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Oxidant stress, stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346481/edaravone-protects-against-hyperosmolarity-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-primary-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#1
Yanwei Li, Haifeng Liu, Wei Zeng, Jing Wei
An increase in the osmolarity of tears induced by excessive evaporation of the aqueous tear phase is a major pathological mechanism behind dry eye. Exposure of epithelial cells on the surface of the human eye to hyperosmolarity leads to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenging agent, is clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In this study, we found that treatment with hyperosmotic media at 400 and 450 mOsM increased the levels of ROS and mitochondrial oxidative damage, which were ameliorated by edaravone treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345766/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-exercise-training-independently-and-additively-decreases-blood-pressure-and-prevents-diastolic-dysfunction-in-obese-zucker-rats
#2
Pierre-Andre Barbeau, Tanya M Holloway, Jamie Whitfield, Brittany Baechler, Joe Quadrilatero, Luc J C van Loon, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
While α-linolenic acid (ALA) and endurance exercise training independently attenuate hyperlipidemia-related cardiovascular derangements, there is a paucity of information pertaining to their mechanisms-of-action and efficacy when combined as a preventative therapeutic approach. Therefore, we used obese Zucker rats to investigate the independent and combined effects of these interventions on cardiovascular disease. Specifically, animals were randomly assigned to one of the following: control diet-sedentary (C-Sed), ALA supplemented-sedentary (ALA-Sed), control diet-exercise trained (C-Ex), or ALA supplemented-exercise trained (ALA-Ex)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343901/gper-blockers-as-nox-downregulators-a-new-drug-class-to-target-chronic-non-communicable-diseases
#3
Matthias R Meyer, Matthias Barton
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of chronic non-communicable diseases such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Cardiovascular diseases are characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAPDH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and additional Nox isoforms among other sources. Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) can mediate multiple salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. However, GPER also has constitutive activity, e.g. in the absence of specific agonists, that was recently shown to promote hypertension and aging-induced tissue damage by enabling Nox1-derived production of ROS...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338788/hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-an-intimate-association-of-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-outcomes
#4
Mikhail S Dzeshka, Farhan Shahid, Alena Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia found in clinical practice. AF rarely exists as a single entity but rather as part of a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, related to structural and electrical remodeling within the left atrium, leading to AF onset, perpetuation, and progression. Due to the high overall prevalence within the AF population arterial hypertension plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AF and its complications. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, gap junction remodeling, accumulation of collagen both in atrial and ventricular myocardium all accompany ageing-related structural remodeling with impact on electrical activity...
February 18, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330650/short-term-green-tea-supplementation-prevents-recognition-memory-deficits-and-ameliorates-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-induced-by-different-stroke-models-in-rats
#5
Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann, Mauren Assis Souza, Helen L Schimidt, Aryele Pinto Izaguirry, Alexandre Martins, Alexandre Garcia, Francielli W Santos, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
This study investigate the effect of green tea (GT) on short and long term declarative memory and oxidative damage induced by transient ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 according the stroke type induced were used: Sham IR, Sham IR+GT, IR, IR+GT, Sham ICH, Sham ICH+GT, ICH, ICH+GT. Supplementation with GT was initiated 10days before stroke surgery and continuous for 6days after (GT dose 400mg/kg). Short (STM) and long term memory (LTM) we evaluated with object recognition task (OR) and hippocampus were used to evaluate parameters related to oxidative stress (ROS, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity)...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329261/effects-of-noise-on-vascular-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mechanistic-insight-from-studies-in-mice
#6
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber, Sebastian Steven, Lan P Tran, Elisabeth Ullmann, Sabine Kossmann, Frank P Schmidt, Matthias Oelze, Ning Xia, Huige Li, Antonio Pinto, Philipp Wild, Kai Pies, Erwin R Schmidt, Steffen Rapp, Swenja Kröller-Schön
Aims: Epidemiological studies indicate that traffic noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Field studies with nighttime noise exposure demonstrate that aircraft noise leads to vascular dysfunction, which is markedly improved by vitamin C, suggesting a key role of oxidative stress in causing this phenomenon. Methods and results: We developed a novel animal model to study the vascular consequences of aircraft noise exposure...
