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Chemical warfare

Robert B Balow, Jeffrey G Lundin, Grant C Daniels, Wesley O Gordon, Monica McEntee, Gregory W Peterson, James H Wynne, Pehr E Pehrsson
Zirconium hydroxide (Zr(OH)4) has excellent sorption properties and wide-ranging reactivity towards numerous types of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals. Under pristine laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of Zr(OH)4 has been attributed to a combination of diverse surface hydroxyl species and defects; however, atmospheric components (e.g. CO2, H2O, etc.) and trace contaminants can form adsorbates with potentially detrimental impact to the chemical reactivity of Zr(OH)4. Here, we report the hydrolysis of a chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on Zr(OH)4 determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under ambient conditions...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sanping Zhao, Hailing Xi, Yanjun Zuo, Qi Wang, Zhicheng Wang, Zengyuan Yan
(13)C NMR spectra showed that peroxymonocarbonate (HCO4(-)) was generated in the NaHCO3-activated H2O2 solution and pH was a key factor in its production. A cycle for the bicarbonate anion was proposed as HCO3(-)→HCO3 → (CO2)2*→CO2(aq)→HCO4(-) (H2CO4)→HCO3(-) (HCO3) basing on the results of NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance, chemiluminescence analysis. In this cycle, (CO2)2* was the key intermediate and (CO2)2*→2CO2+hv was the rate controlling step. Thioanisole and paraoxon, the simulants of sulfur mustard gas and nerve gas, respectively, were efficiently decontaminated by the NaHCO3-activated H2O2 solution...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qiong Wang, Charles H Chen, Cheng-Yu Chung, Joseph Priola, Jeffrey H Chu, Juechun Tang, Martin B Ulmschneider, Michael J Betenbaugh
Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), predominantly tetramers with a residence time of days, offers the potential to scavenge organophosphorus pesticides and chemical warfare agents. Efficient assembly of human BChE into tetramers requires an association with proline-rich peptide chaperones. In this study, the incorporation of different proline-rich peptide chaperones into BChE was investigated computationally and experimentally. First, we applied molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to interpret the interactions between proline-rich chaperones with human BChE tetramer domains...
October 12, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Michael S Wiederoder, Eric C Nallon, Matt Weiss, Shannon K McGraw, Vincent P Schnee, Collin J Bright, Michael P Polcha, Randy C Paffenroth, Joshua R Uzarski
A cross-reactive array of semi-selective chemiresistive sensors made of polymer-graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite coated electrodes was examined for detection and discrimination of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The arrays employ a set of chemically diverse polymers to generate a unique response signature for multiple CWA simulants and background interferents. The developed sensors' signal remains consistent after repeated exposures to multiple analytes for up to five days with a similar signal magnitude across different replicate sensors with the same polymer-GNP coating...
October 11, 2017: ACS Sensors
Maryam Iman, Ramazan Rezaei, Sadegh Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, Parvin Shariati, Farrah Kheradmand, Jafar Salimian
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4(+)T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Thomas James, Stacey Wyke, Tim Marczylo, Samuel Collins, Tom Gaulton, Kerry Foxall, Richard Amlôt, Raquel Duarte-Davidson
Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining non-toxic at the dose applied...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Kevin P Sullivan, Wade A Neiwert, Huadong Zeng, Anil K Mehta, Qiushi Yin, Daniel A Hillesheim, Skanda Vivek, Panchao Yin, Daniel L Collins-Wildman, Eric R Weeks, Tianbo Liu, Craig L Hill
We report the synthesis and characterization of a new class of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers composed of covalently-bound 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide linkers and anionic polyoxovanadate clusters with varying counter-cations. These materials form gels within seconds upon contact with polar aprotic organic liquids and catalyze the degradation of odorants and toxic molecules under mild conditions including aerobic oxidation of thiols, hydrogen peroxide-catalyzed oxidation of sulfides, and hydrolysis of organophosphate chemical warfare agent analogues...
October 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Arezoo Khosravi, Mohamad Ali Motamedi, Davoud Kazemi-Saleh, Jafar Aslani, Mostafa Ghanei
INTRODUCTION: Mustard gas (MG) is a chemical warfare agent widely used in the Iran-Iraq War. Its catastrophic effects on the lungs, eyes, and skin have been well studied. However, it also affects the cardiovascular system. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of MG on right ventricular (RV) function. METHODS: All patients presenting to the university clinics between May 2014 and September 2015 were consecutively evaluated to enter the study based on the inclusion criteria (documented proof of chemical injury, no past or present cardiovascular disease, not a current smoker, and no history of sleep apnea)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Kalyani Chaubey, Syed Imteyaz Alam, D P Nagar, Chandra Kant Waghmare, S C Pant, Lokendra Singh, Nalini Srivastava, Bijoy K Bhattacharya
Sarin is an organophosphorus chemical warfare agent which irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Acute toxicity after sarin exposure is due to hyper activation of the nicotinic and muscarinic receptor. Survivors of sarin exposure often develop long term neuropathology referred as organophosphorus ester induced chronic neurotoxicity. However, the exact mechanism of chronic neuro-toxicity is yet unknown. We studied proteomic changes in rat brain regions after 0.5 LD50 dose of sarin and investigated some milestone changes associated with long term CNS injury...
