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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218409/development-of-haemostatic-decontaminants-for-treatment-of-wounds-contaminated-with-chemical-warfare-agents-3-evaluation-of-in-vitro-topical-decontamination-efficacy-using-damaged-skin
#1
Helen L Lydon, Charlotte A Hall, Christopher H Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179194/rsdl-decontamination-of-human-skin-contaminated-with-the-nerve-agent-vx
#2
L Thors, S Lindberg, S Johansson, B Koch, M Koch, L Hägglund, A Bucht
Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157878/multiplex-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-spectroscopy-for-trace-chemical-detection
#3
Sherrie B Pilkington, Stephen D Roberson, Paul M Pellegrino
Trace chemical detection is a particularly challenging problem of significant Army interest. Optical diagnostic techniques offer rapid, accurate, sensitive, and highly selective detection of hazardous materials in a variety of systems. Multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) spectroscopy generates a complete Raman spectrum from the material of interest using a combination of a supercontinuum pulse, which drives multiple molecular vibrations simultaneously, and a narrowband probe pulse. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of MCARS to detect trace amounts of both explosive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants with limits of detection below 0...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131041/mixed-cufe-and-znfe-hydr-oxides-as-reactive-adsorbents-of-chemical-warfare-agent-surrogates
#4
Marc Florent, Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Rajiv Wallace, Teresa J Bandosz
Two sets of zinc-iron and copper-iron mixed (hydr)oxides were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. Either nitrate or chloride was a source of the metals. The decontamination ability of the materials was tested in closed vials saturated with vapors of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) or dimethyl chlorophosphate (DMCP), a blister agent and a nerve agent surrogate, respectively. In both cases, the weight uptakes on the mixed oxides were superior to the ones reported for the pure metal oxides or hydroxides...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117022/acetylcholinesterase-a-primary-target-for-drugs-and-insecticides
#5
Sunita Thapa, Min Lv, Hui Xu
Acetylcholinesterase is a serine hydrolase that terminates the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by hydrolyzing it into acetic acid and choline. The molecule, having an ellipsoidal structure, possesses three binding sites; active site (with catalytic anionic and esteratic subsites), aromatic gorge and peripheral anionic site, where the inhibiting compounds interact. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitors bind to the molecule and interfere with the breakdown of acetylcholine leading to the deposition of acetylcholine in the nerve synapses and causing disrupted neurotransmission...
January 20, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098192/wearable-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-fabrics-produced-by-knitting-flexible-wire-electrodes-for-the-decontamination-of-chemical-warfare-agents
#6
Heesoo Jung, Jin Ah Seo, Seungki Choi
One of the key reasons for the limited use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is its inability to treat non-flat, three-dimensional (3D) surface structures, such as electronic devices and the human body, because of the rigid electrode structure required. In this study, a new APP system design-wearable APP (WAPP)-that utilizes a knitting technique to assemble flexible co-axial wire electrodes into a large-area plasma fabric is presented. The WAPP device operates in ambient air with a fully enclosed power electrode and grounded outer electrode...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087322/cutaneous-exposure-to-vesicant-phosgene-oxime-acute-effects-on-the-skin-and-systemic-toxicity
#7
Neera Tewari-Singh, Dinesh G Goswami, Rama Kant, Claire R Croutch, Robert P Casillas, David J Orlicky, Rajesh Agarwal
Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model...
