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Prehospital haemorrhage management

Andrew Loftus, Harvey Pynn, Paul Parker
Terrorist acts occur every day around the world. Healthcare professionals are often present as bystander survivors in these situations, with none of the equipment or infrastructure they rely on in their day-to-day practice. Within several countries there has been a move to disseminate the actions to take in the event of such attacks: in the UK, Run, Hide, Tell , and in the USA, Fight Back This paper outlines how a very basic medical knowledge combined with everyday high-street items can render highly effective first aid and save lives...
June 15, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Ravi Chauhan, Bianca M Conti, Damian Keene
Terrorist attacks are increasing each year as are the number of deaths associated with them. Recent incidents have seen a shift in tactics with the use of multiple terrorists across multiple locations with firearms or knives, referred to as the marauding terrorist attack. These methods are becoming more prevalent alongside the use of vehicles deliberately aimed at pedestrians. Management of these incidents can be challenging. Not only it involves a large number of casualties but also the management of a dynamic scene in terms of both location and threat from attack...
June 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Jean Stéphane David, Pierre Bouzat, Mathieu Raux
Over the last 20 years, numerous studies have fairly consistently reported an improvement in the prognosis of patients with severe trauma after the establishment of a trauma network. These systems can be either exclusive, in which all patients are referred only to a small number of specifically designated centres that meet strict criteria, or inclusive, in which patients may be referred to any hospital of a particular area according to capacity, which is observed in France. Hospitals are classified (level 1 to level 3) according to their technical facilities and the number of patients admitted for severe trauma, knowing that studies have also shown an improvement of the outcome for the most severely injured patients (haemorrhagic shock, severe head trauma), in hospitals with the greatest technical facilities and the most important activity...
February 21, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Gayle McLelland, Lisa McKenna, Amee Morgans, Karen Smith
BACKGROUND: Over the previous two decades the incidence and number of unplanned out of hospital births Victoria has increased. As the only out of hospital emergency care providers in Victoria, paramedics would provide care for women having birth emergencies in the community. However, there is a lack of research about the involvement of paramedics provide for these women and their newborns. This research reports the clinical profile of a 1-year sample caseload of births attended by a state-wide ambulance service in Australia...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Stephen J M Sollid, Marius Rehn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The care administered on air ambulances has become increasing complex. This has led to a discussion among experts as to whether air ambulance travel should be manned by physicians. This review provides evidence in support of anaesthesiologists being the physician-leaders in air ambulance medicine, because of their training in advanced airway management, critical care, and resuscitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Successful prehospital care requires the ability to perform a complex set of advanced diagnostics and interventions...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Klaus Fassbender, James C Grotta, Silke Walter, Iris Q Grunwald, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Jeffrey L Saver
In acute stroke management, time is brain. Bringing swift treatment to the patient, instead of the conventional approach of awaiting the patient's arrival at the hospital for treatment, is a potential strategy to improve clinical outcomes after stroke. This strategy is based on the use of an ambulance (mobile stroke unit) equipped with an imaging system, a point-of-care laboratory, a telemedicine connection to the hospital, and appropriate medication. Studies of prehospital stroke treatment consistently report a reduction in delays before thrombolysis and cause-based triage in regard to the appropriate target hospital (eg, primary vs comprehensive stroke centre)...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
Penny S Reynolds, Mary J Michael, Bruce D Spiess
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial success depends on appropriate management, but practical guidance to trial organisation and planning is lacking. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the 'gold standard' management system developed for managing diverse operations in major incident and public health arenas. It enables effective and flexible management through integration of personnel, procedures, resources, and communications within a common hierarchical organisational structure. Conventional ICS organisation consists of five function modules: Command, Planning, Operations, Logistics, and Finance/Administration...
February 9, 2017: Trials
T Viergutz, J Grüttner, T Walter, C Weiss, B Haaff, G Pollach, C Madler, T Luiz
BACKGROUND: In the current guidelines for the treatment of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommends preclinical fibrinolysis as a reperfusion therapy if, due to long transportation times, no cardiac catheterisation is available within 90-120 min. However, there is little remaining in-depth expertise in this method because fibrinolysis is presently only rarely indicated. METHODS: In a rural area in southwestern Germany, where an emergency primary percutaneous coronary intervention was not routinely available within 90-120 min, 156 STEMI patients underwent fibrinolysis with the plasminogen activator reteplase, performed by trained emergency physicians...
September 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Edward C T H Tan, Joost H Peters, Jessica L Mckee, Michael J R Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Bleeding remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The iTClamp is a temporary wound closure device designed to control external bleeding within seconds of injury. We describe our experience using this device on 10 patients in the prehospital environment. METHODS: We have implemented the iTClamp for prehospital use through our physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS). Indications were massive bleeding that could not be controlled with an ordinary compressive bandage or a haemostatic bandage...
May 2016: Injury
V V Soroka, I E Borovsky, I A Khomchuk, D V Ovcharenko, I D Magamedov
Presented herein is a case report dealing with successive combined treatment for arteriovenous malformation of the left part of the chest, macrofistular form complicated by necroses of the left thoracic portion with arrosive haemorrhage from the area of necrosis. The authors describe diagnosis of this disease, technical peculiarities of performing transcatheter endovascular occlusion and topical treatment of wounds, underlining difficulties of verifying the pathology concerned at the prehospital stage and prevention of complications...
