keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Chemical warfare

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452929/chemiresistor-devices-for-chemical-warfare-agent-detection-based-on-polymer-wrapped-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#1
John F Fennell, Hitoshi Hamaguchi, Bora Yoon, Timothy M Swager
Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413899/changes-in-the-oxidative-stress-anti-oxidant-system-after-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard-and-antioxidant-strategies-in-the-therapy-a-review
#2
Miroslav Pohanka, Pavla Martinkova, Martin Brtnicky, Jindrich Kynicky
Sulfur mustard, in a chemical name bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, is a chemical warfare agent. It is cytotoxic and blister forming once spread over the skin. Though exact molecular mechanism of sulfur mustard toxic action remains unknown, inflammation and oxidative stress development are considered as the most relevant pathological consequences. Applications of either low-molecular weight antioxidants or cofactors for enzymatic antioxidants are considered as suitable ways how to ameliorate the poisoning. In this article, survey of literature on countermeasures against sulfur mustard poisoning are given and evidence of oxidative stress role during sulfur mustard poisoning and availability of antioxidants for the therapy are discussed...
May 5, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404526/stereospecific-cholinesterase-inhibition-by-o-s-diethylphenylphosphonothioate
#3
Ahmed Mohammed, Jennifer Sneathen, Sara Glazier Frojen, Louis Kuo, Cynthia M Dupureur
The inhibition kinetics and stereospecificity of the chiral nerve agent derivative O,S-diethylphenylphosphonothioate (DEPP) were examined for two forms of acetylcholinesterase (human and eel) and equine butyrylcholinesterase. Both S- and R-DEPP are poor inhibitors of eel AChE (IC50 150μM), consistent with a large, nondiscriminatory binding interaction in the active site of this enzyme. However, S-DEPP is active against human and equine AChE with low μM IC50s. DEPP stereospecificities (S/R) toward these enzymes are moderate (20) relative to other cholinesterase-organophosphate (OP) systems...
March 30, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402575/impaired-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-the-conducting-airway-epithelium-associated-with-bronchiolitis-obliterans-after-sulfur-mustard-inhalation-injury-in-rats
#4
Matthew D McGraw, Jaqueline S Rioux, Rhonda B Garlick, Raymond C Rancourt, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RationaleSulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes chronic airway remodeling. The current study's objective was to assess for changes to the bronchiolar epithelium after SM exposure to explain its contribution to chronic airway remodeling.Materials and MethodsAdult male rats were exposed to a sub-lethal dose of SM inhalation (1.0 - 1.2 mg/kg) for 50 minutes. Histological sections of the bronchiolar epithelium were analyzed for changes using H&E, trichrome, and immunofluorescent staining for acetylated tubulin (AT) and club cell secretory protein (CCSP)...
April 11, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396583/atomic-level-structural-dynamics-of-polyoxoniobates-during-dmmp-decomposition
#5
Qi Wang, Robert C Chapleski, Anna M Plonka, Wesley O Gordon, Weiwei Guo, Thuy-Duong Nguyen-Phan, Conor H Sharp, Nebojsa S Marinkovic, Sanjaya D Senanayake, John R Morris, Craig L Hill, Diego Troya, Anatoly I Frenkel
Ambient pressure in situ synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques have been correlated to illuminate atomic-level details of bond breaking and formation during the hydrolysis of a chemical warfare nerve agent simulant over a polyoxometalate catalyst. Specifically, a Cs8[Nb6O19] polyoxoniobate catalyst has been shown to react readily with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The atomic-level transformations of all reactant moieties, the [Nb6O19](8-) polyanion, its Cs(+) counterions, and the DMMP substrate, were tracked under ambient conditions by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384583/effect-of-water-table-variations-and-input-of-natural-organic-matter-on-the-cycles-of-c-and-n-and-mobility-of-as-zn-and-cu-from-a-soil-impacted-by-the-burning-of-chemical-warfare-agents-a-mesocosm-study
#6
Hugues Thouin, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Pascale Gautret, Lydie Le Forestier, Dominique Breeze, Fabienne Séby, Marie-Paule Norini, Sebastien Dupraz
A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and of the input of bioavailable organic matter on the biogeochemical cycles of C and N, and on the behavior of metal(loid)s in a soil highly contaminated by the destruction of arsenical shells. An instrumented mesocosm was filled with contaminated soil taken from the "Place-à-Gaz" site. Four cycles of dry and wet periods of about one month were simulated for 276days. After two dry/wet cycles, organic litter sampled on the site was added above the topsoil...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380849/comparative-studies-of-long-wave-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-emissions-excited-at-1-064-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-and-eye-safe-1-574-%C3%A2%C2%B5m
#7
Ei E Brown, Clayton S-C Yang, Uwe Hommerich, Feng Jin, Sudhir B Trivedi, Alan C Samuels
