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Free radicals, vascular damage

V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Min-Ah Koo, Bong-Jin Kim, Mi Hee Lee, Byeong-Ju Kwon, Min Sung Kim, Gyeung Mi Seon, Dohyun Kim, Ki Chang Nam, Kangkyun Wang, Yong-Rok Kim, Jong-Chul Park
The principle of photodynamic treatment (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizer (PS) at diseased tissues, followed by light irradiation to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In cells, a moderate increase in ROS plays an important role as signaling molecule to promote cell proliferation, whereas a severe increase of ROS causes cell damage. Previous studies have shown that low levels of ROS stimulate cell growth through PS drugs-treating PDT and non-thermal plasma treatment. However, these methods have side effects which are associated with low tissue selectivity and remaining of PS residues...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D Mannaerts, E Faes, J Gielis, J Briedé, P Cos, E Van Craenenbroeck, W Gyselaers, J Cornette, M Spaanderman, Y Jacquemyn
AIMS: Oxidative stress is crucial in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like the superoxide radical O2-, are produced by the ischemic placenta, causing systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. EPR uses microwave radiation and a high magnetic field and is the most direct and reliable method to detect free radicals. We explored the feasibility of determining O2- concentration in maternal serum and compared pre-eclamptic and uncomplicated pregnancies...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Vadim Z Lankin, Alla K Tikhaze
We have provided an overview, based on the literature and our data. In accordance with the theory of D. Harman free radical processes cause damages that can accumulate and contribute to aging of the organism. Atherosclerosis and diabetes are developing for a long time so they are manifested predominantly in old age. We found an increase in the level of free radical peroxidation products and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the tissues of animals with experimental atherosclerosis. Similar changes were found by in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis and aortic autopsy material with atherosclerotic lesions...
September 26, 2016: Current Aging Science
Miguel Diaz, Hans Degens, Luc Vanhees, Clare Austin, May Azzawi
Aging is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Despite a significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity rates over the last decade, the socio-economic burden of cardiovascular disease is still substantial. Consequently, there is a considerable need for alternative strategies, such as nutraceutical supplementation, that delay the functional vascular decline present in the elderly. Compromised autophagy and oxidative stress (OS) are considered major causes of the age-related endothelial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Gholam Hassan Haddadi, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Moradi, Masoud Najafi
This study was carried out to evaluate radioprotective effects of hesperidin (HES) administration before the irradiation on the cardiac oxidative stress and histopathological changes in an experimental rat model. The cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure cause morbidity and mortality in patients who received radiotherapy. HES, an antioxidant flavonoid found in citrus fruits, suggests the protection against the tissue damage. Fifty-eight rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and sham radiation; Group 2, HES and sham radiation; Group 3, PBS and radiation; and Group 4, HES and radiation...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
V V Muthusamy
Cardiovascular disease burden is increasing all over the world. The diagnosis of hypertension is considered when a person has persistently elevated BP (Systolic BP more than 140 mmHg and/or Diastolic BP more than 90 mmHg). Dyslipidemia denotes abnormal levels of lipids in the blood (Total Cholesterol >200 mg%, Low density lipoprotein (LDL) >100 mg%, Triglycerides (TGL) >150 mg% and High density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg in men and < 50 mg in women. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia constitute the important components of metabolic syndrome as per the definition of NCEP Guidelines-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jingshuai Wang, Jiyang Li, Jie Liu, Mengjiao Xu, Xiaowen Tong, Jianjun Wang
Numerous clinical therapeutic agents have been identified as DNA damaging. The present study revealed that isoproterenol (Iso) resulted in DNA damage in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the levels of intracellular oxygen free radicals. Administration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) inhibited this effect. Pretreatment with CGA abrogated the increase in protein expression levels of γ‑H2A histone family member X, phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated, phosphorylated Rad3‑related protein, breast cancer 1 and C‑terminal Src homologous kinase induced by Iso...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh, Afsaneh Malekpour-Tehrani, Mahmoud Bahmani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Diabetes mellitus can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Microvascular and macrovascular disorders are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia can increase the indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in which free radicals have the main role in the pathogenesis of these complications. Therefore, antioxidants which combat oxidative stress should be able to prevent and repair free radicals induced damages. Although free radicals contribute to kidney damage, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart disease, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity; however, clinical trials do not uniquely confirm a substantial impact on diabetic damage...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Maria de Fátima Fernandes Vattimo, Mirian Watanabe, Cassiane Dezoti da Fonseca, Luciana Barros de Moura Neiva, Edson Andrade Pessoa, Fernanda Teixeira Borges
Polymyxins have a long history of dose-limiting toxicity, but the underlying mechanism of polymyxin B-induced nephrotoxicity is unclear. This study investigated the link between the nephrotoxic effects of polymyxin B on renal metabolic functions and mitochondrial morphology in rats and on the structural integrity of LLC-PK1 cells. Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Saline group, rats received 3 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day for 5 days; Polymyxin B group, rats received 4 mg/kg/day of polymyxin B i...
