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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203275/sulfur-mustard-skin-lesions-a-systematic-review-on-pathomechanisms-treatment-options-and-future-research-directions
#1
Dorothee Rose, Annette Schmidt, Matthias Brandenburger, Tabea Sturmheit, Marietta Zille, Johannes Boltze
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare, which has been used for one hundred years. However, its exact pathomechanisms are still incompletely understood and there is no specific therapy available so far. In this systematic review, studies published between January 2000 and July 2017 involving pathomechanisms and experimental treatments of SM-induced skin lesions were analyzed to summarize current knowledge on SM pathology, to provide an overview on novel treatment options, and to identify promising targets for future research to more effectively counter SM effects...
December 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199610/potential-utility-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-mustard-lung
#2
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Mozaffari Hashjin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
More than a century after the introduction of sulfur mustard (SM), as a chemical warfare agent, it has affected thousands of military and civilians on several occasions. The most notable toxic effects of this easily produced chemical, are lung damage ranges from necrotic, hemorrhagic, and infectious acute-lung injury to chronic conditions (i.e., mustard lung). While there is no definite treatment for individuals exposed to sulfur mustard, corticosteroids, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, immunosuppressive medicines, and magnesium are being used to help victims...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197625/chemical-warfare-agents-classes-and-targets
#3
Michael Schwenk
Synthetic toxic chemicals (toxicants) and biological poisons (toxins) have been developed as chemical warfare agents in the last century. At the time of their initial consideration as chemical weapon, only restricted knowledge existed about their mechanisms of action. There exist two different types of acute toxic action: nonspecific cytotoxic mechanisms with multiple chemo-biological interactions versus specific mechanisms that tend to have just a single or a few target biomolecules. TRPV1- and TRPA-receptors are often involved as chemosensors that induce neurogenic inflammation...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183814/sulfur-mustard-resistant-keratinocytes-obtained-elevated-glutathione-levels-and-other-changes-in-the-antioxidative-defense-mechanism
#4
Simone Rothmiller, Sarah Schröder, Romano Strobelt, Markus Wolf, Jin Wang, Xiqian Jiang, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz, Horst Thiermann, Annette Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent blistering chemical warfare agent, which was first used in 1917. Despite the Chemical Weapons Convention, a use was recently reported in Syria in 2015. This emphasizes the importance to develop countermeasures against chemical warfare agents. Despite intensive research, there is still no antidote or prophylaxis available against SM. METHODS: The newly developed SM-resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM was used to identify new target structures for drug development, particularly the adaptations in protective measures against oxidative stress...
November 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171299/whole-body-exposure-of-rats-to-sulfur-mustard-vapor
#5
Shlomit Dachir, Ishai Rabinovitz, Guy Yaacov, Hila Gutman, Liat Cohen, Vered Horwitz, Maayan Cohen, Tamar Kadar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis...
November 24, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170661/trade-diplomacy-and-warfare-the-quest-for-elite-rhizobia-inoculant-strains
#6
Alice Checcucci, George C DiCenzo, Marco Bazzicalupo, Alessio Mengoni
Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165990/uio-66-nh2-mof-nucleation-on-tio2-zno-and-al2o3-ald-treated-polymer-fibers-role-of-metal-oxide-on-mof-growth-and-catalytic-hydrolysis-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants
#7
Dennis T Lee, Junjie Zhao, Christopher J Oldham, Gregory W Peterson, Gregory N Parsons
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) chemically bound to polymeric microfibrous textiles show promising performance for many future applications. In particular, Zr-based UiO-66-family MOF-textiles have been shown to catalytically degrade highly toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs), where favorable MOF/polymer bonding and adhesion are attained by placing a nanoscale metal-oxide layer on the polymer fiber preceding MOF growth. To date, however, the nucleation mechanism of Zr-based MOFs on different metal oxides and how product performance is affected are not well understood...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155286/sulfur-mustard-induced-epigenetic-modifications-over-time-a-pilot-study
#8
Thilo Simons, Dirk Steinritz, Birgit Bölck, Annette Schmidt, Tanja Popp, Horst Thiermann, Thomas Gudermann, Wilhelm Bloch, Kai Kehe
The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) can cause long-term health effects that may occur even years after a single exposure. The underlying pathophysiology is unknown, but epigenetic mechanisms are discussed as feasible explanation. "Epigenetics" depicts regulation of gene function without affecting the DNA sequence itself. DNA-methylation and covalent histone modifications (methylation or acetylation) are regarded as important processes. In the present in vitro study using early endothelial cells (EEC), we analyzed SM-induced DNA methylation over time and compared results to an in vivo skin sample that was obtained approx...
