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Chemical warfare

Lindsey R Hamilton, Steven C Schachter, Todd M Myers
Galantamine hydrobromide and (-)huperzine A, centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are potentially superior to the current standard, pyridostigmine bromide, as a pretreatment for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Galantamine, huperzine, and pyridostigmine were compared for time course of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in 12 cynomolgus macaques. Although both galantamine and huperzine shared a similar time course profile for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, huperzine was 88 times more potent than galantamine...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Alfred J Baca, Heather A Meylemans, Lawrence Baldwin, Lee R Cambrea, Ji Feng, Yadong Yin, M Joseph Roberts
AgInS2 (AIS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via a thermal decomposition reaction with dodecylamine as the ligand to help stabilize the QDs. This reaction procedure is relatively easy to implement, scalable to large batches (up to hundreds of milligrams of QDs are produced), and a convenient method for the synthesis of chalcogenide QDs. Metal powders of AgNO3 and In(NO3)3, were used as the metal precursors while diethyldithiocarbamate was used as the sulfur source. The AIS QDs were characterized via transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy...
November 29, 2016: Nanotechnology
Benjamin Rémy, Laure Plener, Laetitia Poirier, Mikael Elias, David Daudé, Eric Chabrière
Extremozymes have gained considerable interest as they could meet industrial requirements. Among these, SsoPox is a hyperthermostable enzyme isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This enzyme is a lactonase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acyl-homoserine lactones; these molecules are involved in Gram-negative bacterial communication referred to as quorum sensing. SsoPox exhibits promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity for the degradation of organophosphorous chemicals including insecticides and chemical warfare agents...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
December 2016: Protein Journal
Yunes Panahi, Danial Roshandel, Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi, Mostafa Ghanei, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM; mustard gas) is a classic chemical warfare agent that has been used in several wars and is still a potential threat especially in the Middle-East region. Victims experience acute symptoms in air-exposed organs including skin, respiratory tract and the eyes. Survivors of the acute stage might develop chronic or delayed-onset complications in the exposed organs. The exact mechanism(s) of SM-induced tissue damage is still unknown, however DNA alkylation and oxidative damage are the most relevant mechanisms...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Trond Myhrer, Pål Aas
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nicoleta Petrea, Răzvan Petre, Gabriel Epure, Vasile Şomoghi, Liviu C Tănase, Cristian M Teodorescu, Ştefan Neaţu
We report the applicability of a hybrid system comprising a La(3+)-based catalyst and an Au/TiO2 photocatalyst in the decomposition of chemical weapons. This system is able to perform complete degradation of soman, sarin and VX in less than 1 minute under low basic conditions and visible light irradiation.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Amanpreet Singh, Pushap Raj, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of chemical weapons has aroused researchers to develop sensors for chemical warfare agents (CWA) and likewise to abolish their harmful effects, the degradation through catalysis has great advantage. Chemically, the CWAs are versatile; however, mostly they contain organophosphates that act on inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. In this work, we have designed and synthesized some novel benzimidazolium based fluorescent cations and their fluorescent aggregates were fabricated using anionic surfactants (SDS and SDBS) in aqueous medium...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jennifer R Hiscock, Neil J Wells, Jayne A Ede, Philip A Gale, Mark R Sambrook
A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions...
October 12, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
S N Emadi, M Shiri, Z Shiri, S E Emadi, H Mortazavi, A Nikoo, J Akhavan-Moghaddam
BACKGROUND: Sulphur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent which causes acute and chronic injuries to the eyes, skin, lung and respiratory tract. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between SM poisoning and Mycosis fungoides (MF) as a late consequence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical files of 1100 Iranian veterans confirmed to have exposure to SM agent during the Iraq-Iran war of the 1980s were reviewed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Shin Kim, Kwang-Joon Jeong, Sung Kweon Cho, Joo-Won Park, Woo-Jae Park
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent, which has been used as in chemical warfare in a number of conflicts. As the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and adducts in DNA and proteins have been suggested as the mechanism underlying SM‑induced cytotoxicity, the present study screened several antioxidant candidates, including tannic acid, deferoxamine mesylate, trolox, vitamin C, ellagic acid and caffeic acid (CA) to assess their potential as therapeutic agents for SM‑induced cell death. Among several antioxidants, CA partially alleviated SM‑induced cell death in a dose‑dependent manner...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Tomas Rozsypal, Emil Halamek
Procedures for the extraction-spectrophotometric determination of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine, an alkylating agent known as a drug as well as a chemical warfare agent (nitrogen mustard HN-3), with 7 acid-base indicators of a triphenylmethane lactone type, phthaleins, were developed. Representatives of phthaleins without an oxygen bridge (thymolphthalein, o-cresolphthalein, naphtholphthalein) and with an oxygen bridge (fluorescein, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, eosin B and eosin Y) were used. The methods were based on the formation of ion pair complexes...
