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Chemical warfare

Nicoleta Petrea, Răzvan Petre, Gabriel Epure, Vasile Şomoghi, Liviu C Tănase, Cristian M Teodorescu, Ştefan Neaţu
We report the applicability of a hybrid system comprising a La(3+)-based catalyst and an Au/TiO2 photocatalyst in the decomposition of chemical weapons. This system is able to perform complete degradation of soman, sarin and VX in less than 1 minute under low basic conditions and visible light irradiation.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Amanpreet Singh, Pushap Raj, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of chemical weapons has aroused researchers to develop sensors for chemical warfare agents (CWA) and likewise to abolish their harmful effects, the degradation through catalysis has great advantage. Chemically, the CWAs are versatile; however, mostly they contain organophosphates that act on inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. In this work, we have designed and synthesized some novel benzimidazolium based fluorescent cations and their fluorescent aggregates were fabricated using anionic surfactants (SDS and SDBS) in aqueous medium...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jennifer R Hiscock, Neil J Wells, Jayne A Ede, Philip A Gale, Mark R Sambrook
A series of neutral ditopic and negatively charged, monotopic host molecules have been evaluated for their ability to bind chloride and dihydrogen phosphate anions, and neutral organophosphorus species dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP) and the chemical warfare agent (CWA) pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (GD, soman) in organic solvent via hydrogen bonding. Urea, thiourea and boronic acid groups are shown to bind anions and neutral guests through the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the urea and thiourea groups typically exhibiting higher affinity interactions...
October 12, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
S N Emadi, M Shiri, Z Shiri, S E Emadi, H Mortazavi, A Nikoo, J Akhavan-Moghaddam
BACKGROUND: sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare which causes acute and chronic injuries to the eyes, skin, lung, and respiratory tract. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between SM poisoning and Mycosis Fungoides (MF) as a late consequence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical files of 1100 Iranian veterans confirmed to have exposure to SM agent during the Iraq-Iran war of the 1980s were reviewed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Shin Kim, Kwang-Joon Jeong, Sung Kweon Cho, Joo-Won Park, Woo-Jae Park
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent, which has been used as in chemical warfare in a number of conflicts. As the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and adducts in DNA and proteins have been suggested as the mechanism underlying SM‑induced cytotoxicity, the present study screened several antioxidant candidates, including tannic acid, deferoxamine mesylate, trolox, vitamin C, ellagic acid and caffeic acid (CA) to assess their potential as therapeutic agents for SM‑induced cell death. Among several antioxidants, CA partially alleviated SM‑induced cell death in a dose‑dependent manner...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Tomas Rozsypal, Emil Halamek
Procedures for the extraction-spectrophotometric determination of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine, an alkylating agent known as a drug as well as a chemical warfare agent (nitrogen mustard HN-3), with 7 acid-base indicators of a triphenylmethane lactone type, phthaleins, were developed. Representatives of phthaleins without an oxygen bridge (thymolphthalein, o-cresolphthalein, naphtholphthalein) and with an oxygen bridge (fluorescein, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, eosin B and eosin Y) were used. The methods were based on the formation of ion pair complexes...
September 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger, Katharina Neumaier, Timo Wille, Horst Thiermann
The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals...
September 14, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Changzhao Li, Ritesh K Srivastava, Mohammad Athar
Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Coleen Baird, Raul Mirza, Jessica M Sharkey, Ron Teichman, Romarius Longmire, Deanna Harkins, Joseph Llanos, Joseph Abraham, Charles McCannon, Jack Heller, Carole Tinklepaugh, William Rice
An October 14, 2014 article in The New York Times reported that the US Department of Defense (DoD) concealed, for nearly a decade, circumstances surrounding service members' exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWA) while deployed to Iraq in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn from March 13, 2003, to December 31, 2011, and alleged failure of the DoD to provide expedient and adequate medical care. This report prompted the DoD to devise a public health investigation, with the Army Public Health Center (Provisional) as the lead agency to identify, evaluate, document, and track CWA casualties of the Iraq war...
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Behrad Darvishi, Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Leila Farahmand
Among the most readily existing chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM), also known as Mustard Gas, is the most commonly used agent owing to its ease of synthesis and stockpiling. Unprotected exposure mostly results in debilitation rather than lethal injuries, leaving an exposed victim incapacitated for days to even months. Although acute toxicity of sulfur mustard has been fairly established, the long-term post-exposure effects either chronic or short-term but significant are still evolving. 30,000 Iranian victims of the Iran-Iraq imposed war, have now - after 30 years - formed the key population demonstrating long-term effects from sulfur mustard exposure...
