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Language Delay

Rebecca A Gilbert, Graham J Hitch, Tom Hartley
The capacity of serially ordered auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) is sensitive to the timing of the material to be stored, and both temporal processing and AVSTM capacity are implicated in the development of language. We developed a novel "rehearsal-probe" task to investigate the relationship between temporal precision and the capacity to remember serial order. Participants listened to a sub-span sequence of spoken digits and silently rehearsed the items and their timing during an unfilled retention interval...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Veronica Bertini, Alessandro Orsini, Roberta Mazza, Vineela Mandava, Giuseppe Saggese, Alessia Azzara', Alice Bonuccelli, Angelo Valetto
We report on a patient with a 6.5 Mb interstitial de novo deletion in 3q24q25.2, characterized by array CGH. The patient is a 4-year and 2-month-old girl, who presented to us with mild developmental delay, absence of language, facial dysmorphism, hirsutism, strabismus, and Dandy-Walker Malformation. The main clinical signs typical of WS (Wisconsin syndrome) are evident in the patient. The molecular mapping of WS in 3q23q25 allowed geneticists to define the syndrome more accurately. Comparing the present patient's phenotype with that of cases with a molecular characterization so far reported, it was possible to narrow the critical region for WS to an interval of 750 Kb, where two genes (MBNL1 and TMEM14E) are harbored...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Diane L Putnick, Marc H Bornstein, Suna Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children born very preterm, moderate-late preterm, and term differ in their average level and individual-difference stability in language performance over time. STUDY DESIGN: Language was assessed at 5 and 20 months and 4, 6, and 8 years of age in 204 very preterm (<32 weeks' gestation), 276 moderate-late preterm (32-36 weeks' gestation), and 268 term (37-41 weeks' gestation) children from the Bavarian Longitudinal Study. RESULTS: Very preterm children consistently performed worse than term-born children, and moderate-late preterm children scored in between...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Haitham Taha
The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and phonologically similar version (PS). The result showed that for immediate free-recall, the performances were better for the SL and the PS conditions compared to the SA one...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Matt S Hicks, Reginald S Sauve, Charlene M T Robertson, Ari R Joffe, Gwen Alton, Dianne Creighton, David B Ross, Ivan M Rebeyka
BACKGROUND: Developmental and language outcomes at 2 years of age of children who had arterial switch operation (ASO) for transposition of the great arteries 2004-2010 are described. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 91/98 (93 %) children who underwent ASO were assessed at 2 years of age with the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development-3rd Edition. Outcomes were compared by patient and perioperative variables using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses to identify predictors of language delay...
2016: SpringerPlus
Clément François, Toni Cunillera, Enara Garcia, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
Learning a new language requires the identification of word units from continuous speech (the speech segmentation problem) and mapping them onto conceptual representation (the word to world mapping problem). Recent behavioral studies have revealed that the statistical properties found within and across modalities can serve as cues for both processes. However, segmentation and mapping have been largely studied separately, and thus it remains unclear whether both processes can be accomplished at the same time and if they share common neurophysiological features...
October 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
R Thuret, S Hurel, F Kleinclauss, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To describe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and their management in renal transplant candidates and recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association: "transplantation", "prostate hyperplasia", "transurethral resection of prostate", "urinary incontinence", "LUTS", "pelvic floor dysfunction"...
October 7, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Ji Eun Jeong, Hyung Jik Lee, Jin Kyung Kim
[This corrects the article on p. 363 in vol. 57, PMID: 25210524.].
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Ilana Kaplan, Itai Zeevi, Haim Tal, Eli Rosenfeld, Gavriel Chaushu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe a new case series of peri-implant malignancy, review the literature, and discuss the implications of malignancies resembling peri-implantitis. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective analysis of cases from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: Seven patients (two males and five females), aged 44 to 89 years, were included, representing 1.5% of oral malignancy cases. Five cases were squamous carcinoma, one of basal cell carcinoma, and one of carcinoma of metastatic origin...
September 9, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Jennifer A Price, Ana I F Sousa Soares, Augustine D Asante, Joao S Martins, Kate Williams, Virginia L Wiseman
BACKGROUND: Despite public health care being free at the point of delivery in Timor-Leste, wealthier patients access hospital care at nearly twice the rate of poorer patients. This study seeks to understand the barriers driving inequitable utilisation of hospital services in Timor-Leste from the perspective of community members and health care managers. METHODS: This multisite qualitative study in Timor-Leste conducted gender segregated focus groups (n = 8) in eight districts, with 59 adults in urban and rural settings, and in-depth interviews (n = 8) with the Director of community health centres...
September 30, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
R J Kryscio, E L Abner, P T Nelson, D Bennett, J Schneider, L Yu, L S Hemmy, K O Lim, K Masaki, N Cairns, C Xiong, R Woltjer, H H Dodge, S Tyas, D W Fardo, W Lou, L Wan, F A Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vascular pathology may contribute to cognitive decline experienced by some elderly near death. Given evidence for mixed neuropathologies in advanced age, preventing or reducing cerebrovascular burden in late life may be beneficial. OBJECTIVE: To correlate measures of cerebral vascular pathology with cognitive trajectories. SETTING: Observational study. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 2,274 individuals who came to autopsy at a mean age of 89...
