
June 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Dario Paape, Barbara Hemforth, Shravan Vasishth
In a self-paced reading study on German sluicing, Paape (Paape, 2016) found that reading times were shorter at the ellipsis site when the antecedent was a temporarily ambiguous garden-path structure. As a post-hoc explanation of this finding, Paape assumed that the antecedent's memory representation was reactivated during syntactic reanalysis, making it easier to retrieve. In two eye tracking experiments, we subjected the reactivation hypothesis to further empirical scrutiny. Experiment 1, carried out in French, showed no evidence in favor in the reactivation hypothesis...
2018: PloS One
May-May Meijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Ella Kelly, Ben L Phillips
Targeted gene flow is an emerging conservation strategy. It involves translocating individuals with favorable genes to areas where they will have a conservation benefit. The applications for targeted gene flow are wide-ranging, but include pre-adapting natives to the arrival of invasive species. The endangered carnivorous marsupial, the northern quoll, has declined rapidly since the introduction of the cane toad, which fatally poisons quolls that attack them. There are, however, a few remaining toad-invaded quoll populations in which the quolls survive because they know not to eat cane toads...
June 13, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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