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Leaf solar tracking

Bilge Baytekin, S Doruk Cezan, H Tarık Baytekin, Bartosz A Grzybowski
Although plants are typically not considered an inspiration for designing motile robots, they do perform a variety of intricate motion patterns, including diurnal cycles of sun tracking (heliotropism) and leaf opening (nyctinasty). In real plants, these motions are controlled by complex, feedback-based biological mechanisms that, to date, have been mimicked only in computer-controlled artificial systems. This work demonstrates both heliotropism and nyctinasty in a system in which few simple, but strategically positioned thermo-responsive springs and lenses form a feedback loop controlling these motions and substantiating a behavioral analogy to "plants...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
Dalphy O C Harteveld, Michael R Grant, Jay W Pscheidt, Tobin L Peever
Mummy berry, caused by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, causes economic losses of highbush blueberry in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Apothecia develop from mummified berries overwintering on soil surfaces and produce ascospores that infect tissue emerging from floral and vegetative buds. Disease control currently relies on fungicides applied on a calendar basis rather than inoculum availability. To establish a prediction model for ascospore release, apothecial development was tracked in three fields, one in western Oregon and two in northwestern Washington in 2015 and 2016...
November 2017: Phytopathology
Hualei Yang, Xi Yang, Yongguang Zhang, Mary A Heskel, Xiaoliang Lu, J William Munger, Shucun Sun, Jianwu Tang
Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA...
July 2017: Global Change Biology
Renata Retkute, Stephanie E Smith-Unna, Robert W Smith, Alexandra J Burgess, Oliver E Jensen, Giles N Johnson, Simon P Preston, Erik H Murchie
Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to balance the efficient use of absorbed light energy in photosynthesis with the capacity to use that energy in assimilation, so avoiding potential damage from excess light. This is particularly important under natural light, which can vary according to weather, solar movement and canopy movement. Photosynthetic acclimation is the means by which plants alter their leaf composition and structure over time to enhance photosynthetic efficiency and productivity. However there is no empirical or theoretical basis for understanding how leaves track historic light levels to determine acclimation status, or whether they do this accurately...
May 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
Roberto O Chávez, Jan G P W Clevers, Jan Verbesselt, Paulette I Naulin, Martin Herold
Heliotropic leaf movement or leaf 'solar tracking' occurs for a wide variety of plants, including many desert species and some crops. This has an important effect on the canopy spectral reflectance as measured from satellites. For this reason, monitoring systems based on spectral vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), should account for heliotropic movements when evaluating the health condition of such species. In the hyper-arid Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, we studied seasonal and diurnal variations of MODIS and Landsat NDVI time series of plantation stands of the endemic species Prosopis tamarugo Phil...
2014: PloS One
M P M Dicker, J M Rossiter, I P Bond, P M Weaver
Although the actuation mechanisms that drive plant movement have been investigated from a biomimetic perspective, few studies have looked at the wider sensing and control systems that regulate this motion. This paper examines photo-actuation-actuation induced by, and controlled with light-through a review of the sun-tracking functions of the Cornish Mallow. The sun-tracking movement of the Cornish Mallow leaf results from an extraordinarily complex-yet extremely elegant-process of signal perception, generation, filtering and control...
September 2014: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Gregory P Asner, Roberta E Martin, Loreli Carranza-Jiménez, Felipe Sinca, Raul Tupayachi, Christopher B Anderson, Paola Martinez
Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits...
October 2014: New Phytologist
Albert Porcar-Castell, Esa Tyystjärvi, Jon Atherton, Christiaan van der Tol, Jaume Flexas, Erhard E Pfündel, Jose Moreno, Christian Frankenberg, Joseph A Berry
Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) has been used for decades to study the organization, functioning, and physiology of photosynthesis at the leaf and subcellular levels. ChlF is now measurable from remote sensing platforms. This provides a new optical means to track photosynthesis and gross primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Importantly, the spatiotemporal and methodological context of the new applications is dramatically different compared with most of the available ChlF literature, which raises a number of important considerations...
August 2014: Journal of Experimental Botany
Onno Muller, Jared J Stewart, Christopher M Cohu, Stephanie K Polutchko, Barbara Demmig-Adams, William W Adams
Acclimation of leaf features to growth temperature was investigated in two biennials (whose life cycle spans summer and winter seasons) using different mechanisms of sugar loading into exporting conduits, Verbascum phoeniceum (employs sugar-synthesizing enzymes driving symplastic loading through plasmodesmatal wall pores of phloem cells) and Malva neglecta (likely apoplastic loader transporting sugar via membrane transport proteins of phloem cells). In both species, acclimation to lower temperature involved greater maximal photosynthesis rates and vein density per leaf area in close correlation with modification of minor vein cellular features...
December 2014: Physiologia Plantarum
J Zhu, R Zeiger, E Zeiger
Recent studies have shown that guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts appear to be involved in blue light photoreception during blue light-dependent stomatal opening and phototropic bending. The guard cell chloroplast has been studied in detail but the coleoptile chloroplast is poorly understood. The present study was aimed at the characterization of the corn coleoptile chloroplast, and its comparison with mesophyll and guard cell chloroplasts. Coleoptile chloroplasts operated the xanthophyll cycle, and their zeaxanthin content tracked incident rates of solar radiation throughout the day...