In this work, comparative long-wave infrared (LWIR) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emission studies of two excitation sources: conventional 1.064 μm and eye-safe laser wavelength at 1.574 μm were performed to analyze several widely-used inorganic energetic materials such as ammonium and potassium compounds as well as the organic liquid chemical warfare agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphate (DMMP). LWIR LIBS emissions generated by both excitation sources were examined using three different detection systems: a single element liquid nitrogen cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detector, an MCT linear array detection system with multi-channel preamplifiers + integrators, and an MCT linear array detection system with readout integrated circuit...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355051/mofabric-electrospun-nanofiber-mats-from-pvdf-uio-66-nh2-for-chemical-protection-and-decontamination
#8
Annie Xi Lu, Monica McEntee, Matthew A Browe, Morgan G Hall, Jared B DeCoste, Gregory W Peterson
Textiles capable of capture and detoxification of toxic chemicals, such as chemical-warfare agents (CWAs), are of high interest. Some metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) exhibit superior reactivity toward CWAs. However, it remains a challenge to integrate powder MOFs into engineered materials like textiles, while retaining functionalities like crystallinity, adsorptivity, and reactivity. Here, we present a simple method of electrospinning UiO-66-NH2, a zirconium MOF, with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The electrospun composite, which we refer to as "MOFabric", exhibits comparable crystal patterns, surface area, chlorine uptake, and simulant hydrolysis to powder UiO-66-NH2...
April 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350333/molecular-imprinting-applications-in-forensic-science
#9
REVIEW
Erkut Yılmaz, Bora Garipcan, Hirak K Patra, Lokman Uzun
Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences...
March 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345694/metal-organic-frameworks-for-the-removal-of-toxic-industrial-chemicals-and-chemical-warfare-agents
#10
REVIEW
N Scott Bobbitt, Matthew L Mendonca, Ashlee J Howarth, Timur Islamoglu, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Randall Q Snurr
Owing to the vast diversity of linkers, nodes, and topologies, metal-organic frameworks can be tailored for specific tasks, such as chemical separations or catalysis. Accordingly, these materials have attracted significant interest for capture and/or detoxification of toxic industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents. In this paper, we review recent experimental and computational work pertaining to the capture of several industrially-relevant toxic chemicals, including NH3, SO2, NO2, H2S, and some volatile organic compounds, with particular emphasis on the challenging issue of designing materials that selectively adsorb these chemicals in the presence of water...
March 27, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343251/neurological-aspects-of-chemical-and-biological-terrorism-guidelines-for-neurologists
#11
REVIEW
Harald De Cauwer, Francis J M P Somville, Marieke Joillet
This statement paper deals with the key role an neurologist plays in the management of victims of chemical warfare/terrorist attacks. Because terrorist factions have expanded the war zone creating a worldwide risk of terrorist attacks, not only limited to some conflict zones in the Middle East, neurologists in all countries/regions have to be prepared for disaster response. The scope of this paper is to provide guidelines for the neurological management of victims of chemical and biological terrorist attacks...
March 25, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340765/detection-of-trace-levels-of-organophosphate-pesticides-using-an-electronic-tongue-based-on-graphene-hybrid-nanocomposites
#12
Murilo H M Facure, Luiza A Mercante, Luiz H C Mattoso, Daniel S Correa
Organophosphate (OP) compounds impose significant strains on public health, environmental/food safety and homeland security, once they have been widely used as pesticides and insecticides and also display potential to be employed as chemical warfare agents by terrorists. In this context, the development of sensitive and reliable chemical sensors that would allow in-situ measurements of such contaminants is highly pursued. Here we report on a free-enzyme impedimetric electronic tongue (e-tongue) used in the analysis of organophosphate pesticides comprising four sensing units based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338135/detection-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants-and-hydrolysis-products-in-biological-samples-by-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#13
Josiah McKenna, Elizabeth S Dhummakupt, Theresa Connell, Paul S Demond, Dennis B Miller, J Michael Nilles, Nicholas E Manicke, Trevor Glaros
Paper spray ionization coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometer (a quadrupole orbitrap) was used to identify and quantitate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants and their hydrolysis products in blood and urine. Three CWA simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), trimethyl phosphate (TMP), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), and their isotopically labeled standards were analyzed in human whole blood and urine. Calibration curves were generated and tested with continuing calibration verification standards...
