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Free radicals, vascular damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119922/polyphenols-anti-platelet-nutraceutical
#1
Valeria Ludovici, Jens Barthelmes, Matthias P Nägele, Andreas J Flammer, Isabella Sudano
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disease progressing over many years. Genetic factors, as well as the exposure to risk factors, are continuously leading to endothelial dysfunction, vascular alterations and, eventually, organ damage, major cardiovascular events and deaths. Oxidative stress, platelet hyperactivity and low-grade inflammation are important modulators in this context, contributing to plaque formation. Since platelet activation plays a critical role in the development and progression of atherothrombotic events, the inhibition of platelet hyperactivity may contribute to decreased atherothrombotic risk...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026001/understanding-a-role-for-hypoxia-in-lesion-formation-and-location-in-the-deep-and-periventricular-white-matter-in-small-vessel-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Santiago Martinez Sosa, Kenneth J Smith
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858861/pathways-to-brain-aging-and-their-modifiers-free-radical-induced-energetic-and-neural-decline-in-senescence-friends-model-a-mini-review
#3
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty
In this mini-review, we survey the extant literature on brain aging, with the emphasis on longitudinal studies of neuroanatomy, including regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure. We assess the impact of vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors on the trajectories of change in regional brain volumes and white matter properties, as well as the relationships between neuroanatomical and physiological changes and their influence on cognitive performance. We examine these findings in the context of current biological theories of aging and propose the means of integrating noninvasive measures - spectroscopic indices of brain energy metabolism and regional iron deposits - as valuable proxies for elucidating the basic neurobiology of human brain aging...
September 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823025/nanomedicine-associated-with-photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Leonardo B de Paula, Fernando L Primo, Antonio C Tedesco
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most recurrent and malignant astrocytic glioma found in adults. Biologically, GBMs are highly aggressive tumors that often show diffuse infiltration of the brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection difficult. GBM is not curable with surgery alone because tumor cells typically invade the surrounding brain, rendering complete resection unsafe. Consequently, present-day therapy for malignant glioma remains a great challenge. The location of the invasive tumor cells presents several barriers to therapeutic delivery...
October 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688989/involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-calcium-signaling-in-airborne-particulate-matter-induced-damages-in-human-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cells
#5
J Deweirdt, J F Quignard, B Crobeddu, A Baeza-Squiban, J Sciare, A Courtois, S Lacomme, E Gontier, B Muller, J P Savineau, R Marthan, C Guibert, I Baudrimont
Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter (PM) exert deleterious effects on vascular function. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC), which are involved in the vasomotricity regulation, can be a direct target of inhaled particles. Modifications in calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress are critical events involved in the physiopathology of vascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of PM2.5 on oxidative stress and calcium signaling in HPAEC. Different endpoints were studied, (i) intrinsic and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the H2DCF-DA probe, (ii) intrinsic, intracellular and mitochondrial production of superoxide anion (O2(-)) by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and MitoSOX probe, (iii) reactive nitrosative species (RNS) production by Griess reaction, and (vi) calcium signaling by the Fluo-4 probe...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678931/vascular-aging-and-arterial-stiffness
#6
Luana de Rezende Mikael, Anelise Machado Gomes de Paiva, Marco Mota Gomes, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa, Paulo César Brandão Veiga Jardim, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira Vitorino, Maicon Borges Euzébio, Wátila de Moura Sousa, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) account annually for almost one third of all deaths worldwide. Among the CVD, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is related to more than half of those outcomes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for SAH because it causes functional and structural damage to the arterial wall, leading to stiffness. Several studies have related oxidative stress, production of free radicals, and neuroendocrine and genetic changes to the physiopathogenesis of vascular aging. Indirect ways to analyze that aging process have been widely studied, pulse wave velocity (PWV) being considered gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, because there is large epidemiological evidence of its predictive value for cardiovascular events, and it requires little technical knowledge to be performed...
September 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676456/palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-combination-reduces-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-injury
#7
Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Flavia Biundo, Ramona D'Amico, Filippo Benedetto, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Acute and chronic inflammation responses are important risk factors for vascular remodeling processes such as in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and restenosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress in the intimal region after vascular damage are a key event in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. In this study, we used this model of vascular damage, which involves the complete ligature of the left carotid artery for 14days, to observe the role of N-palmitoylethanolamine in combination with Polydatin at the dose of 30mg/kg, on regulation of inflammatory process, and oxidative stress...
July 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486888/endothelial-glycocalyx-basic-science-and-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
N L Pillinger, Pca Kam
The classic Starling principle proposed that microvascular fluid exchange was determined by a balance of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures relative to the vascular wall and this movement of water was regulated by gaps in the intercellular spaces. However, current literature on the endothelial glycocalyx (a jelly-like protective layer covering the luminal surface of the endothelium) has revised Starling's traditional concepts. This article aims to summarise the literature on the glycocalyx related to its basic science, clinical settings inciting injury, protective strategies and clinical perspectives...
