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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717106/a-carcinogenicity-study-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-f344-rats-in-drinking-water-for-104-weeks
#1
Takashi Yamaguchi, Min Gi, Masaki Fujioka, Kenichiro Doi, Takahiro Okuno, Anna Kakehashi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a neurotoxic organic arsenical used as a chemical warfare agent, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. We previously demonstrated that DPAA promotes diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term rat liver bioassay. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of DPAA, including investigation of whether the bile duct hyperplasia in the liver that was observed in a previous 52 week rat chronic study develops into a tumor, when administered to rats in their drinking water for 104 weeks...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712549/determination-of-trace-amounts-of-g-type-nerve-agents-in-aqueous-samples-utilizing-in-vial-instantaneous-derivatization-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Avi Weissberg, Moran Madmon, Maor Elgarisi, Shai Dagan
A methodology for sensitive determination of sarin (GB), soman (GD) and cyclosarin (GF) chemical warfare agents in aqueous media was developed. The method incorporates direct derivatization with 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenol (2-DMAMP), a commercially available, water-soluble reagent, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis in the positive ion mode. Five derivatization agents were characterized for their MS/MS fragmentation pattern, and their reaction time, temperature and derivatization-reagent amount were optimized...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708375/enzyme-that-makes-you-cry-crystal-structure-of-lachrymatory-factor-synthase-from-allium-cepa
#3
Josie A Silvaroli, Matthew J Pleshinger, Surajit Banerjee, Philip D Kiser, Marcin Golczak
The biochemical pathway that gives onions their savor is part of the chemical warfare against microbes and animals. This defense mechanism involves formation of a volatile lachrymatory factor (LF) ((Z)-propanethial S-oxide) that causes familiar eye irritation associated with onion chopping. LF is produced in a reaction catalyzed by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS). The principles by which LFS facilitates conversion of a sulfenic acid substrate into LF have been difficult to experimentally examine owing to the inherent substrate reactivity and lability of LF...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674156/the-botulinum-toxin-legend-of-reinhard-heydrich-s-death-the-end-of-himmler-s-brain
#4
Laurent Tatu, Wolfgang Jost, Julien Bogousslavsky
The high-ranking German Nazi Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) was one of the main organizers of the mass murder of Jews during the Second World War. He died on June 4, 1942, in Prague after having been wounded in Operation Anthropoid planned by the British intelligence services. Since the 1970s and 1980s, Heydrich's death has been frequently presented in British, American, and French literature as the consequence of a bacteriologic attack. Botulinum toxin would have been used in the grenades or ammunition. We discuss the botulinum toxin hypothesis using the now declassified British archives of Operation Anthropoid and of the chemical and bacteriologic warfare centers to assess this hypothesis...
July 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667758/tgf-%C3%AE-and-th17-cells-related-injuries-in-patients-with-sulfur-mustard-exposure
#5
REVIEW
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Saeed Hassani, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating agent that has been employed as a chemical warfare agent. High-dose exposure to sulfur mustard may lead to the damage of rapidly proliferating cells of bone marrow and, therefore, suppression of the immune system. This may be continued as dysfunction of the immune system, and ultimately result in secondary immune disorders. Studies have suggested a role for T cells in SM-induced lung injury. Moreover, observations from animal studies indicate a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response after skin exposure to SM, providing an understanding that SM can stimulate specific T cell-mediated immune responses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653852/chemical-warfare-agents-detoxification-properties-of-zirconium-metal-organic-frameworks-by-synergistic-incorporation-of-nucleophilic-and-basic-sites
#6
Rodrigo Gil-San-Millan, Elena López-Maya, Morgan Hall, Natalia M Padial, Gregory W Peterson, Jared B DeCoste, L Marleny Rodríguez-Albelo, J Enrique Oltra, Elisa Barea, Jorge A R Navarro
The development of protective self-detoxifying materials is an important societal challenge to counteract risk of attacks employing highly toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this work, we have developed bifunctional zirconium metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) incorporating variable amounts of nucleophilic amino residues by means of formation of the mixed ligand [Zr6O4(OH)4(bdc)6(1-x)(bdc-NH2)6x] (UiO-66-xNH2) and [Zr6O4(OH)4(bpdc)6(1-x)(bpdc-(NH2)2)6x] (UiO-67-x(NH2)2) systems where bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate; bdc-NH2= benzene-2-amino-1,4-dicarboxylate; bpdc = 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate; bpdc-(NH2)2 = 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate and x = 0, 0...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653831/detoxification-of-a-sulfur-mustard-simulant-using-a-bodipy-functionalized-zirconium-based-metal-organic-framework
#7
Ahmet Atilgan, Timur Islamoglu, Ashlee J Howarth, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