November 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155040/radiolabelled-soman-binding-to-sera-from-rats-guinea-pigs-and-monkeys
#9
David E Lenz, Douglas Cerasoli, Donald M Maxwell
Soman is a highly toxic organophosphorus chemical warfare compound that binds rapidly and irreversibility to a variety of serine active enzymes, i.e., butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterases and carboxylesterase. The in vivo toxicity of soman has been reported to vary significantly in different animal species, such as rats and guinea pigs or non-human primates. This species variation makes it difficult to identify appropriate animal models for therapeutic drug development under the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141200/phosgene-oxime-injury-and-associated-mechanisms-compared-to-vesicating-agents-sulfur-mustard-and-lewisite
#10
Dinesh Giri Goswami, Rajesh Agarwal, Neera Tewari-Singh
Phosgene Oxime (CX, Cl2CNOH), a halogenated oxime, is a potent chemical weapon that causes immediate acute injury and systemic effects. CX, grouped together with vesicating agents, is an urticant or nettle agent with highly volatile, reactive, corrosive, and irritating vapor, and has considerably different chemical properties and toxicity compared to other vesicants. CX is absorbed quickly through clothing with faster cutaneous penetration compared to other vesicating agents causing instantaneous and severe damage...
November 12, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136135/sarin-exposures-in-a-cohort-of-british-military-participants-in-human-experimental-research-at-porton-down-1945-1987
#11
Thomas J Keegan, Lucy M Carpenter, Claire Brooks, Toby Langdon, Katherine M Venables
Background: The effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents in humans are topical. Porton Down is the UK's centre for research on chemical warfare where, since WWI, a programme of experiments involving ~30000 participants drawn from the UK armed services has been undertaken. Objectives: Our aim is to report on exposures to nerve agents, particularly sarin, using detailed exposure data not explored in a previous analysis. Methods: In this paper, we have used existing data on exposures to servicemen who attended the human volunteer programme at Porton Down to examine exposures to nerve agents in general and to sarin in particular...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129815/biological-effects-of-adipocytes-in-sulfur-mustard-induced-toxicity
#12
Hua Xu, Zhongcai Gao, Peng Wang, Bin Xu, Yajiao Zhang, Long Long, Cheng Zong, Lei Guo, Weijian Jiang, Qinong Ye, Lili Wang, Jianwei Xie
Sulphur mustard (2,2'-dichloroethyl sulfide; SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent whose mechanism of acute or chronic action is not known with any certainty and to date there is no effective antidote. SM accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) has been originally verified in our previous study. To evaluate the biological effect caused by the presence of abundant SM in adipocyte and assess the biological role of AT in SM poisoning, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. High content analysis revealed multi-cytotoxicity in SM exposed cells in a time and dose dependent manner, and adipocytes showed a relative moderate damage compared with non-adipocytes...
November 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128639/degradation-of-pesticides-with-rsdl-%C3%A2-reactive-skin-decontamination-lotion-kit-lotion-lc-ms-investigation
#13
Messele Fentabil, Mulu Gebremedhin, J Garfield Purdon, Laura Cochrane, Virginia Streusand Goldman
This study examined the degradation of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides using RSDL(®) (Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit) lotion. Degradation occurs from a nucleophilic substitution (SN) reaction between an ingredient in the RSDL lotion, potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO), with susceptible sites in the pesticides. Evaluation at several molar ratios of KBDO:test articles using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques was performed. The OP test articles, parathion, paraoxon, parathion-methyl, paraoxon-methyl and chlorpyrifos were effectively degraded at molar ratios of four and above in less than 6minutes contact time...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120115/quantitative-determination-of-acidic-hydrolysis-products-of-chemical-weapons-convention-related-chemicals-from-aqueous-and-soil-samples-using-ion-pair-solid-phase-extraction-and-in-situ-butylation
#14
Suresh Pal Anagoni, Asma Kauser, Gopal Maity, Vijayasarathi V R Upadhyayula
Chemical warfare agents such as organophospshorus nerve agents, mustard agents, and psychotomimetic agent like 3-quinuclidinylbenzilate degrade in the environment and form acidic degradation products the analysis of which is difficult under normal analytical conditions. In the present work a simultaneous extraction and derivatization method in which the analytes are butylated followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric identification of the analytes from aqueous and soil samples was carried out. The extraction was carried out using ion-pair solid-phase extraction with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the electron ionization mode...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113833/the-role-of-genetic-background-in-susceptibility-to-chemical-warfare-nerve-agents-across-rodent-and-non-human-primate-models
#15
REVIEW
Liana M Matson, Hilary S McCarren, C Linn Cadieux, Douglas M Cerasoli, John H McDonough
Genetics likely play a role in various responses to nerve agent exposure, as genetic background plays an important role in behavioral, neurological, and physiological responses to environmental stimuli. Mouse strains or selected lines can be used to identify susceptibility based on background genetic features to nerve agent exposure. Additional genetic techniques can then be used to identify mechanisms underlying resistance and sensitivity, with the ultimate goal of developing more effective and targeted therapies...
