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Chemical warfare

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822245/sensitive-fluorescence-on-off-probes-for-the-fast-detection-of-a-chemical-warfare-agent-mimic
#1
Muhammad Shar Jhahan Khan, Ya-Wen Wang, Mathias O Senge, Yu Peng
Two highly sensitive probes bearing a nucleophilic imine moiety have been utilized for the selective detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics. Diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) was used as mimic CWAs. Both iminocoumarin-benzothiazole-based probes not only demonstrated a remarkable fluorescence ON-OFF response and good recognition, but also exhibited fast response times (10s) along with color changes upon addition of DCP. Limits of detection for the two sensors 1 and 2 were calculated as 0.065μM and 0.21μM, respectively, which are much lower than most other reported probes...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794943/decontamination-and-remediation-of-the-sulfur-mustard-simulant-cees-with-off-the-shelf-reagents-in-solution-and-gel-states-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Jennifer R Hiscock, Gianluca P Bustone, Ewan R Clark
The decontamination and remediation of sulfur mustard chemical warfare agents remains an ongoing challenge. Herein, we report the use of "off-the-shelf" metal salts alongside commercially available peroxides to catalyze the degradation of the simulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) in solution and encapsulated within a supramolecular gel.
August 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776366/structural-effect-of-thioureas-on-the-detection-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants
#3
Seonggyun Ha, Minhe Lee, Hyun Ook Seo, Sun Gu Song, Kyung-Su Kim, Chan Heum Park, Il Hee Kim, Young Dok Kim, Changsik Song
The ability to rapidly detect, identify, and monitor chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is imperative for both military and civilian defense. Since most CWAs and their simulants have an organophosphonate group, which is a hydrogen (H)-bond acceptor, many H-bond donors have been developed to effectively bind to the organophosphonate group. Although thioureas have been actively studied as an organocatalyst, they are relatively less investigated in CWA detection. In addition, there is a lack of studies on the structure-property relationship for gas phase detection...
August 16, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765846/enhanced-enzymatic-activity-from-phosphotriesterase-trimer-gold-nanoparticle-bioconjugates-for-pesticide-detection
#4
John A Hondred, Joyce C Breger, Nate T Garland, Eunkeu Oh, Kimihiro Susumu, Scott A Walper, Igor L Medintz, Jonathan C Claussen
The rapid detection of organophosphates (OPs), a class of strong neurotoxins, is critically important for monitoring acute insecticide exposure and potential chemical warfare agent use. Herein, we improve the enzymatic activity of a phosphotriesterase trimer (PTE3), an enzyme that selectively recognizes OPs directly, by conjugation with distinctly sized (i.e., 5, 10, and 20 nm diameter) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The number of enzymes immobilized on the AuNP was controlled by conjugating increasing molar ratios of PTE3 onto the AuNP surface via metal affinity coordination...
August 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762581/remote-detection-of-explosives-using-field-asymmetric-ion-mobility-spectrometer-installed-on-multicopter
#5
Yury Kostyukevich, Denis Efremov, Vladimir Ionov, Eugene Kukaev, Eugene Nikolaev
The detection of explosives and drugs in hard-to-reach places is a considerable challenge. We report the development and initial experimental characterization of the air analysis system that includes Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometer (FAIMS), array of the semiconductor gas sensors and is installed on multicopter. The system was developed based on the commercially available DJI Matrix 100 platform. For data collection and communication with operator, the special compact computer (Intel Compute Stick) was installed onboard...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749134/carbon-textiles-modified-with-copper-based-reactive-adsorbents-as-efficient-media-for-detoxification-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#6
Marc Florent, Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Rajiv Wallace, Teresa J Bandosz
Carbon textile swatch was oxidized and impregnated with copper hydroxynitrate. A subsample was then further heated at 280 °C to form copper oxide. The swatches preserved their integrity through the treatments. As final products, they exhibited remarkable detoxification properties for the nerve agent surrogate dimethyl chlorophosphate (DMCP). Based on the amount of reactive copper phases deposited on the fibers, their adsorption capacities were higher than those of the bulk powders. After 1 day exposure to DMCP (1:1 weight ratio adsorbent/DMCP), 99% of the initial amount of DMCP was eliminated...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748326/the-factor-structure-of-the-spiritual-well-being-scale-in-veterans-experienced-chemical-weapon-exposure
#7
Hamid Sharif Nia, Saeed Pahlevan Sharif, Christopher Boyle, Ameneh Yaghoobzadeh, Bahram Tahmasbi, G Hussein Rassool, Mozhgan Taebei, Mohammad Ali Soleimani
This study aimed to determine the factor structure of the spiritual well-being among a sample of the Iranian veterans. In this methodological research, 211 male veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare completed the Paloutzian and Ellison spiritual well-being scale. Maximum likelihood (ML) with oblique rotation was used to assess domain structure of the spiritual well-being. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, Theta (θ), and McDonald Omega (Ω) coefficients, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and construct reliability (CR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746736/defensive-repertoire-of-drosophila-larvae-in-response-to-toxic-fungi
