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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319818/a-task-based-assessment-of-parental-occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-and-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#1
Robert B Gunier, Alice Kang, S Katharine Hammond, Kyndaron Reinier, C Suzanne Lea, Jeffrey S Chang, Monique Does, Ghislaine Scelo, Janice Kirsch, Vonda Crouse, Robert Cooper, Patricia Quinlan, Catherine Metayer
OBJECTIVES: Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. METHODS: We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316116/water-availability-drives-signatures-of-local-adaptation-in-whitebark-pine-pinus-albicaulis-englm-across-fine-spatial-scales-of-the-lake-tahoe-basin-usa
#2
Brandon M Lind, Christopher J Friedline, Jill L Wegrzyn, Patricia E Maloney, Detlev R Vogler, David B Neale, Andrew J Eckert
Patterns of local adaptation at fine spatial scales are central to understanding how evolution proceeds, and are essential to the effective management of economically and ecologically important forest tree species. Here, we employ single and multilocus analyses of genetic data (n = 116,231 SNPs) to describe signatures of fine-scale adaptation within eight whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) populations across the local extent of the environmentally heterogeneous Lake Tahoe Basin, USA. We show that despite highly shared genetic variation (FST = 0...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316076/provenance-by-environment-interaction-of-reproductive-traits-in-the-invasion-of-spartina-alterniflora-in-china
#3
Wenwen Liu, Donald R Strong, Steven C Pennings, Yihui Zhang
Ecological invasions are facilitated by pre-adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, upon which evolution can act. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 years is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. A previous study of S. alterniflora in China found strong latitudinal clines in vegetative and sexual traits and concluded that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity. Recent observations suggested provenance by environment interactions, and we employed common gardens at multiple latitudes as a test of this idea...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315184/epiphyseal-arterial-network-and-inferior-retinacular-artery-seem-critical-to-femoral-head-perfusion-in-adults-with-femoral-neck-fractures
#4
Dewei Zhao, Xing Qiu, Benjie Wang, Zihua Wang, Wei Wang, Jun Ouyang, Rona M Silva, Xiaotian Shi, Kai Kang, Dachuan Xu, Chuang Li, Shizhen Zhong, Yu Zhang, Kent E Pinkerton
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the blood supply of the femoral head is essential to guide therapeutic strategies for patients with femoral neck fractures. However, because of the limitations of conventional techniques, the precise distribution and characteristics of intraosseous arteries of the femoral head are not well displayed. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To explore the characteristics and interconnections of the intraosseous vessel system between different areas of the femoral head and the possible blood supply compensatory mechanism after femoral neck fracture...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314158/asparagus-decline-autotoxicity-and-autotoxic-compounds-in-asparagus-rhizomes
#5
Hisashi Kato-Noguchi, Keisuke Nakamura, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, Nobuyuki Okuda
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a perennial vegetable, but its crop productivity and quality decrease gradually. One possible reason for "asparagus decline" is thought to be the autotoxicity of asparagus. However, the autotoxic property of asparagus rhizomes remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of rhizomes in the autotoxicity of asparagus. An aqueous methanol extract of asparagus rhizomes inhibited the growth of asparagus seedlings and six other test plants in a concentration-dependent manners: garden cress (Lepidum sativum L...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304134/a-modified-eco-efficiency-framework-and-methodology-for-advancing-the-state-of-practice-of-sustainability-analysis-as-applied-to-green-infrastructure
#6
Santosh R Ghimire, John M Johnston
We propose a modified eco-efficiency (EE) framework and novel sustainability analysis methodology for green infrastructure (GI) practices used in water resource management. GI practices such as rainwater harvesting (RWH), rain gardens, porous pavements, and green roofs are emerging as viable strategies for climate change adaptation. The modified framework includes four economic, 11 environmental, and three social indicators. Using six indicators from the framework, at least one from each dimension of sustainability, we demonstrate the methodology to analyze RWH designs...