January 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043864/a-simple-and-highly-effective-catalytic-nanozyme-scavenger-for-organophosphorus-neurotoxins
#8
Elena N Efremenko, Ilya V Lyagin, Natalia L Klyachko, Tatiana Bronich, Natalia V Zavyalova, Yuhang Jiang, Alexander V Kabanov
A simple and highly efficient catalytic scavenger of poisonous organophosphorus compounds, based on organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1), is produced in aqueous solution by electrostatic coupling of the hexahistidine tagged OPH (His6-OPH) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) diblock copolymer. The resulting polyion complex, termed nano-OPH, has a spherical morphology and a diameter from 25nm to 100nm. Incorporation of His6-OPH in nano-OPH preserves catalytic activity and increases stability of the enzyme allowing its storage in aqueous solution for over a year...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040920/mid-infrared-gas-absorption-sensor-based-on-a-broadband-external-cavity-quantum-cascade-laser
#9
Juan Sun, Hao Deng, Ningwu Liu, Hongliang Wang, Benli Yu, Jingsong Li
We developed a laser absorption sensor based on a pulsed, broadband tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) centered at 1285 cm(-1). Unlike traditional infrared spectroscopy system, a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a light detector was used for laser signal detection. Fast Fourier transform was applied to extract vibration intensity information of QCTF. The sensor system is successfully tested on nitrous oxide (N2O) spectroscopy measurements and compared with a standard infrared detector...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038315/in-situ-probes-of-capture-and-decomposition-of-chemical-warfare-agent-simulants-by-zr-based-metal-organic-frameworks
#10
Anna M Plonka, Qi Wang, Wesley O Gordon, Alex Balboa, Diego Troya, Weiwei Guo, Conor H Sharp, Sanjaya D Senanayake, John R Morris, Craig L Hill, Anatoly I Frenkel
Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032143/an-evidence-based-review-of-the-genotoxic-and-reproductive-effects-of-sulfur-mustard
#11
REVIEW
Fazlullah Khan, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent which is cytotoxic in nature, and at the molecular level, SM acts as DNA alkylating agent leading to genotoxic and reproductive effects. Mostly, the exposed areas of the body are the main targets for SM; however, it also adversely affects various tissues of the body and ultimately exhibits long-term complications including genotoxic and reproductive effects, even in the next generations. The effect of SM on reproductive system is the reason behind male infertility...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029482/a-chronic-toxicity-study-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-f344-rats-in-drinking-water-for-52-weeks
#12
Takashi Yamaguchi, Min Gi, Shotarou Yamano, Masaki Fujioka, Kumiko Tatsumi, Satoko Kawachi, Naomi Ishii, Kenichiro Doi, Anna Kakehashi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of DPAA when administered to rats in their drinking water for 52 weeks. DPAA was administered to groups 1-4 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20ppm in their drinking water for 52 weeks. There were no significant differences in the final body weights between the control groups and the treatment groups in male or female rats...
October 28, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998105/layer-by-layer-photocatalytic-assembly-for-solar-light-activated-self-decontaminating-textiles
#13
Lai Truong-Phuoc, Konstantinos C Christoforidis, Fabrice Vigneron, Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Gero Decher, Nicolas Keller, Valérie Keller
Novel photocatalytic nanomaterials that can be used to functionalize textiles, conferring to them efficient solar-light-activated properties for the decontamination of toxic and lethal agents, are described. Textiles functionalized with one-dimensional (1D) SnS2-based nanomaterials were used for photocatalytic applications for the first time. We showed that 1D SnS2/TiO2 nanocomposites can be easily and strongly affixed onto textiles using the layer-by-layer deposition method. Ultrathin SnS2 nanosheets were associated with anatase TiO2 nanofibers to form nano-heterojunctions with a tight interface, considerably increasing the photo-oxidative activity of anatase TiO2 due to the beneficial interfacial transfer of photogenerated charges and increased oxidizing power...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993031/complex-coacervate-core-micelles-for-the-dispersion-and-stabilization-of-organophosphate-hydrolase-in-organic-solvents
#14
Carolyn E Mills, Allie Obermeyer, Xuehui Dong, Jeremy Walker, Bradley D Olsen
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are a class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) that exist as bulk stocks in current and past war zones. Thus, a technology that can perform on-site decontamination in a safe and timely fashion is desirable. Here, complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) were used to encapsulate organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) and chemostabilize it to maintain activity after exposure to organophosphate simulants ethanol and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). C3Ms were formed by two polymers-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-b-poly(4-vinyl N-methylpyridyl iodide), (POEGMA-b-qP4VP)...