November 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111251/deep-sea-habitats-in-the-chemical-warfare-dumping-areas-of-the-baltic-sea
#16
Michał Czub, Lech Kotwicki, Thomas Lang, Hans Sanderson, Zygmunt Klusek, Miłosz Grabowski, Marta Szubska, Jaromir Jakacki, Jan Andrzejewski, Daniel Rak, Jacek Bełdowski
The Baltic Sea is a severely disturbed marine ecosystem that has previously been used as a dumping ground for Chemical Warfare Agents (CW). The presence of unexploded underwater ordnance is an additional risk factor for offshore activities and an environmental risk for the natural resources of the sea. In this paper, the focus is on descriptions of the marine habitat based on the observations arising from studies linked to the CHEMSEA, MODUM and DAIMON projects. Investigated areas of Bornholm, Gotland and Gdańsk Deeps are similarly affected by the Baltic Sea eutrophication, however, at depths greater than 70m several differences in local hydrological regimes and pore-water heavy metal concentrations between those basins were observed...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096055/an-unusual-double-beckmann-fragmentation-reaction-under-physiological-conditions
#17
Lin-Na Xie, Chun-Hua Huang, Dan Xu, Feng Li, Jun-Ge Zhu, Chen Shen, Bo Shao, Hui-Ying Gao, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Ben-Zhan Zhu
Pyridinium aldoximes, which are best-known as therapeutic antidotes for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve-agents and pesticides, have been found to markedly detoxify polyhalogenated quinones which are a class of carcinogenic intermediates and recently identified disinfection byproducts in drinking water. However, the exact chemical mechanism underlying this detoxication remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that pralidoxime can remarkably facilitate the dechlorination/hydroxylation of the highly toxic tetrachloro-1, 4-benzoquinone in two-consecutive steps to generate the much less toxic 2, 5-dichloro-3, 6-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoquonine, with rate enhancements of up to 180,000-times...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094739/microwave-assisted-activation-and-modulator-removal-in-zirconium-mofs-for-buffer-free-cwa-hydrolysis
#18
Y Kalinovskyy, N J Cooper, M J Main, S J Holder, B A Blight
A novel, facile and efficient method was developed for the activation of acetic acid modulated zirconium MOFs. The protocol involves briefly heating the material in water using microwave irradiation. MOF-808, DUT-84 and UiO-66 were all activated in this manner to remove the modulator and organic solvent from the framework post synthesis, with retention of MOF integrity post activation. The degree of activation was characterised by the use of TGA and NMR. The catalytic activity of the activated MOFs and their non-activated counterparts was investigated for chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis...
November 21, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091431/application-of-the-ugi-multicomponent-reaction-in-the-synthesis-of-reactivators-of-nerve-agent-inhibited-acetylcholinesterase
#19
Martijn C de Koning, Marloes J A Joosen, Franz Worek, Florian Nachon, Marco van Grol, Steven D Klaassen, Duurt P W Alkema, Timo Wille, Hans M de Bruijn
Recently, a new class of reactivators of chemical warfare agent inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with promising in vitro potential was developed by the covalent linkage of an oxime nucleophile and a peripheral site ligand. However, the complexity of these molecular structures thwarts their accessibility. We report the compatibility of various oxime-based compounds with the use of the Ugi multicomponent reaction in which four readily accessible building blocks are mixed together to form a product that links a reactivating unit and a potential peripheral site ligand...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078194/desorption-of-sulphur-mustard-simulants-methyl-salicylate-and-2-chloroethyl-ethyl-sulphide-from-contaminated-scalp-hair-after-vapour-exposure
#20
Marie Spiandore, Mélanie Souilah-Edib, Anne Piram, Alexandre Lacoste, Denis Josse, Pierre Doumenq
Chemical warfare agents have been used to incapacitate, injure or kill people, in a context of war or terrorist attack. It has previously been shown that hair could trap the sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. In order to investigate simulants persistency in hair after intense vapour exposure, their desorption kinetics were studied by using two complementary methods: hair residual content measurement and desorbed vapour monitoring. Results showed that both simulants were detected in air and could be recovered from hair 2 h after the end of exposure...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
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