Effective detoxification of chemical warfare agents is a global necessity. As a powerful photosensitizer, a halogenated BODIPY ligand is postsynthetically appended to the Zr6 nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, to enhance singlet oxygen generation from the MOF. The BODIPY/MOF material is then used as a heterogeneous photocatalyst to produce singlet oxygen under green LED irradiation. The singlet oxygen selectively detoxifies the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), to the less toxic sulfoxide derivative (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide, CEESO) with a half-life of approximately 2 min...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627233/express-raman-spectroscopic-detection-for-simulants-of-chemical-warfare-agents-using-a-spatial-heterodyne-spectrometer
#8
Guangxiao Hu, Wei Xiong, Haiyan Luo, Hailiang Shi, Zhiwei Li, Jing Shen, Xuejing Fang, Biao Xu, Jicheng Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622352/volunteer-trials-of-a-novel-improvised-dry-decontamination-protocol-for-use-during-mass-casualty-incidents-as-part-of-the-uk-s-initial-operational-response-ior
#9
Richard Amlôt, Holly Carter, Lorna Riddle, Joanne Larner, Robert P Chilcott
Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid evacuation, disrobing and emergency decontamination can enhance the ability of emergency services and acute hospitals to effectively manage chemically-contaminated casualties. The purpose of this human volunteer study was to further optimise such an "Initial Operational Response" by (1) identifying an appropriate method for performing improvised skin decontamination and (2) providing guidance for use by first responders and casualties. The study was performed using two readily available, absorbent materials (paper towels and incontinence pads)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603241/-the-treatment-of-wounds-during-world-war-i
#10
Sergio Sabbatani, Sirio Fiorino
The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases...
June 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575680/how-does-a-plant-orchestrate-defense-in-time-and-space-using-glucosinolates-in-arabidopsis-as-case-study
#11
REVIEW
Meike Burow, Barbara Ann Halkier
The sessile nature of plants has caused plants to develop means to defend themselves against attacking organisms. Multiple strategies range from physical barriers to chemical warfare including pre-formed anticipins as well as phytoalexins produced only upon attack. While phytoalexins require rapid induction, constitutive defenses can impose ecological costs if they deter pollinators or attract specialized herbivores. In the model Arabidopsis thaliana, the well-characterized glucosinolate anticipins are categorized into different classes, aliphatic and indole glucosinolates, depending on their amino acid precursor...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569609/progress-in-acetylcholinesterase-reactivators-and-in-the-treatment-of-organophosphorus-intoxication-a-patent-review-2006-2016
#12
Lukas Gorecki, Jan Korabecny, Kamil Musilek, Eugenie Nepovimova, David Malinak, Tomas Kucera, Rafael Dolezal, Daniel Jun, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Kuca
organophosphorus compounds act as irreversible inhibitors of the vital enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). this leads in the accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) leading to cholinergic crisis and death. The main therapeutic approach is based on immediate administration of an ache reactivator as an antidote enabling recovery of the ache function. Areas covered: This review covers the development of AChE reactivators in order to introduce a new efficient drug that will overcome significant failures of common antidotes...
June 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452929/chemiresistor-devices-for-chemical-warfare-agent-detection-based-on-polymer-wrapped-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#13
John F Fennell, Hitoshi Hamaguchi, Bora Yoon, Timothy M Swager
Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413899/changes-in-the-oxidative-stress-anti-oxidant-system-after-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard-and-antioxidant-strategies-in-the-therapy-a-review
#14
Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Martin Brtnicky, Jindrich Kynicky
Sulfur mustard, in a chemical name bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, is a chemical warfare agent. It is cytotoxic and blister forming once spread over the skin. Though exact molecular mechanism of sulfur mustard toxic action remains unknown, inflammation and oxidative stress development are considered as the most relevant pathological consequences. Applications of either low-molecular weight antioxidants or cofactors for enzymatic antioxidants are considered as suitable ways how to ameliorate the poisoning. In this article, survey of literature on countermeasures against sulfur mustard poisoning are given and evidence of oxidative stress role during sulfur mustard poisoning and availability of antioxidants for the therapy are discussed...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404526/stereospecific-cholinesterase-inhibition-by-o-s-diethylphenylphosphonothioate
#15
Ahmed Mohammed, Jennifer Sneathen, Sara Glazier Frojen, Louis Kuo, Cynthia M Dupureur
The inhibition kinetics and stereospecificity of the chiral nerve agent derivative O,S-diethylphenylphosphonothioate (DEPP) were examined for two forms of acetylcholinesterase (human and eel) and equine butyrylcholinesterase. Both S- and R-DEPP are poor inhibitors of eel AChE (IC50 150μM), consistent with a large, nondiscriminatory binding interaction in the active site of this enzyme. However, S-DEPP is active against human and equine AChE with low μM IC50s. DEPP stereospecificities (S/R) toward these enzymes are moderate (20) relative to other cholinesterase-organophosphate (OP) systems...