#8
Monika Trienens, Ken Kraaijeveld, Bregje Wertheim
Chemical warfare including insecticidal secondary metabolites is a well-known strategy for environmental microbes to monopolize a food source. Insects in turn have evolved behavioural and physiological defences to eradicate or neutralize the harmful microorganisms. We studied the defensive repertoire of insects in this interference competition by combining behavioural and developmental assays with whole-transcriptome time-series analysis. Confrontation with the toxic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans severely reduced the survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745436/comparison-of-four-different-fuller-s-earth-formulations-in-skin-decontamination
#9
Annick Roul, Cong-Anh-Khanh Le, Marie-Paule Gustin, Emmanuel Clavaud, Bernard Verrier, Fabrice Pirot, Françoise Falson
Industrial accidents, wars and terrorist threats are potential sources of skin contamination by highly toxic chemical warfare agents and manufacturing compounds. We have compared the time-dependent adsorption capacity and decontamination efficiency of fuller's earth (FE) for four different formulations for the molecular tracer, 4-cyanophenol (4-CP), in vitro and ex vivo using water decontamination as standard. The adsorption capacity of FE was assessed in vitro for 4-CP aqueous solutions whereas decontamination efficiency was investigated ex vivo by tracking porcine skin 4-CP content using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737947/a-reactive-eremophilane-and-its-antibacterial-2-1h-naphthalenone-rearrangement-product-witnesses-of-a-microbial-chemical-warfare
#10
Séverine Amand, Marine Vallet, Laura Guedon, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Frank Wien, Stéphane Mann, Joëlle Dupont, Soizic Prado, Bastien Nay
Two sesquiterpenes, 4-epi-microsphaeropsisin (1) and a dihydrofurano-2(1H)-naphthalenone (variabilone, 2) which represents a new skeleton, were isolated from endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile. Reactivity studies showed that eremophilane 1 is a precursor of 2 through acid-promoted methyl 1,2-migration and aromatization. An electrophilic intermediate of this transformation was intercepted by N-acetylcysteamine, a biomimetic nucleophile. Only compound 2 was antibacterial against endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis (coisolated with P...
July 24, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717106/a-carcinogenicity-study-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-f344-rats-in-drinking-water-for-104-weeks
#11
Takashi Yamaguchi, Min Gi, Masaki Fujioka, Kenichiro Doi, Takahiro Okuno, Anna Kakehashi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a neurotoxic organic arsenical used as a chemical warfare agent, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. We previously demonstrated that DPAA promotes diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term rat liver bioassay. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of DPAA, including investigation of whether the bile duct hyperplasia in the liver that was observed in a previous 52 week rat chronic study develops into a tumor, when administered to rats in their drinking water for 104 weeks...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712549/determination-of-trace-amounts-of-g-type-nerve-agents-in-aqueous-samples-utilizing-in-vial-instantaneous-derivatization-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Avi Weissberg, Moran Madmon, Maor Elgarisi, Shai Dagan
A methodology for sensitive determination of sarin (GB), soman (GD) and cyclosarin (GF) chemical warfare agents in aqueous media was developed. The method incorporates direct derivatization with 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenol (2-DMAMP), a commercially available, water-soluble reagent, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis in the positive ion mode. Five derivatization agents were characterized for their MS/MS fragmentation pattern, and their reaction time, temperature and derivatization-reagent amount were optimized...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708375/enzyme-that-makes-you-cry-crystal-structure-of-lachrymatory-factor-synthase-from-allium-cepa
#13
Josie A Silvaroli, Matthew J Pleshinger, Surajit Banerjee, Philip D Kiser, Marcin Golczak
The biochemical pathway that gives onions their savor is part of the chemical warfare against microbes and animals. This defense mechanism involves formation of a volatile lachrymatory factor (LF) ((Z)-propanethial S-oxide) that causes familiar eye irritation associated with onion chopping. LF is produced in a reaction catalyzed by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS). The principles by which LFS facilitates conversion of a sulfenic acid substrate into LF have been difficult to experimentally examine owing to the inherent substrate reactivity and lability of LF...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674156/the-botulinum-toxin-legend-of-reinhard-heydrich-s-death-the-end-of-himmler-s-brain
#14
Laurent Tatu, Wolfgang Jost, Julien Bogousslavsky
The high-ranking German Nazi Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) was one of the main organizers of the mass murder of Jews during the Second World War. He died on June 4, 1942, in Prague after having been wounded in Operation Anthropoid planned by the British intelligence services. Since the 1970s and 1980s, Heydrich's death has been frequently presented in British, American, and French literature as the consequence of a bacteriologic attack. Botulinum toxin would have been used in the grenades or ammunition. We discuss the botulinum toxin hypothesis using the now declassified British archives of Operation Anthropoid and of the chemical and bacteriologic warfare centers to assess this hypothesis...