December 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991584/chemically-modulated-graphene-quantum-dot-for-tuning-the-photoluminescence-as-novel-sensory-probe
#15
Eunhee Hwang, Hee Min Hwang, Yonghun Shin, Yeoheung Yoon, Hanleem Lee, Junghee Yang, Sora Bak, Hyoyoung Lee
A band gap tuning of environmental-friendly graphene quantum dot (GQD) becomes a keen interest for novel applications such as photoluminescence (PL) sensor. Here, for tuning the band gap of GQD, a hexafluorohydroxypropanyl benzene (HFHPB) group acted as a receptor of a chemical warfare agent was chemically attached on the GQD via the diazonium coupling reaction of HFHPB diazonium salt, providing new HFHPB-GQD material. With a help of the electron withdrawing HFHPB group, the energy band gap of the HFHPB-GQD was widened and its PL decay life time decreased...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988303/anticonvulsant-efficacy-of-antihistamine-cyproheptadine-in-rats-exposed-to-the-chemical-warfare-nerve-agent-soman
#16
Jennifer L Winkler, Jacob W Skovira, Robert K Kan
Organophosphate compounds, such as soman and sarin, are highly toxic chemical warfare nerve agents that cause a build-up of acetylcholine in synapses and neuromuscular junctions. Current therapies aim to prevent seizures and protect against brain injury following exposure. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antihistamine cyproheptadine in improving survival and controlling seizures in rats exposed to soman. Rats were pretreated with the oxime reactivator HI-6 (125mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to soman exposure (225μg/kg, sc) and then treated with atropine methylnitrate (AMN, 2...
December 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976342/chemical-warfare-the-battle-between-termite-associated-actinobacteria-and-trichoderma-harzianum-a-fungal-pathogen
#17
E Mevers, J Saurí, A Moser, M Varlan, G E Martin, J C Clardy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942095/bridging-the-gap-between-sample-collection-and-laboratory-analysis-using-dried-blood-spots-to-identify-human-exposure-to-chemical-agents
#18
Elizabeth I Hamelin, Thomas A Blake, Jonas W Perez, Brian S Crow, Rebecca L Shaner, Rebecca M Coleman, Rudolph C Johnson
Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper...
May 13, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935238/identification-of-novel-disulfide-adducts-between-the-thiol-containing-leaving-group-of-the-nerve-agent-vx-and-cysteine-containing-tripeptides-derived-from-human-serum-albumin
#19
Andreas Kranawetvogl, Jim Küppers, Michael Gütschow, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Paul W Elsinghorst, Harald John
Chemical warfare agents represent a continuous and considerable threat to military personnel and the civilian population. Such compounds are prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, to which adherence by the member states is strictly controlled. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for verification of an alleged use of banned substances are required. Accordingly, current research focuses on long-term biomarkers derived from covalent adducts with biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, we have introduced a microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method allowing for the investigation of two different classes of adducts of the nerve agent VX with human serum albumin (HSA)...
December 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923644/s-and-n-alkylating-agents-diminish-the-fluorescence-of-fluorescent-dye-stained-dna
#20
Robert Giesche, Harald John, Kai Kehe, Annette Schmidt, Tanja Popp, Frank Balzuweit, Horst Thiermann, Thomas Gudermann, Dirk Steinritz
Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, causes DNA alkylation, which is believed to be the main cause of its toxicity. SM DNA adducts are commonly used to verify exposure to this vesicant. However, the required analytical state-of-the-art mass-spectrometry methods are complex, use delicate instruments, are not mobile, and require laboratory infrastructure that is most likely not available in conflict zones. Attempts have thus been made to develop rapid detection methods that can be used in the field...
January 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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