March 30, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402575/from-the-cover-impairedproliferation-and-differentiation-of-the-conducting-airway-epithelium-associated-with-bronchiolitis-obliterans-after-sulfur-mustard-inhalation-injury-in-rats
#16
Matthew D McGraw, Jaqueline S Rioux, Rhonda B Garlick, Raymond C Rancourt, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes chronic airway remodeling. This study's objective was to assess for changes to the bronchiolar epithelium after SM exposure to explain its contribution to chronic airway remodeling. Materials and methods: Adult male rats were exposed to a sublethal dose of SM inhalation (1.0-1.2 mg/kg) for 50 min. Histological sections of the bronchiolar epithelium were analyzed for changes using hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, and immunofluorescent staining for acetylated tubulin (AT) and club cell secretory protein (CCSP)...
June 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396583/atomic-level-structural-dynamics-of-polyoxoniobates-during-dmmp-decomposition
#17
Qi Wang, Robert C Chapleski, Anna M Plonka, Wesley O Gordon, Weiwei Guo, Thuy-Duong Nguyen-Phan, Conor H Sharp, Nebojsa S Marinkovic, Sanjaya D Senanayake, John R Morris, Craig L Hill, Diego Troya, Anatoly I Frenkel
Ambient pressure in situ synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques have been correlated to illuminate atomic-level details of bond breaking and formation during the hydrolysis of a chemical warfare nerve agent simulant over a polyoxometalate catalyst. Specifically, a Cs8[Nb6O19] polyoxoniobate catalyst has been shown to react readily with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The atomic-level transformations of all reactant moieties, the [Nb6O19](8-) polyanion, its Cs(+) counterions, and the DMMP substrate, were tracked under ambient conditions by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384583/effect-of-water-table-variations-and-input-of-natural-organic-matter-on-the-cycles-of-c-and-n-and-mobility-of-as-zn-and-cu-from-a-soil-impacted-by-the-burning-of-chemical-warfare-agents-a-mesocosm-study
#18
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Pascale Gautret, Lydie Le Forestier, Dominique Breeze, Fabienne Séby, Marie-Paule Norini, Sebastien Dupraz
A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380849/comparative-studies-of-long-wave-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-emissions-excited-at-1-064-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-and-eye-safe-1-574-%C3%A2%C2%B5m
#19
Ei E Brown, Clayton S-C Yang, Uwe Hommerich, Feng Jin, Sudhir B Trivedi, Alan C Samuels
In this work, comparative long-wave infrared (LWIR) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emission studies of two excitation sources: conventional 1.064 μm and eye-safe laser wavelength at 1.574 μm were performed to analyze several widely-used inorganic energetic materials such as ammonium and potassium compounds as well as the organic liquid chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphate (DMMP). LWIR LIBS emissions generated by both excitation sources were examined using three different detection systems: a single element liquid nitrogen cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detector, an MCT linear array detection system with multi-channel preamplifiers + integrators, and an MCT linear array detection system with readout integrated circuit...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355051/mofabric-electrospun-nanofiber-mats-from-pvdf-uio-66-nh2-for-chemical-protection-and-decontamination
#20
Annie Xi Lu, Monica McEntee, Matthew A Browe, Morgan G Hall, Jared B DeCoste, Gregory W Peterson
Textiles capable of capture and detoxification of toxic chemicals, such as chemical-warfare agents (CWAs), are of high interest. Some metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) exhibit superior reactivity toward CWAs. However, it remains a challenge to integrate powder MOFs into engineered materials like textiles, while retaining functionalities like crystallinity, adsorptivity, and reactivity. Here, we present a simple method of electrospinning UiO-66-NH2, a zirconium MOF, with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The electrospun composite, which we refer to as "MOFabric", exhibits comparable crystal patterns, surface area, chlorine uptake, and simulant hydrolysis to powder UiO-66-NH2...
April 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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