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Chemical warfare

Young-Jun Lee, Jong-Gyu Kim, Joo-Hyung Kim, Jaesook Yun, Won Jun Jang
The detection and monitoring of colorless and odorless chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has become important due to the increasing threat of terrorist activities. To enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of CWAs a number of sensing materials have been developed, including the widely used polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). However, PVDF is limited by its low sensitivity and selectivity for many CWAs. In this study, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was used as a sensing material for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) a simulant of sarin nerve gas...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nathan J Alves, Martin H Moore, Brandy J Johnson, Scott Nathan Dean, Kendrick Bruce Turner, Igor L Medintz, Scott A Walper
While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in Green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with non-ideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle (OMV) can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrew Stolbach, Vikhyat Bebarta, Michael Beuhler, Shaun Carstairs, Lewis Nelson, Michael Wahl, Paul M Wax, Charles McKay
First responders and health care providers must prepare to provide care for patients poisoned by acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor chemical warfare agents or pesticides. However, pre-deployed medical countermeasures (MCMs) may not be sufficient due to production and delivery interruption, rapid depletion of contents during a response, expiration of MCM components, or lack of local availability of approved MCMs. To augment supplies of community-based and forward-deployed nerve agent countermeasures, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) supports several strategies: (1) The use of expired atropine, diazepam, and pralidoxime auto-injectors and vials if non-expired drugs are unavailable; and (2) Investigation, development, and identification of alternative countermeasures-commonly stocked drugs that are not approved for nerve agent poisoning but are in the same therapeutic class as approved drugs...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Stefano Costanzi, John-Hanson Machado, Moriah Mitchell
Nerve agents are organophosphorus chemical warfare agents that exert their action through the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, with a consequent overstimulation of cholinergic transmission followed by its shutdown. Beyond warfare, they have notoriously been employed in acts of terrorism as well as high profile assassinations. After a brief historical introduction on the development and deployment of nerve agents, this review provides a survey of their chemistry, the way they affect cholinergic transmission, the available treatment options, and the current directions for their improvement...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Chiara Maccato, Lorenzo Bigiani, Giorgio Carraro, Alberto Gasparotto, Cinzia Sada, Elisabetta Comini, Davide Barreca
The detection of poisonous chemicals and warfare agents, such as acetonitrile and dimethyl methylphosphonate, is of utmost importance for environmental/health protection and public security. In this regard, supported Mn3 O4 nanosystems were fabricated by vapor deposition on Al2 O3 substrates, and their structure/morphology were characterized as a function of the used growth atmosphere (dry vs. wet O2 ). Thanks to the high surface and peculiar nano-organization, the target systems displayed attractive functional properties, unprecedented for similar p-type systems, in the detection of the above chemical species...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Francine S Katz, Stevan Pecic, Laura Schneider, Zhengxiang Zhu, Ashley Hastings, Michal Luzac, Joanne Macdonald, Donald W Landry, Milan N Stojanovic
Organophosphate compounds (OPCs) are commonly used as pesticides and were developed as nerve agents for chemical warfare. Exposure to OPCs results in toxicity due to their covalent binding and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Treatment for toxicity due to OPC exposure has been largely focused on the reactivation of AChE by oxime-based compounds via direct nucleophilic attack on the phosphorous center. However, due to the disadvantages to existing oxime-based reactivators for treatment of OPC poisoning, we considered non-oxime mechanisms of reactivation...
March 31, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Brenda Marrero-Rosado, Franco Rossetti, Matthew W Rice, Mark C Moffett, Robyn Lee, Michael F Stone, Lucille A Lumley
Elderly individuals compose a large percentage of the world population; however, few studies have addressed the efficacy of current medical countermeasures (MCM) against the effects of chemical warfare nerve agent exposure in aged populations. We evaluated the efficacy of the anticonvulsant diazepam in an old adult rat model of soman (GD) poisoning and compared the toxic effects to those observed in young adult rats when anticonvulsant treatment is delayed. After determining their respective median lethal dose (LD50) of GD, we exposed young adult and old adult rats to an equitoxic 1...
March 27, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Mingxue Sun, Yuyan Yang, Wenqi Meng, Qingqiang Xu, Fengwu Lin, Yongchun Chen, Jie Zhao, Kai Xiao
CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress...
March 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Kristina Lyons
Between 1994 and 2015, militarized aerial fumigation was a central component of US-Colombia antidrug policy. Crop duster planes sprayed a concentrated formula of Monsanto's herbicide, glyphosate, over illicit crops, and also forests, soils, pastures, livestock, watersheds, subsistence food and human bodies. Given that a national peace agreement was signed in 2016 between FARC-EP guerrillas and the state to end Colombia's over five decades of war, certain government officials are quick to proclaim aerial fumigation of glyphosate an issue of the past...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
Sedigheh Gharbi, Shahriar Khateri, Mohammad Reza Soroush, Mehdi Shamsara, Parisa Naeli, Ali Najafi, Eberhard Korsching, Seyed Javad Mowla
Sulfur mustard is a vesicant chemical warfare agent, which has been used during Iraq-Iran-war. Many veterans and civilians still suffer from long-term complications of sulfur mustard exposure, especially in their lung. Although the lung lesions of these patients are similar to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), there are some differences due to different etiology and clinical care. Less is known on the molecular mechanism of sulfur mustard patients and specific treatment options. microRNAs are master regulators of many biological pathways and proofed to be stable surrogate markers in body fluids...
