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Peritoneal dialysis solutions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674410/a-large-intraperitoneal-residual-volume-hampers-adequate-volumetric-assessment-of-osmotic-onductance-to-glucose
#1
Anne-Lorraine Clause, Mehdi Keddar, Ralph Crott, Tom Darius, Catherine Fillée, Eric Goffin, Johann Morelle
BACKGROUND: In end-stage renal disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), the osmotic conductance to glucose (OCG) represents the intrinsic ability of the membrane to transport water in response to a crystalloid osmotic gradient. A progressive loss of OCG in long-term PD patients indicates the development of fibrosis in the peritoneal interstitium, and helps identify patients at risk for encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. The double mini-peritoneal equilibration test (PET) has been proposed as a simple method to assess OCG using the difference in initial ultrafiltration rates generated by 2 successive dwells using 1...
April 19, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667907/direct-peritoneal-resuscitation-reduces-leukocyte-infiltration-in-the-kidney-after-acute-brain-death
#2
Jessica Lee Weaver, Paul J Matheson, Amy Matheson, Victoria S Graham, Cynthia Downard, Richard Neal Garrison, Jason W Smith
Brain death is associated with significant inflammation within the kidneys, which may contribute to reduced graft survival. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation after brain death. To determine its effects, brain dead rats were resuscitated with normal saline (targeted intravenous fluid, TIVF) to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 80 mmHg and DPR animals also received 30cc of intraperitoneal peritoneal dialysis solution. Rats were euthanized at zero, two, four, and six hours after brain death...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597214/evolution-of-technology-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-forty-years-of-improvement
#3
Claudio Ronco
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581852/rhoa-rho-kinase-triggers-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-mesothelial-cells-and-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-dialysis-related-peritoneal-fibrosis
#4
Qinglian Wang, Xiaowei Yang, Ying Xu, Zhenwei Shen, Hongxia Cheng, Fajuan Cheng, Xiang Liu, Rong Wang
Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) with associated peritoneal dysfunction is almost invariably observed in long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are pro-oxidant compounds produced in excess during the metabolism of glucose and are present in high levels in standard PD solutions. The GTPase RhoA has been implicated in PF, but its specific role remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the effects of RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in AGEs-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), and evaluated morphological and molecular changes in a rat model of PD-related PF...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563277/protein-carbamylation-in-peritoneal-dialysis-and-the-effect-of-low-glucose-plus-amino-acid-solutions
#5
Caitlin Trottier, Jeffrey Perl, Megan Freeman, Ravi Thadhani, Anders Berg, Sahir Kalim
Protein carbamylation is a post-translational urea-driven protein modification associated with mortality. Free amino acids (AAs) competitively inhibit protein carbamylation and parenteral AA therapy reduces carbamylation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) yields differences in urea clearance and AA balance compared with HD, but the influence of PD and intraperitoneal AA solutions on carbamylation is unclear. Thus, we first measured carbamylated albumin (C-Alb; a marker of carbamylation load) in 100 diabetic HD patients frequency-matched by age, sex, and race to 98 diabetic PD subjects from the IMPENDIA trial, which originally compared the metabolic effects of low-glucose PD solutions (incorporating icodextrin and AAs) to a control group (dextrose-only solutions)...
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546637/influence-of-different-peritoneal-dialysis-fluids-on-the-in-vitro-activity-of-fosfomycin-against-escherichia-coli-staphylococcus-aureus-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Manuel Kussmann, Stefan Hauer, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
Peritonitis is still the main infectious complication among patients on peritoneal dialysis. For treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, the intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics admixed to peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) should be preferred. However, the influence of diverse PDFs on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been investigated insufficiently. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available PDFs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490427/icodextrin-reduces-the-risk-of-congestive-heart-failure-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#7
I-Kuan Wang, Cheng-Li Lin, Tzung-Hai Yen, Shih-Yi Lin, Liu Yao-Lung, Fung-Chang Sung
PURPOSE: Icodextrin can enhance ultrafiltration and consequently improve fluid balance and can control blood pressure and reduce left ventricular mass for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study investigated whether icodextrin use could reduce the risk of congestive heart failure (CHF) for PD patients. METHODS: From the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, we identified 5462 newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease patients undergoing PD from 2005 to 2010...