February 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325523/total-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Katsuya Onishi
Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often have multiple comorbid conditions that may interact with each other, confound the choice of treatments, and reduce mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important comorbidities of CVD, which causes serious consequences in patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, and heart failure. COPD shares common risk factors such as tobacco smoking and aging with CVD, is associated with less physical activity, and produces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316143/endothelial-microparticles-act-as-novel-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-biomarkers-of-circulatory-hypoxia-related-diseases-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Fan Deng, Shuang Wang, Liangqing Zhang
Circulatory hypoxia-related diseases (CHRDs), including acute coronary syndromes, stroke and organ transplantation, attract increased attention due to high morbidity and mortality. Mounting evidence shows that hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, coagulation, inflammation and angiogenesis play extremely important roles in the physiological and pathological processes of CHRD-related vascular endothelial injury. Interestingly, hypoxia, even hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation can all induce release of endothelial microparticles (EMPs)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315303/neuroprotective-effect-of-2-hydroxy-arachidonic-acid-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#9
I F Ugidos, M Santos-Galdiano, D Pérez-Rodríguez, B Anuncibay-Soto, E Font-Belmonte, D J López, M Ibarguren, X Busquets, A Fernández López
Stroke modifies the composition of cell membranes by eliciting the breakdown of membrane phospholipids whose products, such as arachidonic acid (AA), are released in the cytosol. The action of enzymes such as cyclooxygenases on AA leads to inflammatory stimuli and increases the cell oxidative stress. We report here the neuroprotective effect of 2-hydroxyarachidonic acid (2OAA), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor derived from AA, as a promising neuroprotective therapy against stroke. The effect of a single dose of 2OAA, administered intragastrically 1 hour after the ischaemic insult, in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was tested after 24 hours of reperfusion...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281385/electroacupuncture-brain-protection-during-ischemic-stroke-a-role-for-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system
#10
Laiting Chi, Kairong Du, Dongdong Liu, Yulong Bo, Wenzhi Li
The demand for using parasympathetic activation for stroke therapy is unmet. In the current study, we investigated whether the neuroprotection provided by electroacupuncture (EA) in an experimental stroke model was associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The results showed that parasympathetic dysfunction (PD), performed as unilateral vagotomy combined with peripheral atropine, attenuated both the functional benefits of EA and its effects in improving cerebral perfusion, reducing infarct volume, and hindering apoptosis, neuronal and peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276088/time-dependent-change-of-in-vivo-optical-imaging-of-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-stroke-model
#11
Yumiko Nakano, Toru Yamashita, Qian Li, Kota Sato, Yasuyuki Ohta, Ryuta Morihara, Nozomi Hishikawa, Koji Abe
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a pivotal role in cellular defense against oxidative stress damage after ischemic stroke. In the present study, we examined the time-dependent change of in vivo optical imaging of oxidative stress after stroke with Keap1-dependent oxidative stress detector (OKD) mice. OKD mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 45 min, and in vivo optical signals were detected during the pre-operative period, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after tMCAO...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273718/mechanisms-of-parkinson-s-disease-related-proteins-in-mediating-secondary-brain-damage-after-cerebral-ischemia
#12
TaeHee Kim, Raghu Vemuganti
Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke are debilitating conditions that result in neuronal death and loss of neurological functions. These two conditions predominantly affect aging populations with the deterioration of the quality of life for the patients themselves and a tremendous burden to families. While the neurodegeneration and symptomology of PD develop chronically over the years, post-stroke neuronal death and dysfunction develop rapidly in days. Despite the discrepancy in the pathophysiological time frame and severity, both conditions share common molecular mechanisms that include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and activation of various cell death pathways (apoptosis/necrosis/autophagy) that synergistically modulate the neuronal death...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260801/regulation-of-microglial-activation-in-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Shou-Cai Zhao, Ling-Song Ma, Zhao-Hu Chu, Heng Xu, Wen-Qian Wu, Fudong Liu
When ischemic stroke occurs, oxygen and energy depletion triggers a cascade of events, including inflammatory responses, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis that result in a profound brain injury. The inflammatory response contributes to secondary neuronal damage, which exerts a substantial impact on both acute ischemic injury and the chronic recovery of the brain function. Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain that constantly monitor brain microenvironment under normal conditions...