July 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667758/tgf-%C3%AE-and-th17-cells-related-injuries-in-patients-with-sulfur-mustard-exposure
#15
REVIEW
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Saeed Hassani, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating agent that has been employed as a chemical warfare agent. High-dose exposure to sulfur mustard may lead to the damage of rapidly proliferating cells of bone marrow and, therefore, suppression of the immune system. This may be continued as dysfunction of the immune system, and ultimately result in secondary immune disorders. Studies have suggested a role for T cells in SM-induced lung injury. Moreover, observations from animal studies indicate a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response after skin exposure to SM, providing an understanding that SM can stimulate specific T cell-mediated immune responses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653852/chemical-warfare-agents-detoxification-properties-of-zirconium-metal-organic-frameworks-by-synergistic-incorporation-of-nucleophilic-and-basic-sites
#16
Rodrigo Gil-San-Millan, Elena López-Maya, Morgan Hall, Natalia M Padial, Gregory W Peterson, Jared B DeCoste, L Marleny Rodríguez-Albelo, J Enrique Oltra, Elisa Barea, Jorge A R Navarro
The development of protective self-detoxifying materials is an important societal challenge to counteract risk of attacks employing highly toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this work, we have developed bifunctional zirconium metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) incorporating variable amounts of nucleophilic amino residues by means of formation of the mixed ligand [Zr6O4(OH)4(bdc)6(1-x)(bdc-NH2)6x] (UiO-66-xNH2) and [Zr6O4(OH)4(bpdc)6(1-x)(bpdc-(NH2)2)6x] (UiO-67-x(NH2)2) systems where bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate; bdc-NH2= benzene-2-amino-1,4-dicarboxylate; bpdc = 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate; bpdc-(NH2)2 = 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate and x = 0, 0...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653831/detoxification-of-a-sulfur-mustard-simulant-using-a-bodipy-functionalized-zirconium-based-metal-organic-framework
#17
Ahmet Atilgan, Timur Islamoglu, Ashlee J Howarth, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
Effective detoxification of chemical warfare agents is a global necessity. As a powerful photosensitizer, a halogenated BODIPY ligand is postsynthetically appended to the Zr6 nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, to enhance singlet oxygen generation from the MOF. The BODIPY/MOF material is then used as a heterogeneous photocatalyst to produce singlet oxygen under green LED irradiation. The singlet oxygen selectively detoxifies the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), to the less toxic sulfoxide derivative (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide, CEESO) with a half-life of approximately 2 min...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627233/express-raman-spectroscopic-detection-for-simulants-of-chemical-warfare-agents-using-a-spatial-heterodyne-spectrometer
#18
Guangxiao Hu, Wei Xiong, Haiyan Luo, Hailiang Shi, Zhiwei Li, Jing Shen, Xuejing Fang, Biao Xu, Jicheng Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622352/volunteer-trials-of-a-novel-improvised-dry-decontamination-protocol-for-use-during-mass-casualty-incidents-as-part-of-the-uk-s-initial-operational-response-ior
#19
Richard Amlôt, Holly Carter, Lorna Riddle, Joanne Larner, Robert P Chilcott
Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid evacuation, disrobing and emergency decontamination can enhance the ability of emergency services and acute hospitals to effectively manage chemically-contaminated casualties. The purpose of this human volunteer study was to further optimise such an "Initial Operational Response" by (1) identifying an appropriate method for performing improvised skin decontamination and (2) providing guidance for use by first responders and casualties. The study was performed using two readily available, absorbent materials (paper towels and incontinence pads)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603241/-the-treatment-of-wounds-during-world-war-i
#20
Sergio Sabbatani, Sirio Fiorino
The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases...
June 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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