September 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger, Katharina Neumaier, Timo Wille, Horst Thiermann
The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals...
September 14, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Changzhao Li, Ritesh K Srivastava, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Coleen Baird, Raul Mirza, Jessica M Sharkey, Ron Teichman, Romarius Longmire, Deanna Harkins, Joseph Llanos, Joseph Abraham, Charles McCannon, Jack Heller, Carole Tinklepaugh, William Rice
An October 14, 2014 article in The New York Times reported that the US Department of Defense (DoD) concealed, for nearly a decade, circumstances surrounding service members' exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWA) while deployed to Iraq in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn from March 13, 2003, to December 31, 2011, and alleged failure of the DoD to provide expedient and adequate medical care. This report prompted the DoD to devise a public health investigation, with the Army Public Health Center (Provisional) as the lead agency to identify, evaluate, document, and track CWA casualties of the Iraq war...
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Behrad Darvishi, Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Leila Farahmand
Among the most readily existing chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM), also known as Mustard Gas, is the most commonly used agent owing to its ease of synthesis and stockpiling. Unprotected exposure mostly results in debilitation rather than lethal injuries, leaving an exposed victim incapacitated for days to even months. Although acute toxicity of sulfur mustard has been fairly established, the long-term post-exposure effects either chronic or short-term but significant are still evolving. 30,000 Iranian victims of the Iran-Iraq imposed war, have now - after 30 years - formed the key population demonstrating long-term effects from sulfur mustard exposure...
September 8, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Su-Young Moon, Emmanuel Proussaloglou, Gregory W Peterson, Jared B DeCoste, Morgan G Hall, Ashlee J Howarth, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
Owing to their high surface area, periodic distribution of metal sites, and water stability, zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (Zr6 -MOFs) have shown promising activity for the hydrolysis of nerve agents GD and VX, as well as the simulant, dimethyl 4-nitrophenylphosphate (DMNP), in buffered solutions. A hurdle to using MOFs for this application is the current need for a buffer solution. Here the destruction of the simulant DMNP, as well as the chemical warfare agents (GD and VX) through hydrolysis using a MOF catalyst mixed with a non-volatile, water-insoluble, heterogeneous buffer is reported...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cameron S McElroy, Elysia Min, Jie Huang, Joan E Loader, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Rhonda B Garlick, Jackie S Rioux, Livia A Veress, Russell Smith, Chris Osborne, Dana R Anderson, Wesley W Holmes, Danielle C Paradiso, Carl W White, Brian J Day
Sulfur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, SM) is a powerful bi-functional vesicating chemical warfare agent. SM tissue injury is partially mediated by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that using a catalytic antioxidant (AEOL 10150) to alleviate oxidative stress and secondary inflammation following exposure to SM would attenuate the toxic effects of SM inhalation. Adult male rats were intubated and exposed to SM (1.4 mg/kg), a dose that produces an LD50 at approximately 24 h...
September 7, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Vijay K Singh, Melissa Garcia, Stephen Y Wise, Thomas M Seed
The threat of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) warfare has been addressed as the uppermost risk to national security since the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Despite significant scientific advances over the past several decades toward the development of safe, non-toxic and effective countermeasures to combat CBRN threats, relatively few countermeasures have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Therefore, countermeasures capable of protecting the population from the effects of CBRN attack remain a significant unmet medical need...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Karolina Gębka, Jacek Bełdowski, Magdalena Bełdowska
Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015...
November 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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