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Chemical warfare

F Carniato, C Bisio, C Evangelisti, R Psaro, V Dal Santo, D Costenaro, L Marchese, M Guidotti
A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties...
February 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Schreier Cassandra, Rothmiller Simone, Scherer A Michael, Rummel Christoph, Steinritz Dirk, Thiermann Horst, Schmidt Annette
INTRODUCTION: The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, was first used in World War I. Although prohibited by the chemical warfare convention, significant amounts of SM still exist and have still to be regarded as a threat for military personnel and civilians. After SM exposure, the most prominent clinical symptom is the development of extensive non-healing skin wounds. This chronic wound healing dysfunction is persisting over long time. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are known to play an important role in wound healing...
February 6, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Piia Jõul, Merike Vaher, Maria Kuhtinskaja
In this study, SPE method using a carbon aerogel(CA)-based sorbent was developed and evaluated for the simultaneous extraction of sulfur mustard (HD) degradation products from environmental water samples. Applied CAs proved to be very promising materials for use as SPE sorbents, due to their high porosity, very low density and a large specific surface area. 10 degradation products of HD, both aliphatic and cyclic (thiodiglycol (TDG), TDG sulfoxide, TDG sulfone, 3,5-dithia-1,7-heptanediol, 3,6-dithia-1,8-octanediol, 1,4-thioxane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,2,5-trithiepane, and 1,4,5-oxadithiepane) were extracted on a CA-based SPE cartridge...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Elizabeth S Dhummakupt, Daniel Carmany, Phillip M Mach, Trenton M Tovar, Ann M Ploskonka, Paul S Demond, Jared B DeCoste, Trevor Glaros
Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e. sarin, soman) CWAs, analysis from an untreated paper substrate proved difficult. In order to extend the analytical lifetime of these G-agents, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were successfully integrated onto the paper spray substratesto increase adsorption and desorption. In this study, several MOFs and nanoparticles were tested to extend the analytical lifetime of sarin, soman, and cyclosarin on paper spray substrates...
February 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gregory W Peterson, Annie Xi Lu, Morgan G Hall, Matthew A Browe, Trenton Tovar, Thomas H Epps Iii
This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as new functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high MOF loading, high performance core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important implication for composites and membranes alike...
February 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Catherine Weetman, Stuart Notman, Polly L Arnold
The cooperative effect of both NHC and metal centre has been found to destroy chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Choice of both the metal and NHC is key to these transformations as simple, monodentate N-heterocyclic carbenes in combination with silver or vanadium can promote stoichiometric destruction, whilst bidentate, aryloxide-tethered NHC complexes of silver and alkali metals promote breakdown under mild heating. Iron-NHC complexes generated in situ are competent catalysts for the destruction of each of the three targetted CWA simulants...
January 31, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xin Tang, Zachary Hicks, Linjie Wang, Gerd Ganteför, Kit H Bowen, Roman Tsyshevsky, Jianwei Sun, Maija M Kuklja
The adsorption and decomposition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant, on size-selected molybdenum oxide trimer clusters, i.e. (MoO3)3, was studied both experimentally and theoretically. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed reaction (TPR), and density functional theory (DFT)-based simulations were utilized in this study. The XPS and TPR results showed both, desorption of intact DMMP, and decomposition of DMMP through the elimination of methanol at elevated temperatures on (MoO3)3 clusters...
January 31, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Chia-Wei Tsai, Christopher A Tipple, Richard A Yost
RATIONAL: Paper spray ionization (PSI) is an attractive ambient ionization source for mass spectrometry (MS) since it allows the combination of surface sampling and ionization. The minimal sample preparation inherent in this approach greatly reduces the time needed for analysis. However, the ions generated from interfering compounds in the sample and the paper substrate may interfere with the analyte ions. Therefore, the integration of PSI with high-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is of significant interest since it should reduce the background ions entering the mass analyzer without complicating the analysis or increasing analysis time...
January 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Kevin Lee, Sara Bohnert, Ying Wu, Cory Vair, John Mikler, G Campbell Teskey, Jeff F Dunn
Nerve agents (NAs) are potent organophosphorus (OP) compounds with applications in chemical warfare. OP compounds act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is one of the most potent NAs. It is well known that small doses of NAs can be lethal, and that even non-lethal exposure leads to long-term mental debilitation/neurological damage. However, the neuropathology following exposure to sub-lethal nerve agents is not well understood. In this study we examined changes in tissue oxygenation (pO2) in the cortex and hippocampus after a sub-lethal dose of soman [80-90 μg/kg; subcutaneous]...