2015: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Penny S Reynolds, Mary Jane Michael, Emily D Cochran, Jacob A Wegelin, Bruce D Spiess
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic injury and haemorrhagic shock are frequently associated with disruptions of coagulation function (such as trauma-induced coagulopathy TIC) and activation of inflammatory cascades. These pathologies may be exacerbated by current standard of care resuscitation protocols. Observational studies suggest early administration of plasma to severely-injured haemorrhaging patients may correct TIC, minimise inflammation, and improve survival. The proposed randomised clinical trial will evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital plasma administration compared with standard- of-care crystalloid resuscitation in severely-injured patients with major traumatic haemorrhage...
July 30, 2015: Trials
D Bieler, A F Franke, S Hentsch, T Paffrath, A Willms, R Lefering, E W Kollig
BACKGROUND: The management of gunshot wounds is a rare challenge for trauma surgeons in Germany and Central Europe as a result of the low incidence of this type of trauma. Penetrating injuries occur with an incidence of 5% in Germany. They are caused by gunshots or more commonly by knives or other objects, for example during accidents. Since even the number of patients who are treated at level 1 trauma centres is limited by the low incidence, the objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and outcome of gunshot and stab wounds in Germany...
November 2014: Der Unfallchirurg
James Min-Leong Wong, Andrew Bucknill
Traumatic disruptions of the pelvic ring are high energy life threatening injuries. Management represents a significant challenge, particularly in the acute setting in the presence of severe haemorrhage. Initial management is focused on preserving life by controlling haemorrhage and associated injuries. Advances in prehospital care, surgery, interventional radiology and the introduction of treatment algorithms to streamline decision making have improved patient survival. As more patients with unstable pelvic injuries survive, the poor results associated with nonoperative management and increasing patient expectations of outcome are making surgical management of these fractures increasingly common...
April 2017: Injury
J-S David, C Spann, G Marcotte, B Reynaud, O Fontaine, M Lefèvre, V Piriou
The management of a patient in post-traumatic haemorrhagic shock will meet different logics that will apply from the prehospital setting. This implies that the patient has beneficiated from a "Play and Run" prehospital strategy and was sent to a centre adapted to his clinical condition capable of treating all haemorrhagic lesions. The therapeutic goals will be to control the bleeding by early use of tourniquet, pelvic girdle, haemostatic dressing, and after admission to the hospital, the implementation of surgical and/or radiological techniques, but also to address all the factors that will exacerbate bleeding...
July 2013: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
Paul T Engels, Edward Passos, Andrew N Beckett, Jeffrey D Doyle, Homer C Tien
BACKGROUND: Exsanguinating haemorrhage is a leading cause of death in severely injured trauma patients. Management includes achieving haemostasis, replacing lost intravascular volume with fluids and blood, and treating coagulopathy. The provision of fluids and blood products is contingent on obtaining adequate vascular access to the patient's venous system. We sought to examine the nature and timing of achieving adequate intravenous (IV) access in trauma patients requiring uncrossmatched blood in the trauma bay...
January 2014: Injury
Kashif Waqar Faiz, Antje Sundseth, Bente Thommessen, Ole Morten Rønning
BACKGROUND: Early management improves outcome in acute stroke. This study was designed to assess the prehospital path from symptom onset to arrival in hospital and to identify factors associated with prehospital delay. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted including patients with acute ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage and transient ischaemic attack admitted to hospital. Time intervals for prehospital delay, background data, severity, type of first medical contact and mode of transport were recorded...
August 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Joanna Manson, Sian Cooper, Anita West, Elizabeth Foster, Elaine Cole, Nigel R M Tai
INTRODUCTION: Pedal cycling in cities has the potential to deliver significant health and economic benefits for individuals and society. Safety is the main concern for potential cyclists although the statistical risk of death is low. Little is known about the severity of injuries sustained by city cyclists and their outcome. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterise the physiological status and injury profile of cyclists admitted to our urban major trauma centre (MTC)...
January 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Salásek Martin, Pavelka Tomás
Pelvic ring injuries occur at any age. Most injuries to the pelvis are due to high-energy trauma, these injuries are therefore associated with abdominal, thoracic and head injuries. Unstable disruption of the pelvic ring has been often coupled with massive or life-threatening haemorrhage. The goal of the prehospital management is to keep airway open, start oxygen therapy, fluid replacement therapy and apply appropriate immobilization device. On admission of hemodynamically stable patients CT is preferred, for hemodynamically unstable the plain antero-posterior pelvis radiograph and ultrasound...
2011: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Arasch Wafaisade, Sebastian Wutzler, Rolf Lefering, Thorsten Tjardes, Marc Banerjee, Thomas Paffrath, Bertil Bouillon, Marc Maegele
OBJECTIVE: The role of acute coagulopathy after severe trauma as a major contributor to exsanguination and death has recently gained increasing appreciation, but the causes and mechanisms are not fully understood. This study was conducted to assess the risk factors associated with acute traumatic coagulopathy together with quantitative estimates of their importance. METHODS: Using the multicentre Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery, adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 were retrospectively analysed for independent risk factors of acute traumatic coagulopathy on arrival at the emergency department (ED) by multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis...
December 2010: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Florian Dvorak, Isabel Haberer, Matthias Sitzer, Christian Foerch
BACKGROUND: The rapid differentiation between intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and ischaemic stroke (IS) using biomarker testing would allow the prehospital, cause-specific management of stroke patients. Based on single measurements made during the acute phase of stroke, the value of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was reported to be higher in ICH patients than in IS patients. The aim of the present study was to characterise the diagnostic window of serum GFAP for differentiating between ICH and IS...
2009: Cerebrovascular Diseases
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