2016: PloS One
C De Ciuceis, C Rossini, P Airò, M Scarsi, S Piantoni, A Gavazzi, L Solaini, E Porteri, B Petroboni, C Agabiti Rosei, A Tincani, E Agabiti Rosei, D Rizzoni, F Bertacchini
OBJECTIVE: Both innate and adaptive immune systems may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and vascular remodeling through inflammation and oxidative stress. Particularly, the balance between Th1 effector lymphocytes (producing interferon-γ) and T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes, which elicit an anti-inflammatory activity, may be crucial for blood pressure elevation and organ damage development, at least in experimental models. In particular, Tregs have been previously demonstrated to inversely correlate with subcutaneous small resistance artery media to lumen ratio (M/L) and retinal arteriole wall to lumen ratio (W/L) (unpublished data)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Cemal Orhan, Fatih Akdemir, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Ismet Yilmaz, Jayant Deshpande, Vijaya Juturu, Kazim Sahin
PURPOSE: Mesozeaxanthin (MZ) is able to protect against chronic and cumulative eye damage and neutralize free radicals produced by oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective potential of MZ against retinal oxidative damage and growth and transcription factors of the retina in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: (1) Control, (2) MZ (100 mg/kg bw/d), (3) HFD (42% of calories as fat), and (4) HFD+MZ (100 mg/kg bw/d) group rats were administered daily as supplement for 12 weeks...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
William P Clafshenkel, Hironobu Murata, Jill Andersen, Yehuda Creeger, Richard R Koepsel, Alan J Russell
Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells...
2016: PloS One
Concepción Peiró, Tania Romacho, Verónica Azcutia, Laura Villalobos, Emilio Fernández, Juan P Bolaños, Salvador Moncada, Carlos F Sánchez-Ferrer
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is acknowledged as a pro-inflammatory condition and a major cause of vascular damage. Nevertheless, we have previously described that high glucose only promotes inflammation in human vascular cells previously primed with pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as the cytokine interleukin (IL)1β. Here, we aimed to identify the cellular mechanisms by which high glucose exacerbates the vascular inflammation induced by IL1β. METHODS: Cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and isolated rat mesenteric microvessels were treated with IL1β in medium containing 5...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Thavaree Thilavech, Sathaporn Ngamukote, Damien Belobrajdic, Mahinda Abeywardena, Sirichai Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) play a significant role in the development and progression of vascular complication in diabetes. Anthocyanin has been recently reported to possess antiglycating activity. This study aimed to determine whether a naturally occurring anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) inhibits methylglyoxal (MG) induced protein glycation and oxidative protein and DNA damage. METHODS: C3R (0.125-1 mM) was incubated with bovine serum albumin and MG (1 mM) for 2 weeks...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
M Akhtar Anwar, Tuqa S Al Shehabi, Ali H Eid
Spinal cord injury (SCI) and spinal infarction lead to neurological complications and eventually to paraplegia or quadriplegia. These extremely debilitating conditions are major contributors to morbidity. Our understanding of SCI has certainly increased during the last decade, but remains far from clear. SCI consists of two defined phases: the initial impact causes primary injury, which is followed by a prolonged secondary injury consisting of evolving sub-phases that may last for years. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms driving this condition are complex...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Liang Tian, Jin-hai Wang, Run-jie Sun, Xing-hua Zhang, Bo Yuan, Xiao-zheng Du
Ischemic stroke is one of the commonly met diseases in clinical practice nowadays. Acupuncture therapy is widly used in the treatment of sequela of ischemic stroke in China and its mechanisms have been extensively studied in recen years. In the present paper, the authors focus on the development of studies on the mechanism of scalp acupuncture therapy in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Results indicate that scalp acupuncture intervention can 1) improve cerebral blood circulation to promote regional energy metabolism, 2) up-regulate expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), etc...
February 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Ming-San Miao, Lin Guo, Rui-Qi Li, Xiao-Lei Zhang
Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms...
March 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Andrea Boccatonda, Romina Tripaldi, Giovanni Davì, Francesca Santilli
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is involved in different pathophysiological states, such as aging, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, by damaging several cellular and tissue components including proteins, DNA and lipids. On the other hand, free radicals generated during physical activity are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair. Indeed, ROS, generated during physical activity, are likely main mediators of antioxidant molecules upregulation, as reflected by increased glutathione reductase levels after exercise training...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Alessandro Pini, Giulia Boccalini, Maria Caterina Baccari, Matteo Becatti, Rachele Garella, Claudia Fiorillo, Laura Calosi, Daniele Bani, Silvia Nistri
Smoking is regarded as a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigates whether serelaxin (RLX, recombinant human relaxin-2) endowed with promising therapeutic properties in CVD, can be credited of a protective effect against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced vascular damage and dysfunction. Guinea pigs exposed daily to CS for 8 weeks were treated with vehicle or RLX, delivered by osmotic pumps at daily doses of 1 or 10 μg. Controls were non-smoking animals. Other studies were performed on primary guinea pig aortic endothelial (GPAE) cells, challenged with CS extracts (CSE) in the absence and presence of 100 ng/ml (17 nmol/l) RLX...
May 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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