February 28, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478308/encapsulated-peritoneal-sclerosis-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-clinical-manifestations-risk-factors-and-prognosis
#8
Yener Koc, Taner Basturk, Tamer Sakaci, Feyza B Caglayan, Nuri B Hasbal, Elbis Ahbap, Mustafa Sevinc, Ayse Sinangil, Zuhal A Ucan, Perin Nazif, Mahmut Islam, Abdulkadir Unsal
BACKGROUND: Encapsulated peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a multifactorial chronic intra- abdominal inflammatory disorder affecting the peritoneum diffusely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates of EPS in our peritoneal dialysis (PD) population, to perform a general assessment of the clinical presentation and to determine the outcome of affected patients and risk factors. METHODS: The medical records of consecutive 384 patients who started PD therapy between January 2001 and November 2016 were evaluated...
February 22, 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478058/visions-in-a-crystal-ball-the-future-of-peritoneal-dialysis
#9
Joanne M Bargman, Michael Girsberger
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one of the corner stones of renal replacement therapy and should be strongly considered if preemptive kidney transplantation is not available. SUMMARY: There are several initiatives that may help the growth in the use of PD around the world. First, PD is an underused and valuable option in patients with heart failure and the chronic cardiorenal syndrome, especially in those with frequent hospitalizations despite optimal medical therapy...
January 26, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456121/establishment-of-colonic-dialysis-model-in-uremic-rats-by-right-nephrectomy-and-left-partial-nephrectomy
#10
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Nastaran Sabetkish, Shabnam Sabetkish
BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for patients suffering with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has several disadvantages, highlighting the importance of other reproducible modalities such as colonic dialysis (CD). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to establish a CD model in uremic rats and evaluate the effect of two different peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. After right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy, a Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) stoma was created...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442462/biologically-active-form-of-vitamin-b1-in-human-peritoneal-effluent
#11
Magdalena Jankowska, Monika Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Sylwia Małgorzewicz, Bolesław Rutkowski
BACKGROUND: Supplementation with vitamin B1 protects the peritoneal membrane from inflammatory and oxidative insults and preserves residual kidney function in rat models of peritoneal dialysis (PD). It is assumed that an active form of vitamin B1, thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), is responsible for this protective effect. However, it has never been shown whether ThDP, a compound known not to cross cellular membranes, is actually detectable in human peritoneal effluent. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the concentration, appearance rate, and daily loss of ThDP in the peritoneal effluent of patients treated with PD...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386309/increased-serum-lactate-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-presenting-with-intercurrent-illness
#12
Emilie Trinh, Nalinee Saiprasertkit, Joanne M Bargman
BACKGROUND: Lactate is the most commonly used buffer in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. While previous studies have shown that serum lactate is normal in stable PD patients, the purpose of our study was to evaluate whether abnormal lactate values are more common in PD patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) and have the same significance as in the general population. METHODS: This observational cohort study assessed the prevalence of elevated serum lactate in PD patients presenting to the ED and evaluated clinical factors associated with an abnormal lactate value...
January 31, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386305/single-daily-icodextrin-exchange-as-initial-and-solitary-therapy
#13
Baris U Agar, James A Sloand
BACKGROUND: Incremental dialysis utilizes gradually increasing dialysis doses in response to declines in residual kidney function, and it is the preferred renal replacement therapy for patients who have just transitioned to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) may impose fewer restrictions on patients' lifestyle, help attenuate lifetime peritoneal and systemic exposure to glucose and its degradation products, and minimize connections that could compromise the sterile fluid path...
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374917/-diagnosis-and-thoracoscopic-treatment-for-pleuroperitoneal-communication-complicating-peritoneal-dialysis
#14
W M Huang, Y F Xu, Z K Yang, S J Zhang, X Z Liu, J Li
Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of diagnosis and treatment of pleuroperitoneal communication in patients on peritoneal dialysis by computerized tomography (CT) peritoneography and thoracoscopic surgery. Methods: The records of 8 pleuroperitoneal communication patients treated by thoracoscopic surgery in Peking University First Hospital from January 2012 to March 2017 were retrospectively reviewed.CT peritoneography was performed before surgical treatment. Iopamiro (50 ml∶15 g) was mixed with 2 L of peritoneal dialysate solution, and then was instilled into the peritoneal cavity through the Tenckhoff catheter...