March 17, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302633/systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-to-treat-behavioural-disturbances-in-older-patients-with-dementia-the-senator-ontop-series
#7
Iosief Abraha, Joseph M Rimland, Fabiana Mirella Trotta, Giuseppina Dell'Aquila, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Mirko Petrovic, Adalsteinn Gudmundsson, Roy Soiza, Denis O'Mahony, Antonio Guaita, Antonio Cherubini
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD). DESIGN: Systematic overview of reviews. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL and PsycINFO (2009-March 2015). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Systematic reviews (SRs) that included at least one comparative study evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to treat BPSD...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300428/empa-s-new-clothes-the-untold-story-of-the-empa-reg-outcome-trial
#8
Aus Alzaid
It is no secret that the diabetes community has been yearning for good news for quite some time. One outstanding issue undermining effective diabetes management has been the lack of demonstrable effects of glycemic interventions on cardiovascular (CV) outcome in people with type 2 diabetes. This, however, seems to have changed recently after the publication of the Empa-Reg Outcome Trial. The study reported an impressive reduction in CV deaths that was observed within weeks of treatment with the diabetes agent, Empagliflozin...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298344/the-assembly-of-ant-farmed-gardens-mutualism-specialization-following-host-broadening
#9
Guillaume Chomicki, Milan Janda, Susanne S Renner
Ant-gardens (AGs) are ant/plant mutualisms in which ants farm epiphytes in return for nest space and food rewards. They occur in the Neotropics and Australasia, but not in Africa, and their evolutionary assembly remains unclear. We here use phylogenetic frameworks for important AG lineages in Australasia, namely the ant genus Philidris and domatium-bearing ferns (Lecanopteris) and flowering plants in the Apocynaceae (Hoya and Dischidia) and Rubiaceae (Myrmecodia, Hydnophytum, Anthorrhiza, Myrmephytum and Squamellaria)...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297352/improved-setup-and-positioning-accuracy-using-a-three-point-customized-cushion-mask-bite-block-immobilization-system-for-stereotactic-reirradiation-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
He Wang, Congjun Wang, Samuel Tung, Andrew Wilson Dimmitt, Pei Fong Wong, Mark A Edson, Adam S Garden, David I Rosenthal, Clifton D Fuller, Gary B Gunn, Vinita Takiar, Xin A Wang, Dershan Luo, James N Yang, Jennifer Wong, Jack Phan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the setup and positioning uncertainty of a custom cushion/mask/bite-block (CMB) immobilization system and determine PTV margin for image-guided head and neck stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (HN-SABR). We analyzed 105 treatment sessions among 21 patients treated with HN-SABR for recurrent head and neck cancers using a custom CMB immobilization system. Initial patient setup was performed using the ExacTrac infrared (IR) tracking system and initial setup errors were based on comparison of ExacTrac IR tracking system to corrected online ExacTrac X-rays images registered to treatment plans...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295033/myosin-xi-is-associated-with-fitness-and-adaptation-to-aridity-in-wild-pearl-millet
#11
I S Ousseini, Y Bakasso, N A Kane, M Couderc, L Zekraoui, C Mariac, D Manicacci, B Rhoné, A Barnaud, C Berthouly-Salazar, A Assoumane, D Moussa, T Moussa, Y Vigouroux
Phenotypic changes in plants can be observed along many environmental gradients and are determined by both environmental and genetic factors. The identification of alleles associated with phenotypic variations is a rapidly developing area of research. We studied the genetic basis of phenotypic variations in 11 populations of wild pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on two North-South aridity gradients, one in Niger and one in Mali. Most of the 11 phenotypic traits assessed in a common garden experiment varied between the populations studied...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290078/factors-influencing-distribution-and-local-coexistence-of-diploids-and-tetraploids-of-vicia-cracca-inferences-from-a-common-garden-experiment
#12
Anežka Eliášová, Zuzana Münzbergová
Vicia cracca diploids and autotetraploids are highly parapatric in Europe; tetraploids reside in western and northern part, whereas diploids occupy much drier south-eastern part. They meet together in a Central European contact zone. This distribution pattern raised questions about a transformative effect of polyploidization on plant performance and environmental tolerances. We investigated plant survival, growth, and seed production in two water regimes in a common garden experiment using seeds collected from five localities in the Central European contact zone where diploids and tetraploids occur in sympatry...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286716/most-ornamental-plants-on-sale-in-garden-centres-are-unattractive-to-flower-visiting-insects
#13
Mihail Garbuzov, Karin Alton, Francis L W Ratnieks
BACKGROUND: Gardeners and park managers seeking to support biodiversity in urban areas often plant ornamentals attractive to flower-visiting insects. There is a huge diversity of garden plant varieties, and some recommendations are available as to which are attractive to insects. However, these are largely not based on rigorous empirical data. An important factor in consumer choice is the range of varieties available for purchase. In the UK, garden centres are a key link in the supply chain between growers and private gardens...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286711/taxonomic-and-functional-trait-diversity-of-wild-bees-in-different-urban-settings
#14
Étienne Normandin, Nicolas J Vereecken, Christopher M Buddle, Valérie Fournier
Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286164/changing-children-s-eating-behaviour-a-review-of-experimental-research
#15
REVIEW
Patricia DeCosta, Per Møller, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice...