May 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327676/management-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#14
S R Bajracharya, P N Prasad, R Ghimire
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used for agriculture, domestic pest-control and chemical warfare. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-sixth to one-eighth of the world's suicides and a third of suicide deaths in rural Asia each year. OP pesticides inhibit cholinesterase enzymes leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. Clinical features depend on the types of receptors stimulated at various sites of the body. The diagnosis of OP poisoning is made on the basis of history of poisoning, smell of pesticides, the characteristic clinical signs and reduced cholinesterase activity...
September 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322483/a-polyoxoniobate-polyoxovanadate-double-anion-catalyst-for-simultaneous-oxidative-and-hydrolytic-decontamination-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants
#15
Jing Dong, Jufang Hu, Yingnan Chi, Zhengguo Lin, Bo Zou, Song Yang, Craig L Hill, Changwen Hu
A novel double-anion complex, H13 [(CH3 )4 N]12 [PNb12 O40 (V(V) O)2 ⋅(V(IV)4 O12 )2 ]⋅22 H2 O (1), based on bicapped polyoxoniobate and tetranuclear polyoxovanadate was synthesized, characterized by routine techniques and used in the catalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Under mild conditions, 1 catalyzes both hydrolysis of the nerve agent simulant, diethyl cyanophosphonate (DECP) and selective oxidation of the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). In the oxidative decontamination system 100 % CEES was transformed selectively to nontoxic 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide and vinyl ethyl sulfoxide using nearly stoichiometric 3 % aqueous H2 O2 with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 16 000 h(-1) ...
March 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304107/the-percutaneous-toxicokinetics-of-sulphur-mustard-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#16
Charlotte A Hall, Helen L Lydon, Christopher H Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL (14) C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ((14) C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300596/combined-virtual-screening-mmpbsa-molecular-docking-and-dynamics-studies-against-deadly-anthrax-an-in-silico-effort-to-inhibit-bacillus-anthracis-nucleoside-hydrolase
#17
Masoumeh Karami, Chiya Jalali, Sako Mirzaie
Anthrax is a deadly disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a dangerous biological warfare agent employed for both military and terrorist purposes. A critical selective target for chemotherapy against this disease is nucleoside hydrolase (NH), an enzyme still not found in mammals. In the current study, we have performed molecular docking and dynamics studies, aiming to propose the new potent inhibitors of B. anthracis NH among National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set. We also analyzed the principal interactions of proposed compounds with the active site residues of NH and the relevant factors to biological activity...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285101/comparative-toxicity-of-mono-and-bifunctional-alkylating-homologues-of-sulphur-mustard-in-human-skin-keratinocytes
#18
Thomas W Sawyer, Karin McNeely, Kristen Louis, Pierre Lecavalier, Yanfeng Song, Mercy Villanueva, Robin Clewley
Sulphur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulphide; agent H) is a vesicant chemical warfare (CW) agent whose mechanism of action is not known with any certainty and for which there are no effective antidotes. It has a pronounced latent period before signs and symptoms of poisoning appear which it shares with the nitrogen mustards, and that differentiates it from other classes of vesicant agents. Sulphur mustard, the sulphur mustard CW agents Q (1,2-bis(2-chloroethylthio) ethane) and T (1,1 bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl) ether), the H partial hydrolysis product hemi-sulphur mustard (2-chloroethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide; HSM), and the commercially available 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were characterized with respect to their toxicity in first passage cultures of proliferating human skin keratinocytes, the target cell of H-induced skin vesication...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279874/high-throughput-quantitative-analysis-of-the-%C3%AE-lyase-sulfur-mustard-metabolite-1-1-sulfonylbis-2-methylsulfinyl-ethane-in-urine-via-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Martin J Bevan, Matthew T Wogen, Mark D Lunda, Stefan A Saravia
Sulfur Mustard (HD) has a 100year history of use as a chemical warfare agent and recent events in the Middle East are causing it to once again be a potential concern. We report a new high-throughput method for the determination of HD exposure by the analysis of the β-lyase metabolite 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] (SBMSE) in human urine. This method features a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative conversion of the β-lyase metabolites to SBMSE, followed by sample extraction and concentration using solid phase extraction in 96-well plate format...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267954/-decontamination-of-organophosphorus-compounds-towards-new-alternatives
#20
REVIEW
L Poirier, P Jacquet, M Elias, D Daudé, E Chabrière
Organophosphorus coumpounds (OP) are toxic chemicals mainly used for agricultural purpose such as insecticides and were also developed and used as warfare nerve agents. OP are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme involved in the regulation of the central nervous system. Chemical, physical and biological approaches have been considered to decontaminate OP. This review summarizes the current and emerging strategies that are investigated to tackle this issue with a special emphasis on enzymatic remediation methods...
March 3, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
keyword
keyword
20972
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"