January 26, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Harald John, Marcel J van der Schans, Marianne Koller, Helma E T Spruit, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Daan Noort
During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combination with either liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) separation were applied...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Ritesh Srivastava, Amie M Traylor, Changzhao Li, Wenguang Feng, Lingling Guo, Veena B Antony, Trenton R Schoeb, Anupam Agarwal, Mohammad Athar
Lewisite (2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine) is an organic and arsenical chemical warfare agent which was developed and weaponized during World Wars I/II. Stockpiles of lewisite still exist in many parts of the world and pose potential environmental and human health threat. Exposure to lewisite and similar chemicals causes intense cutaneous inflammatory response. However, morbidity and mortality in the exposed population is not only due to cutaneous damage but is also a result of systemic injury. Here, we provide data delineating the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cutaneous exposure to lewisite and its analogue phenylarsine oxide (PAO) in a murine model...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yi-Ming Shi, Helge B Bode
Covering: up to November 2017Organismic interaction is one of the fundamental principles for survival in any ecosystem. Today, numerous examples show the interaction between microorganisms like bacteria and higher eukaryotes that can be anything between mutualistic to parasitic/pathogenic symbioses. There is also increasing evidence that microorganisms are used by higher eukaryotes not only for the supply of essential factors like vitamins but also as biological weapons to protect themselves or to kill other organisms...
January 23, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Jayne A Ede, Peter J Cragg, Mark R Sambrook
The formation of inclusion complexes of the water-soluble p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes, where n = 4 or 6, with the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) GD, or Soman, and commonly used dialkyl methylphosphonate simulants has been studied by experimental solution NMR methods and by Molecular Mechanics (MMFF) and semi-empirical (PM6) calculations. Complex formation in non-buffered and buffered solutions is driven by the hydrophobic effect, and complex stoichiometry determined as 1:1 for all host:guest pairs. Low affinity complexes (Kassoc < 100 M-1) are observed for all guests, attributed to poor host-guest complementarity and the role of buffer cation species accounts for the low affinity of the complexes...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Parthiban Marimuthu, Yong-Jin Lee, Byung-Hoon Kim, Seong S Seo
Organophosphate compounds (OPC) have become the primary choice as insecticides and is widely used across the world. Additionally, OPCs were also commonly used as a chemical warfare agent that triggers a great challenge to public safety. Exposure of OPCs to human causes immediate excitation of cholinergic neurotransmission through transient elevation of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) levels and accumulations. Likewise, prolonged exposure of OPCs can affect the processes in immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, cardiovascular toxicity and several others...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yachao Cao, Akram Elmahdy, Hanjiang Zhu, Xiaoying Hui, Howard Maibach
Six chemical warfare agent simulants (trimethyl phosphate, dimethyl adipate, 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide, diethyl adipate, chloroethyl phenyl sulfide and diethyl sebacate) were studied in in vitro human skin to explore relationship between dermal penetration/absorption and the mechanisms of simulant partitioning between stratum corneum (SC) and water as well as between dermal decontamination gel (DDGel) and water. Both binding affinity to and decontamination of simulants using DDGel were studied. Partition coefficients of six simulants between SC and water (Log PSC/w ) and between DDGel and water (Log PDDGel/w ) were determined...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Vinod Kumar, Hemlata Rana, G Raviraju, Arvind K Gupta
Since the first use of chemical warfare agents (CWA) (1915) to the recent attacks in Syria (2017) on mankind, there have been many incidents where CWA have claimed thousands of lives and left many more contaminated. In order to provide the appropriate and immediate medical counter measure to the victims, the exact classification of these chemical agents within few minutes on the field itself using a rapid and simple detection technique is extremely important to save the lives of the effected people. This has motivated all of us to explore the novel strategies/detection systems that can be field deployable with better selectivity and greater sensitivity...
January 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yuebo Liu, Xinyu Du, Jiaona Wang, Yingying Yin, Bin Wang, Shuyu Zhao, Nianwu Li, Congju Li
In recent years, people pay more attention to the protection against chemical warfare agents, due to the increase in the probability of usage of these chemical warfare agents in wars or terrorist attacks. In this work, MgO nanoparticles were in-situ growth on the surface of poly(m-phenylene Isophthalamide) (PMIA) forming a flexible and breathable fabric for the detoxification of mustard gas surrogate. The as-prepared nanofibrous membrane possesses a "flower-like" structure of which endows not only increase the specific surface area of the composite but also prevent the agglomeration of the MgO nanoparticles...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tabea Zubel, Alexander Bürkle, Aswin Mangerich
The bi-functional chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), whose release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks represents a realistic threat, induces several kinds of biomolecular adducts, including highly toxic DNA adducts. Isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) is considered the gold standard for highly accurate, precise, specific and sensitive quantification of DNA adducts in general. Recently, a number of LC-MS/MS approaches have been established to analyze SM-induced protein and DNA adducts in cell culture and rodent animal models...
December 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Markus Siegert, Andreas Kranawetvogl, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
The banned chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) still represents a serious threat to civilians and military personnel. Therefore, identification of antidotes and scavengers is of high concern. One promising substance is glutathione (GSH). GSH is known to mitigate symptoms of SM poisoning in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear with respect to physiological impact as well as chemical scavenging by reaction between GSH and SM. Therefore, a novel in vitro method was used to characterize the scavenging potential of GSH...
December 22, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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