September 8, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Su-Young Moon, Emmanuel Proussaloglou, Gregory W Peterson, Jared B DeCoste, Morgan G Hall, Ashlee J Howarth, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
Owing to their high surface area, periodic distribution of metal sites, and water stability, zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (Zr6 -MOFs) have shown promising activity for the hydrolysis of nerve agents GD and VX, as well as the simulant, dimethyl 4-nitrophenylphosphate (DMNP), in buffered solutions. A hurdle to using MOFs for this application is the current need for a buffer solution. Here the destruction of the simulant DMNP, as well as the chemical warfare agents (GD and VX) through hydrolysis using a MOF catalyst mixed with a non-volatile, water-insoluble, heterogeneous buffer is reported...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cameron S McElroy, Elysia Min, Jie Huang, Joan E Loader, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Rhonda B Garlick, Jackie S Rioux, Livia A Veress, Russell Smith, Chris Osborne, Dana R Anderson, Wesley W Holmes, Danielle C Paradiso, Carl W White, Brian J Day
Sulfur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, SM) is a powerful bi-functional vesicating chemical warfare agent. SM tissue injury is partially mediated by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that using a catalytic antioxidant (AEOL 10150) to alleviate oxidative stress and secondary inflammation following exposure to SM would attenuate the toxic effects of SM inhalation. Adult male rats were intubated and exposed to SM (1.4 mg/kg), a dose that produces an LD50 at approximately 24 h...
September 7, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Vijay K Singh, Melissa Garcia, Stephen Y Wise, Thomas M Seed
INTRODUCTION: The threat of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) warfare has been addressed as the uppermost risk to national security since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Despite significant scientific advances over the past several decades toward the development of safe, non-toxic and effective countermeasures to combat CBRN threats, relatively few countermeasures have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Therefore, countermeasures capable of protecting the population from the effects of CBRN attack remain a significant unmet medical need...
September 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Karolina Gębka, Jacek Bełdowski, Magdalena Bełdowska
Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015...
September 3, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lukas Gorecki, Jan Korabecny, Kamil Musilek, David Malinak, Eugenie Nepovimova, Rafael Dolezal, Daniel Jun, Ondrej Soukup, Kamil Kuca
Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphates leads to many failures in living organism and ultimately in death. Organophosphorus compounds developed as nerve agents such as tabun, sarin, soman, VX and others belong to the most toxic chemical warfare agents and are one of the biggest threats to the modern civilization. Moreover, misuse of nerve agents together with organophosphorus pesticides (e.g. malathion, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, etc.) which are annually implicated in millions of intoxications and hundreds of thousand deaths reminds us of insufficient protection against these compounds...
August 31, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Tae-Il Kim, Shubhra Bikash Maity, Jean Bouffard, Youngmi Kim
The fluorogenic probe o-OH is able to detect and quantify organophosphorus nerve agent mimics in solution and in the vapor phase following immobilization on a solid substrate, making the system a suitable candidate for the field detection of chemical warfare agents. Detection is achieved by the suppression of internal rotation upon phosphorylation of a reactive phenolate, resulting in a large fluorescence "turn-on" response.
September 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Eric Laurent Maranda, Alexandra Ayache, Richa Taneja, Jacqueline Cortizo, Keyvan Nouri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Changzhao Li, Ritesh K Srivastava, Zhiping Weng, Claire R Croutch, Anupam Agarwal, Craig A Elmets, Farrukh Afaq, Mohammad Athar
Lewisite is a potent arsenic-based chemical warfare agent known to induce painful cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Only a few modestly effective antidotes have so far been described in the literature. However, the discovery of effective antidotes for lewisite was hampered by the paucity of the exact molecular mechanism underlying its cutaneous pathogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying lewisite-induced cutaneous blistering and inflammation and describe its novel antidotes. On the basis of our initial screening, we used a highly sensitive murine model that recapitulates the known human pathogenesis of arsenicals-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Kenichi Mukaida, Noboru Hattori, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yojiro Onari, Yoshifumi Nishimura, Keiichi Kondoh, Tomoyuki Akita, Junko Tanaka, Nobuoki Kohno
OBJECTIVES: Mustard gas (MG) has been the most widely used chemical warfare agent in the past century. However, few but conflicting data exist on the effects of MG exposure on long-term mortality. We investigated MG-related mortality in retired workers at a poisonous gas factory. METHODS: We assessed mortality rates among 2392 male and 1226 female workers, whose vital status could be determined through 31 December 2009, at a poisonous gas factory operating from 1929 to 1945 in Okuno-jima, Japan...
August 11, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Carlos A Valdez, Roald N Leif, Armando Alcaraz
The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1))...
August 24, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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