May 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#9
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438530/ferulic-acid-attenuates-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-damage-caused-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-via-punctate-mitochondria-dependent-mitophagy
#10
Jun-Li Chen, Wen-Jun Duan, Si Luo, Shi Li, Xiao-Hui Ma, Bo-Nan Hou, Shu-Yi Cheng, Shu-Huan Fang, Qi Wang, Shui-Qing Huang, Yun-Bo Chen
Ferulic acid (FA) has an important effect on scavenging free radicals, which is related to the alleviation of various neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are few studies about its effects on vascular dementia. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of FA on oxidative damage of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) which underwent oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 hours. Our data showed that FA significantly reversed the oxidative stress state of OGD-treated BMECs and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391156/comparison-of-vascular-and-non-vascular-aquatic-plant-as-indicators-of-cadmium-toxicity
#11
Jozef Kováčik, Petr Babula, Josef Hedbavny
Antioxidative and microscopic responses in non-vascular (moss Taxiphyllum barbieri) and vascular (Ceratophyllum demersum) aquatic plants exposed to short-term (24 h) cadmium (Cd) excess (10 and 100 μM) were compared. Ceratophyllum considerably accumulated Cd but less pronounced symptoms of oxidative stress were detected by confocal microscopy (at the level of general ROS, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical/peroxynitrite and superoxide) that could be related to enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX)...
August 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300670/ergothioneine-products-derived-by-superoxide-oxidation-in-endothelial-cells-exposed-to-high-glucose
#12
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Alfonso Giovane, Domenico Castaldo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Ergothioneine (Egt), 2-mercapto-L-histidine betaine (ESH), is a dietary component acting as antioxidant and cytoprotectant. In vitro studies demonstrated that Egt, a powerful scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite, protects vascular function against oxidative damages, thus preventing endothelial dysfunction. In order to delve the peculiar oxidative behavior of Egt, firstly identified in cell free-systems, experiments were designed to identify the Egt oxidation products when endothelial cells (EC) benefit of its protection against high-glucose (hGluc)...
March 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#13
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168552/obesity-cardiovascular-disease-and-role-of-vitamin-c-on-inflammation-a-review-of-facts-and-underlying-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Mohammed S Ellulu
Obesity means the accumulation of excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of optimal state of health. Obesity causes cardiac and vascular disease through well-known mediators such as hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, but there are evidences for other mediators such as chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombosis. The decreased levels of antioxidants factors and nitric oxide predispose to further cardiovascular adverse events. To reduce the risks, antioxidants can help by neutralizing the free radicals and protecting from damage by donating electrons...
June 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078482/irreversible-electroporation-as-treatment-of-locally-advanced-and-as-margin-accentuation-in-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#15
P Marsanic, A Mellano, A Sottile, M De Simone
In recent years, many local ablation technologies based on thermal damage have been used in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC) and borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma (BLRPC). However, they are associated with major complications because of possible vascular and ductal damage. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a nonthermal ablation technology that seems safe near vital vascular and ductal structures. IRE could be used as exclusive treatment of LAPC (en situ to IRE) after induction chemotherapy In BLRPC, surgery is not really radical in 6% of patients (microscopic residual) and local recurrences occur in 11-42% of apparent radical resections...
July 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042309/the-link-between-vascular-dysfunction-bladder-ischemia-and-aging-bladder-dysfunction
#16
REVIEW
Karl-Erik Andersson, Donna B Boedtkjer, Axel Forman
The vascular supply to the human bladder is derived mainly from the superior and inferior vesical arteries, the latter being directly connected to the internal iliac artery. Aging is associated with an impairment of blood vessel function and changes may occur in the vasculature at the molecular, cellular and functional level. Pelvic arterial insufficiency may play an important role in the development of bladder dysfunctions such as detrusor overactivity (DO) and the overactive bladder syndrome. Chronic ischemia-related bladder dysfunction may progress to bladder underactivity and it would be desirable to treat not only lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) induced by chronic ischemia, but also the progression of the morphological bladder changes...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986660/dendritic-cells-and-isolevuglandins-in-immunity-inflammation-and-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Kala B Dixon, Sean S Davies, Annet Kirabo
Hypertension is the major risk factor for morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Despite its importance, the pathogenesis of essential hypertension is poorly understood. During the past several years, it has become evident that T cells contribute to hypertension. Activated T cells accumulate in the perivascular space and the kidney and release cytokines that promote vascular dysfunction and end-organ damage. Although dendritic cells play a pivotal role in initiating adaptive immune responses, T cells have taken center stage in studies implicating the immune system in the genesis of hypertension...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983965/cyanidin-3-glucoside-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#18
Sivanan Sivasinprasasn, Rungusa Pantan, Sarinthorn Thummayot, Jiraporn Tocharus, Apichart Suksamrarn, Chainarong Tocharus
Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes oxidative stress and vascular inflammation, leading to vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, and is associated with the development of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Therefore, interventions of oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular diseases. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) plays a role in the prevention of oxidative damage in several diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of C3G on Ang II-induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in human endothelial cells (EA...
October 28, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864280/edaravone-injection-reverses-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#19
Xu Li, Fen Lu, Wei Li, Lingzhi Qin, Yong Yao, Xuerong Ge, Qingkai Yu, Xinliang Liang, Dongmei Zhao, Xiaohong Li, Jiewen Zhang
Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD...
January 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775600/modulation-of-the-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-by-nitric-oxide
#20
REVIEW
Albert W Girotti
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes is a free radical molecule involved in a wide variety of normophysiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Included in the latter category are cancer promotion, progression, and resistance to therapeutic intervention. Animal tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies several years ago revealed that endogenous NO can reduce PDT efficacy and that NOS inhibitors can alleviate this. Until relatively recently, little else was known about this anti-PDT effect of NO, including: (a) the underlying mechanisms; (b) type(s) of NOS involved; and (c) whether active NO was generated in vascular cells, tumor cells, or both...
October 20, 2016: Cancers
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