2018: PloS One
Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Gaganpreet Kaur, Amanpreet Singh, Ajnesh Singh, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of organophosphates (OPs) as pesticides and toxic chemical warfare agents demands their continuous monitoring from a human health perspective. This study describes a fluorescence turn-on sensing assay for the selective quantification of OPs in aqueous medium. Metal complexes of two different Biginelli derivatives were processed in water through a reprecipitation technique. The engineered self-assembly of the pyridyl-2-cobalt complex (L1·Co(II)) was employed to selectively detect malathion while the pyridyl-4-cobalt complex (L2·Co(II)) could estimate azamethiphos fluorimetrically up to a detection limit of 9...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Satyanarayana Achanta, Narendranath Reddy Chintagari, Marian Brackmann, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sven-Eric Jordt
The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antidotes against SM are available. Recent studies demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a chemosensory cation channel in sensory nerves innervating the skin, is activated by SM and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an SM analog, in vitro, suggesting it may promote vesicant injury...
March 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Zygfryd Witkiewicz, Slawomir Neffe, Ewa Sliwka, Javier Quagliano
Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997)...
March 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Hao Wang, William P Lustig, Jing Li
Toxic and hazardous chemical species are ubiquitous, predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities, and pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Thus, the sensing and subsequent capture of these chemicals, especially in the gas or vapor phase, are of extreme importance. To this end, metal-organic frameworks have attracted significant interest, as their high porosity and wide tunability make them ideal for both applications. These tailorable framework materials are particularly promising for the specific sensing and capture of targeted chemicals, as they can be designed to fit a diverse range of required conditions...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Dalton T Snyder, Lucas J Szalwinski, Robert L Schrader, Valentina Pirro, Ryan Hilger, R Graham Cooks
Methodology for performing precursor and neutral loss scans in an RF scanning linear quadrupole ion trap is described and compared to the unconventional ac frequency scan technique. In the RF scanning variant, precursor ions are mass selectively excited by a fixed frequency resonance excitation signal at low Mathieu q while the RF amplitude is ramped linearly to pass ions through the point of excitation such that the excited ion's m/z varies linearly with time. Ironically, a nonlinear ac frequency scan is still required for ejection of the product ions since their frequencies vary nonlinearly with the linearly varying RF amplitude...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Sabrina S Schatzman, Valeria C Culotta
Superoxide anion radical is generated as a natural byproduct of aerobic metabolism but is also produced as part of the oxidative burst of the innate immune response design to kill pathogens. In living systems, superoxide is largely managed through superoxide dismutases (SODs), families of metalloenzymes that use Fe, Mn, Ni, or Cu cofactors to catalyze the disproportionation of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Given the bursts of superoxide faced by microbial pathogens, it comes as no surprise that SOD enzymes play important roles in microbial survival and virulence...
March 14, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
John A Hondred, Joyce Breger, Nathan Alves, Scott A Trammell, Scott A Walper, Igor L Medintz, Jonathan C Claussen
Solution phase printing of graphene-based electrodes has recently become an attractive low-cost, scalable manufacturing technique to create in-field electrochemical biosensors. Here we report a graphene-based electrode developed via Inkjet Maskless Lithography (IML) for the direct and rapid monitoring of triple-O linked phosphonate organophosphates (OPs); these constitute the active compounds found in chemical warfare agents and pesticides that exhibit acute toxicity as well as long-term pollution to soils and waterways...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Seda Onder, Ozden Tacal, Oksana Lockridge
Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is purified in large quantities from Cohn fraction IV-4 to use for protection against the toxicity of chemical warfare agents. Small scale preliminary experiments use outdated plasma from the American Red Cross as the starting material for purifying BChE (P06276). Many of the volunteer donor plasma samples are turbid with fat, the donor having eaten fatty food before the blood draw. The turbid fat interferes with enzyme assays performed in the spectrophotometer and with column chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ashley Rose Head, Roman Tsyshevsky, Lena Trotochaud, Yi Yu, Osman Karslıoğlu, Bryan Eichhorn, Maija M Kuklja, Hendrik Bluhm
Organophosphonates range in their toxicity and are used as pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Few laboratories are equipped to handle the most toxic molecules, thus simulants, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), are used as a first step in studying adsorption and reactivity on materials. Benchmarked by combined experimental and theoretical studies of simulants, calculations offer an opportunity to understand how molecular interactions with a surface changes upon using a CWA. However, most calculations of DMMP and CWAs on surfaces are limited to adsorption studies on clusters of atoms, which may differ markedly from the behavior on bulk solid-state materials with extended surfaces...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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