May 1995: Photosynthesis Research
D Koller, S Ritter, W R Briggs, E Schäfer
The leaf lamina ofLavatera cretica L. exhibits a diaphototropic response that discriminates between two opposite, constant vectorial excitations by white light beams whose fluence rates differ by as little as 10% (50 versus 45 μmol·m(-2)·S(-1)). The relationship between the response (angular velocity of laminar reorientation) and the fluence-rate ratio is linear. The lamina similarly discriminates between two such excitations by polarized light, one with the electrical vector transverse to the plane of the two beams (θ) and the opposite one with the vector parallel to that plane ([Symbol: see text])...
May 1990: Planta
Daniel Kovác, Zbyněk Malenovský, Otmar Urban, Vladimír Špunda, Jiří Kalina, Alexander Ač, Veroslav Kaplan, Jan Hanuš
A dedicated field experiment was conducted to investigate the response of a green reflectance continuum removal-based optical index, called area under the curve normalized to maximal band depth between 511 nm and 557 nm (ANMB511-557), to light-induced transformations in xanthophyll cycle pigments of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] needles. The performance of ANMB511-557 was compared with the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) computed from the same leaf reflectance measurements. Needles of four crown whorls (fifth, eighth, 10th, and 15th counted from the top) were sampled from a 27-year-old spruce tree throughout a cloudy and a sunny day...
April 2013: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jin Hur, Ka-Young Jung, Mark A Schlautman
Changes in the characteristics of a leaf litter-derived humic substance (LLHS) that resulted from its adsorption onto kaolinite or exposure to simulated solar irradiation were tracked using selected spectroscopic descriptors, apparent weight-average molecular weight (MW(w)) and pyrene binding. Heterogeneity within the original bulk LLHS was confirmed by a range of different characteristics obtained from ultrafiltration-based size fractions. In general, trends of some changing LLHS characteristics were similar for the adsorption and irradiation processes when tracked against percent carbon removal...
November 15, 2011: Water Research
Zalika Crepinšek, Franci Stampar, Lučka Kajfež-Bogataj, Anita Solar
Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia...
July 2012: International Journal of Biometeorology
Paula Casati, Mabel Campi, Darren J Morrow, John F Fernandes, Virginia Walbot
BACKGROUND: Under normal solar fluence, UV-B damages macromolecules, but it also elicits physiological acclimation and developmental changes in plants. Excess UV-B decreases crop yield. Using a treatment twice solar fluence, we focus on discovering signals produced in UV-B-irradiated maize leaves that translate to systemic changes in shielded leaves and immature ears. RESULTS: Using transcriptome and proteomic profiling, we tracked the kinetics of transcript and protein alterations in exposed and shielded organs over 6 h...
2011: BMC Genomics
R A Donahue, V S Berg, T C Vogelmann
Blue light gradients in the pulvini of soybean (Glycine max var. Northrup King S1346) leaves with different laminar orientations were examined with a fiber optic microprobe. The gradients changed markedly as a function of both incident light angle and leaf position and were determined largely by the amount of light present in the adaxial side of the pulvinus. The steepest gradient for inclined leaves was with light incident at 90° whereas for declined leaves it occurred when the light was incident at 150°...
August 1990: Physiologia Plantarum
Ying-Lang Wan, William Eisinger, David Ehrhardt, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Frantisek Baluska, Winslow Briggs
Phototropin 1 (phot1) is a photoreceptor for phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, leaf expansion, and solar tracking in response to blue light. Following earlier work with PHOT1::GFP (Sakamoto and Briggs, 2002), we investigated the pattern of cellular and subcellular localization of phot1 in 3- 4-d-old etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thalinana. As expressed from native upstream sequences, the PHOT1::GFP fusion protein is expressed strongly in the abaxial tissues of the cotyledons and in the elongating regions of the hypocotyl...
January 2008: Molecular Plant
Dennis H Greer, Michael R Thorpe
Malva parviflora L. (mallow) is a species that occupies high-light habitats as a weedy invader in orchards and vineyards. Species of the Malvaceae are known to solar track and anecdotal evidence suggests this species may also. How M. parviflora responds physiologically to light in comparison with other species within the Malvaceae remains unknown. Tracking and photosynthetic responses to photon flux density (PFD) were evaluated on plants grown in greenhouse conditions. Tracking ability was assessed in the growth conditions and by exposing leaves to specific light intensities and measuring changes in the angle of the leaf plane...
October 2009: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Paul W Barnes, Stephan D Flint, James R Slusser, Wei Gao, Ronald J Ryel
Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments...
June 2008: Physiologia Plantarum
J Ehleringer, I Forseth
Leaves of many desert and agricultural species have the ability to move diurnally, orienting perpendicular or parallel to the sun's direct rays. This phenomenon is widespread in many plant families and occurs in both C(3) and C(4) photosynthetic pathway plants. In the annual flora of desert communities, solar tracking becomes more frequent as the length of the growing season decreases. Leaves that are perpendicular to the sun's direct rays for tracking appear to have high photosynthetic rates throughout the day, whereas leaves parallel to the sun's rays have reduced leaf temperatures and transpirational water losses...
December 5, 1980: Science
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