January 16, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363326/wnt-signaling-is-required-for-peritoneal-membrane-angiogenesis
#15
Manreet Kaur Padwal, Genyang Cheng, Limin Liu, Felix J Boivin, Azim Gangji, Kenneth Scott Brimble, Darren Bridgewater, Peter J Margetts
The WNT signaling pathway is involved in wound healing and fibrosis. We evaluated the WNT signaling pathway in peritoneal membrane injury. We assessed WNT1 protein expression in the peritoneal effluents of 54 stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and WNT-related gene expression in ex vivo mesothelial cell cultures from 21 PD patients. In a transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) mediated animal model of peritoneal fibrosis, we evaluated regulation of the WNT pathway and the effect of WNT inhibition on peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360477/peritoneal-dialysis-beyond-kidney-failure
#16
Anna Pratsinis, Olivier Devuyst, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Compared to extracorporeal modalities, peritoneal dialysis (PD) is less invasive and more cost-effective, wherein blood is dialyzed intra-corporeally against a solution instilled in the peritoneal cavity. Although PD is mainly indicated for patients with end-stage renal failure, it has also been used for several non-renal indications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the role of PD beyond kidney failure. The alternative indications of PD include hypothermia, congestive heart failure, hyperammonemia and poisoning with xenobiotics...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343697/effluent-and-serum-protein-n-glycosylation-is-associated-with-inflammation-and-peritoneal-membrane-transport-characteristics-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#17
Evelina Ferrantelli, Karima Farhat, Agnes L Hipgrave Ederveen, Karli R Reiding, Robert H J Beelen, Frans J van Ittersum, Manfred Wuhrer, Viktoria Dotz
Mass spectrometric glycomics was used as an innovative approach to identify biomarkers in serum and dialysate samples from peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. PD is a life-saving treatment worldwide applied in more than 100,000 patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. PD treatment uses the peritoneum as a natural membrane to exchange waste products from blood to a glucose-based solution. Daily exposure of the peritoneal membrane to these solutions may cause complications such as peritonitis, fibrosis and inflammation which, in the long term, lead to the failure of the treatment...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314253/peritoneal-dialysis-education-challenges-and-innovation
#18
Rajnish Mehrotra
Peritoneal dialysis is the most common modality for home dialysis and to ensure patients have access to dialysis at home, training programs have to ensure that the fellows attain clinical competency in the care of such patients. The limited data available however are sobering; about 10 years ago, 44% of nephrologists reported that they did not feel competent in the care of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. There are recognizable challenges in ensuring clinical competency of trainees that may need creative solutions...
March 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258720/safety-of-intraperitoneal-mitomycin-c-versus-intraperitoneal-oxaliplatin-in-patients-with-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-of-colorectal-cancer-undergoing-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hipec
#19
W J van Eden, N F M Kok, K Woensdregt, A D R Huitema, H Boot, A G J Aalbers
BACKGROUND: Colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is commonly treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). There is an ongoing international debate about which intraperitoneal chemotherapeutic agent is preferred, Mitomycin C (MMC) or oxaliplatin. We questioned whether the type of chemotherapeutic agent influenced postoperative complication rates or short-term survival. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study patients with colorectal PC who underwent CRS-HIPEC between January 2010 and December 2016 were included...
February 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229170/care-of-the-pediatric-patient-on-chronic-dialysis
#20
REVIEW
Annabelle N Chua, Bradley A Warady
Optimal care of the pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient on chronic dialysis is complex and requires multidisciplinary care as well as patient/caregiver involvement. The dialysis team, along with the family and patient, should all play a role in choosing the dialysis modality which best meets the patient's needs, taking into account special considerations and management issues that may be particularly pertinent to children who receive peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Meticulous attention to dialysis adequacy in terms of solute and fluid removal, as well as to a variety of clinical manifestations of ESRD, including anemia, growth and nutrition, chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular health, and neurocognitive development, is essential...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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