June 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Muhammad Tariq Saeed, Jamil Ahmad, Shahzina Kanwal, Andreana N Holowatyj, Iftikhar A Sheikh, Rehan Zafar Paracha, Aamir Shafi, Amnah Siddiqa, Zurah Bibi, Mukaram Khan, Amjad Ali
The alteration of glucose metabolism, through increased uptake of glucose and glutamine addiction, is essential to cancer cell growth and invasion. Increased flux of glucose through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) drives increased cellular O-GlcNAcylation (hyper-O-GlcNAcylation) and contributes to cancer progression by regulating key oncogenes. However, the association between hyper-O-GlcNAcylation and activation of these oncogenes remains poorly characterized. Here, we implement a qualitative modeling framework to analyze the role of the Biological Regulatory Network in HBP activation and its potential effects on key oncogenes...
2016: PeerJ
Sophie E Ambrose
Purpose: This study examined the gesture use of 14-month-old toddlers with hearing loss (HL) and mothers' responses to children's early gesture use. Comparisons were made to symbolic language and to dyads in which the toddler had normal hearing (NH). Method: Participants were 25 mother-toddler dyads in which the child had HL and a socioeconomic-status matched group of 23 mother-toddler dyads in which the child had NH. Thirty-minute mother-child interactions were video-recorded, transcribed for spoken language, sign, and gesture use, and coded for maternal responses to children's gestures...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Matthew Winn
People with hearing impairment are thought to rely heavily on context to compensate for reduced audibility. Here, we explore the resulting cost of this compensatory behavior, in terms of effort and the efficiency of ongoing predictive language processing. The listening task featured predictable or unpredictable sentences, and participants included people with cochlear implants as well as people with normal hearing who heard full-spectrum/unprocessed or vocoded speech. The crucial metric was the growth of the pupillary response and the reduction of this response for predictable versus unpredictable sentences, which would suggest reduced cognitive load resulting from predictive processing...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Sudhir Adhikari, Kalipatnam Seshagiri Rao
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) causes significant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. There is limited information about long term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: Term infants with the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia were followed up in neurodevelopmental clinics of Manipal Teaching hospital, Nepal. Study design was prospective mixed longitudinal study. Prematurity, major congenital malformations, other intracranial pathology, birth weight <2500g and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded...
September 30, 2016: Brain & Development
Zuzana Musova, Miroslava Hancarova, Marketa Havlovicova, Radka Pourova, Michal Hrdlicka, Josef Kraus, Marie Trkova, David Stejskal, Zdenek Sedlacek
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) belongs to the broad spectrum of genetic disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD were reported predominantly in congenital and early childhood forms of DM1. We describe dizygotic twin boys with ASD who were referred for routine laboratory genetic testing and in whom karyotyping, FMR1 gene testing, and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis yielded negative results. The father of the boys was later diagnosed with suspected DM1, and testing revealed characteristic DMPK gene expansions in his genome as well as in the genomes of both twins and their elder brother, who also suffered from ASD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Evelien Dʼhaeseleer, Eline Geenens, Sarah Parmentier, Paul Corthals, Kristiane Van Lierde
OBJECTIVE: The language development of twins tends to lag behind in comparison to that of singletons. The purpose of this study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills of 3- to 12-year-old twins with singletons. Secondly, correlations between language differences between twins and singletons and age were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four twins with a mean age of 5.1 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 24 singletons who were matched for gender and age...
October 1, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Felix J Hüttner, Rosa Klotz, Alexis Ulrich, Markus W Büchler, Markus K Diener
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer remains one of the five leading causes of cancer deaths in industrialized nations. For adenocarcinomas in the head of the gland and premalignant lesions, partial pancreaticoduodenectomy represents the standard treatment for resectable tumours. The gastro- or duodenojejunostomy after partial pancreaticoduodenectomy can be reestablished via either an antecolic or a retrocolic route. The debate about the more favourable technique for bowel reconstruction is ongoing...
September 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Peter J Anderson, Alice Burnett
OBJECTIVE: Early detection of children with developmental delay is crucial for determining which children require close surveillance and intervention services. For many decades, the Bayley Scales has been the most widely used objective measure of early developmental delay, both in clinical and research settings. Significant structural changes were incorporated in the most recent edition, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Bayley-III and investigates criticisms raised on the Bayley-III, namely that it overestimates developmental status and is a poor predictor of later functioning...
August 12, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Christian Radmayr, Hasan S Dogan, Piet Hoebeke, Radim Kocvara, Rien Nijman, Raimund Stein, Shabnam Undre, Serdar Tekgul
CONTEXT: Undescended testis is the most common endocrinological disease in the male newborn period. Incidence varies between 1.0% and 4.6% in full-term neonates, with rates as high as 45% in preterm neonates. Failure or delay of treatment can result in reduced fertility and/or increased testicular cancer risk in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of boys with undescended testes which reduce the risk of impaired fertility and testicular cancer in adulthood...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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