March 6, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255088/oral-n-acetylcysteine-and-exercise-tolerance-in-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Daniel M Hirai, Joshua H Jones, Joel T Zelt, Marianne L da Silva, Robert F Bentley, Brittany Ann Edgett, Brendon James Gurd, Michael E Tschakovsky, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Heightened oxidative stress is implicated in the progressive impairment of skeletal muscle vascular and mitochondrial function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether accumulation of reactive oxygen species contribute to exercise intolerance in the early stages of COPD is unknown. We examined the effects of oral antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on respiratory, cardiovascular and locomotor muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with mild COPD. Thirteen patients with forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1 ≥ LLN were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized crossover study to receive NAC (1800 mg/day) or placebo for 4 days...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253984/therapeutic-strategies-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-age-related-metabolic-disorders
#15
J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, G K Bhatti, P H Reddy
Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250685/evaluation-of-ischemia-modified-albumin-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-status-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#16
Itishri Jena, Sarthak Ranjan Nayak, Sudeshna Behera, Bratati Singh, Subhashree Ray, Diptimayee Jena, Santosh Singh, Subrat Kumar Sahoo
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species resulting in the generation of lipid peroxides such as malondialdehyde (MDA). The studies have shown that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), which has widely been studied as a marker of ischemia, also increases as result of oxidative stress. Hence, the current study was done to evaluate the serum MDA, IMA along with serum uric acid, and albumin, which are important metabolic antioxidants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with acute ischemic stroke were taken as cases and compared with 50 age- and sex-matched controls...
January 2017: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249219/psoriasis-like-inflammation-leads-to-renal-dysfunction-via-upregulation-of-nadph-oxidases-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#17
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Mushtaq A Ansari, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Moureq R Alotaibi, Abdulaziz M S AlSaad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Psoriatic patients have systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension myocardial infarction, and stroke. Psoriasis has also been shown to be associated with kidney disease in several studies. Both disorders also have strong component of oxidative stress which usually emanates from NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, whether psoriatic inflammation leads to renal oxidative stress and dysfunction remains unexplored...
February 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248201/intravascular-hemolysis-and-the-pathophysiology-of-sickle-cell-disease
#18
REVIEW
Gregory J Kato, Martin H Steinberg, Mark T Gladwin
Hemolysis is a fundamental feature of sickle cell anemia that contributes to its pathophysiology and phenotypic variability. Decompartmentalized hemoglobin, arginase 1, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and adenine nucleotides are all products of hemolysis that promote vasomotor dysfunction, proliferative vasculopathy, and a multitude of clinical complications of pulmonary and systemic vasculopathy, including pulmonary hypertension, leg ulcers, priapism, chronic kidney disease, and large-artery ischemic stroke. Nitric oxide (NO) is inactivated by cell-free hemoglobin in a dioxygenation reaction that also oxidizes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, a non-oxygen-binding form of hemoglobin that readily loses heme...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247179/neuroprotective-effect-of-3-naphthalen-2-yl-propoxy-methyl-azetidine-hydrochloride-on-brain-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Eun-A Kim, Jung-Min Na, Jiae Kim, Soo Young Choi, Jee-Yin Ahn, Sung-Woo Cho
Because ischaemic stroke is one of the most common brain disorders, diverse effective therapies are urgently required. Recent studies reported a variety of azetidine-based scaffolds for the development of central nervous system-focused lead-like libraries. However, their mechanisms of action and in vivo functions remain unclear. Here, we investigated the potential mechanism and beneficial effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792), a novel azetidine derivative, on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain injury...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246278/renal-denervation-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-provides-brain-protection-in-hypertensive-rats
#20
Yu Hasegawa, Takashi Nakagawa, Kunihiko Matsui, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Renal denervation (RD) may protect against cardiovascular diseases regardless of blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. We hypothesized that RD can improve the outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in hypertensive rats. METHODS: An AIS model of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSPs) was prepared by 90-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. At 30 minutes poststroke, the SHRSPs were subjected to (1) sham operation or (2) RD to determine the beneficial effects of RD posttreatment...
February 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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