March 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285990/classification-of-causes-and-associated-conditions-for-stillbirths-and-neonatal-deaths
#16
REVIEW
Vicki Flenady, Aleena M Wojcieszek, David Ellwood, Susannah Hopkins Leisher, Jan Jaap H M Erwich, Elizabeth S Draper, Elizabeth M McClure, Hanna E Reinebrant, Jeremy Oats, Lesley McCowan, Alison L Kent, Glenn Gardener, Adrienne Gordon, David Tudehope, Dimitrios Siassakos, Claire Storey, Jane Zuccollo, Jane E Dahlstrom, Katherine J Gold, Sanne Gordijn, Karin Pettersson, Vicki Masson, Robert Pattinson, Jason Gardosi, T Yee Khong, J Frederik Frøen, Robert M Silver
Accurate and consistent classification of causes and associated conditions for perinatal deaths is essential to inform strategies to reduce the five million which occur globally each year. With the majority of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), their needs must be prioritised. The aim of this paper is to review the classification of perinatal death, the contemporary classification systems including the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases - Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM), and next steps...
March 9, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284795/coordinating-associative-and-ecological-accounts-of-learning-in-the-garden-snail-cornu-aspersum
#17
I Loy, B Álvarez, E C Strempler-Rubio, M Rodríguez
Pavlovian conditioning of tentacle lowering in the snail, Cornu aspersum, as an instance of associative learning, has proven effective to show evidence of paradigmatic associative phenomena (e.g., blocking) explained by current models of conditioning. Nevertheless, the available literature questions the biological function of the conditioned response (i.e., tentacle lowering) in snails since no advantages in terms of food finding had been observed. Ecological accounts of learning claim that learning abilities contribute to the adaptation to the environmental demands, and there is experimental evidence supporting this reported in several species (e...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283032/sustainability-via-active-garden-education-sage-results-from-two-feasibility-pilot-studies
#18
Rebecca E Lee, Nathan H Parker, Erica G Soltero, Tracey A Ledoux, Scherezade K Mama, Lorna McNeill
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. METHODS: SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities...
March 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282618/integrating-multiple-stressors-across-life-stages-and-latitudes-combined-and-delayed-effects-of-an-egg-heat-wave-and-larval-pesticide-exposure-in-a-damselfly
#19
Szymon Sniegula, Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses...
March 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276074/survival-of-escherichia-coli-in-common-garden-mulches-spiked-with-synthetic-greywater
#20
Staci Boyte, Sarah Quaife, Jacqui Horswell, Alma Siggins
Reuse of domestic wastewater is increasingly practiced as a means to address global demands on freshwater. Greywater is primarily reused via sub-surface irrigation of gardens, where the soil environment is seen to be an integral part of the treatment process. The fate of biological contaminants (i.e. pathogens) in the soil is reasonably well understood, but their persistence and survival in soil cover layers is largely unexplored. This study investigated the ability of Escherichia coli to survive in common soil cover layers...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
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