August 16, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Neera Tewari-Singh, Dinesh G Goswami, Rama Kant, David A Ammar, Dileep Kumar, Robert W Enzenauer, Robert P Casillas, Claire R Croutch, J Mark Petrash, Rajesh Agarwal
Lewisite (LEW), a potent arsenical vesicating chemical warfare agent, poses a continuous risk of accidental exposure in addition to its feared use as a terrorist weapon. Ocular tissue is exquisitely sensitive to LEW and exposure can cause devastating corneal lesions. However, detailed pathogenesis of corneal injury and related mechanisms from LEW exposure that could help identify targeted therapies are not available. Using an established consistent and efficient exposure system, we evaluated the pathophysiology of the corneal injury in New-Zealand white rabbits following LEW vapor exposure (at 0...
September 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
H Abdizadeh, A R Atilgan, C Atilgan, B Dedeoglu
With the advances in three-dimensional structure determination techniques, high quality structures of the iron transport proteins transferrin and the bacterial ferric binding protein (FbpA) have been deposited in the past decade. These are proteins of relatively large size, and developments in hardware and software have only recently made it possible to study their dynamics using standard computational resources. We review computational techniques towards understanding the equilibrium and kinetic properties of iron transport proteins under different environmental conditions...
October 2, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
R Bogan, H J Maas, T Zimmermann
Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL(®)) is used for the decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Compounds after dermal exposure. It has to be stockpiled over a long period and is handled in all climatic zones. Therefore stability is an essential matter of concern. In this work we describe a study to the chemical stability of RSDL(®) as basis for an estimation of shelf life. We analysed RSDL(®) for the active ingredient 2,3-butandione monoxime (diacetylmonooxime, DAM), the putative degradation product dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and unknown degradation products by means of a reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
September 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Matthew D McGraw, Christopher M Osborne, Emily J Mastej, Jorge A Di Paola, Dana R Anderson, Wesley W Holmes, Danielle C Paradiso, Rhonda B Garlick, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Raymond C Rancourt, Russell W Smith, Carol Burns, Gates B Roe, Jacqueline S Rioux, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent. When inhaled, SM causes significant injury to the respiratory tract. Although the mechanism involved in acute airway injury after SM inhalation has been well described previously, the mechanism of SM's contribution to distal lung vascular injury is not well understood. We hypothesized that acute inhalation of vaporized SM causes activated systemic coagulation with subsequent pulmonary vascular thrombi formation after SM inhalation exposure. Sprague Dawley rats inhaled SM ethanolic vapor (3...
October 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Slavica Vucinic, Biljana Antonijevic, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Anca Oana Docea, Alexander E Nosyrev, Boris N Izotov, Horst Thiermann, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Dragica Brkic
Exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents, the most deadly chemical warfare agents, is possible in a variety of situations, such as destruction of chemical warfare agents, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts or accidents in research laboratories and storage facilities. Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed of at the sea in the post World War II period, with European, Russian, Japanese and US coasts being the most affected. Sulfur mustard, Lewisite and nerve agents appear to be the most frequently chemical warfare agents disposed of at the sea...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Austin Jiang, Howard Maibach
Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Martijn C de Koning, Marco van Grol, Troy Breijaert
In recent years, Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been developed that facilitate catalytic degradation of toxic organophosphate agents, such as chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Because of strict regulations, experiments using live agents are not possible for most laboratories and, as a result, simulants are used in the majority of cases. Reports that employ real CWAs are scarce and do not cover the whole spectrum of agents. We here present a comparative study in which UiO-66-NH2, NU-1000, MOF-808, and PCN-777 are evaluated for their effectiveness in the degradation of paraoxon and the chemical warfare agents tabun, VX, and soman, in N-ethylmorpholine buffer (pH 10) as well as in pure water...
October 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Igor V Schweigert, Daniel Gunlycke
We present hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations of hydrolysis of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) by the cyclic tetramer of zirconium hydroxide [Zr4(OH)16]. Various binding configurations of DMMP and its hydrolysis products on the tetramer as well as transition structures connecting them were explored using structure optimizations based on multiple, randomly selected initial structures. We find that DMMP can bind to the tetramer through the phosphoryl O, forming either a strong hydrogen bond to a bridging hydroxyl or a coordinate bond to a coordinatively unsaturated Zr atom...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Marc Florent, Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Teresa J Bandosz
Removal of chemical warfare agent (CWA) surrogates by highly porous carbon textiles was investigated. The carbon cloth was modified by oxidation in a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid. This process did not affect textile structural integrity. The surface properties of the modified textiles were investigated, and their capabilities to remove 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and diethylsulfide (EES), two mustard gas surrogates, were evaluated. The oxidized carbon textiles have a highly active surface that has the ability to form radical species...
September 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jennifer S Strehse, Daniel Appel, Catharina Geist, Hans-Jörg Martin, Edmund Maser
Since World War I considerable amounts of warfare material have been dumped at sea worldwide, but little is known about the fate of the explosive components in the marine environment. Sea dumped munitions are able to contaminate the surroundings because of the release of explosive chemicals due to corrosion and breaching or by detonation after blast-operations. This implies the risk of accumulation of toxic compounds in human and wildlife food chains. With the help of divers, we performed an active biomonitoring study with transplanted blue mussels (M...
September 1, 2017: Toxicology
Elizabeth S Dhummakupt, Phillip M Mach, Daniel Carmany, Paul S Demond, Theodore S Moran, Theresa Connell, Harold S Wylie, Nicholas E Manicke, J Michael Nilles, Trevor Glaros
Paper spray ionization mass spectrometry offers a rapid alternative platform requiring no sample preparation. Aerosolized chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants trimethyl phosphate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and diisopropyl methylphosphonate were captured by passing air through a glass fiber filter disk within a disposable paper spray cartridge. CWA simulants were aerosolized at varying concentrations using an in-house built aerosol chamber. A custom 3D-printed holder was designed and built to facilitate the aerosol capture onto the paper spray cartridges...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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