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Reactive oxygen species,endothelial damage

Ying Gao, Xu Wang, Chunnian He
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate vascular cell dysfunction and lead to atherosclerosis and other chronic cardiovascular diseases. The root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, also known as kudzu or Gegen (Chinese name), is one of the most important herbs in traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteonecrosis and neurodegradation diseases. In this study, an ethanol extract from kudzu root was prepared and the in vitro protective effect of the kudzu root extract (KUD) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chao Ji, Jin-Wen Huang, Qiu-Yun Xu, Jing Zhang, Meng-Ting Lin, Ying Tu, Li He, Zhi-Gang Bi, Bo Cheng
Ultra Violet (UV) radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA oxidation and single strand breaks (SSBs), which will eventually lead to skin cell damages or even skin cancer. Here, we tested the potential activity of gremlin, a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) agonist, against UV-induced skin cell damages. We show that gremlin activated VEGFR2 and significantly inhibited UV-induced death and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGFR2 almost abolished gremlin-mediated cytoprotection against UV in the skin cells...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Min-Ah Koo, Bong-Jin Kim, Mi Hee Lee, Byeong-Ju Kwon, Min Sung Kim, Gyeung Mi Seon, Dohyun Kim, Ki Chang Nam, Kangkyun Wang, Yong-Rok Kim, Jong-Chul Park
The principle of photodynamic treatment (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizer (PS) at diseased tissues, followed by light irradiation to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In cells, a moderate increase in ROS plays an important role as signaling molecule to promote cell proliferation, whereas a severe increase of ROS causes cell damage. Previous studies have shown that low levels of ROS stimulate cell growth through PS drugs-treating PDT and non-thermal plasma treatment. However, these methods have side effects which are associated with low tissue selectivity and remaining of PS residues...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sónia Simão, Daniela F Santos, Gabriela A Silva
There is growing evidence on the role of ocular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), particularly due to the trigger of oxidative stress and angiogenesis. Despite this there is no effective RAS-based therapy in DR capable of preventing retinal damage induced by RAS activation. We recently described that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells express the main components of the RAS. We here propose to investigate the role of glucose upon the retinal RAS and whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, protects RPE cells from angiogenesis and oxidative stress...
October 1, 2016: Angiogenesis
D Mannaerts, E Faes, J Gielis, J Briedé, P Cos, E Van Craenenbroeck, W Gyselaers, J Cornette, M Spaanderman, Y Jacquemyn
AIMS: Oxidative stress is crucial in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like the superoxide radical O2-, are produced by the ischemic placenta, causing systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. EPR uses microwave radiation and a high magnetic field and is the most direct and reliable method to detect free radicals. We explored the feasibility of determining O2- concentration in maternal serum and compared pre-eclamptic and uncomplicated pregnancies...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hiroki Daijo, Yuma Hoshino, Shinichi Kai, Kengo Suzuki, Kenichiro Nishi, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Hiroshi Harada, Kiichi Hirota
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major contributor to the development of a large number of fatal and debilitating disorders. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of CS in lung disease are largely unknown. To elucidate these pathophysiological processes, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of CS extract (CSE) and CS on the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). CSE induced concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of HIF-1α protein in human lung epithelial-like cells under non-hypoxic conditions...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xin Liu, Rui-Wei Gao, Miao Li, Chun-Feng Si, Yong-Peng He, Min Wang, Ying Yang, Qing-Yin Zheng, Chao-Yun Wang
Angiotensin II (AngII) is an important factor that promotes the proliferation of cancer cells, whereas celastrol exhibits a significant antitumor activity in various cancer models. Whether celastrol can effectively suppress AngII mediated cell proliferation remains unknown. In this study, we studied the effect of celastrol on AngII-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and evaluated its underlying mechanism. The results revealed that AngII was able to significantly promote HepG2 cell proliferation via up-regulating AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor expression, improving mitochondrial respiratory function, enhancing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
November 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Byeong Hwa Jeon
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage and redox regulation against oxidative stress. APE1/Ref-1 is essential for cellular survival and embryonic lethal in knockout mouse models. Heterozygous APE1/Ref-1 mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, reduced vascular NO levels, and are hypertensive. APE1/Ref-1 reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species production by negatively regulating the activity of the NADPH oxidase...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rhian M Touyz
Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to hypertension include injury to small arteries, characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, (so called hypertensive vascular phenotype). These changes are initially adaptive but in the long term become maladaptive leading to vascular damage and loss of function, particularly important in small resistance arteries, critically involved in the regulation of peripheral vascular resistance and consequently in blood pressure control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Tlili Barhoumi, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Asia Rehman, Nourredine Idris-Khodja, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is involved in cardiovascular disease. Whether MMP2 plays a role in hypertension and vascular damage is unknown. We hypothesized that Mmp2 knockout will prevent angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and vascular injury. DESIGN AND METHOD: Mmp2 knockout (Mmp2) and wild-type (WT) mice were infused with Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by telemetry, and mesenteric artery (MA) endothelial function and vascular remodeling by pressurized myography...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Roger E Rönn, Carolina Guibentif, Shobhit Saxena, Niels-Bjarne Woods
Cell stressors, such as elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), adversely affect Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) reconstituting ability. However, the effects of ROS have not been evaluated in the context of hematopoietic development from human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSCs). Using our previously described in vitro system for efficient derivation of hematopoietic cells from hPSCs, we show that the vast majority of generated hematopoietic cells display supraphysiological levels of ROS compared to fresh cord blood cells...
September 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Terezie Pelikánová
UNLABELLED: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the major cause of vision loss and blindness in the working population. The main risk factor of DR is hyperglycemia accompanied by enhanced mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and hexosamines, increase in polyol metabolism of glucose. The severity of vascular injury depends on the individual genetic background and is modified by other epigenetic, metabolic and haemodynamic factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Chastain Anderson, Andrew Majeste, Jakub Hanus, Shusheng Wang
Cigarette smoking remains one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Vascular cell death and dysfunction is a central or exacerbating component in the majority of cigarette smoking related pathologies. The recent development of the electronic nicotine delivery systems known as e-cigarettes provides an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking; however, the potential vascular health risks of e-cigarette use remain unclear. This study evaluates the effects of e-cigarette aerosol extract (EAE) and conventional cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
September 9, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
I Lopez-Vilchez, M Diaz-Ricart, V Navarro, S Torramade, J Zamorano-Leon, A Lopez-Farre, A M Galan, C Gasto, G Escolar
There is a link between depression, cardiovascular events and inflammation. We have explored this connection through endothelial dysfunction, using in vivo and in vitro approaches. We evaluated circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with major depression at their diagnosis (MD-0) and during antidepressant treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, for 8 and 24 weeks (MD-8 and MD-24). Results were always compared with matched healthy controls (CON). We measured in vivo circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in blood samples, and assessed plasma levels of soluble von Willebrand factor (VWF) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Pichaya Jumnongprakhon, Piyarat Govitrapong, Chainarong Tocharus, Jiraporn Tocharus
Melatonin is a hormone that mostly produced from the pineal gland, and it performs as a strong neuroprotectant to both neuron and glial cells against methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. Recently, it has been found that METH also damages the blood brain barrier (BBB) structure and function. However, the protective mechanism of melatonin on the BBB impairment caused by METH has not been investigated. In this study, the primary rat brain microvascular endothelium cells (BMVECs) isolated from neonatal rats was used to investigate the protective effect of melatonin on METH-induced BBB impairment and the underlying mechanism...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Guosheng Cao, Nan Jiang, Yang Hu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Guangyun Wang, Mingzhu Yin, Xiaonan Ma, Kecheng Zhou, Jin Qi, Boyang Yu, Junping Kou
Ruscogenin, an important steroid sapogenin derived from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to inhibit cerebral ischemic injury. However, its potential molecular action on blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction after stroke remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruscogenin on BBB dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms in middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R)-injured mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-injured mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peri Korshed, Lin Li, Zhu Liu, Tao Wang
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known to have antibacterial properties. They are commonly produced by chemical synthesis which involves the use of harmful reducing agents. Contras, the laser technique is able to generate high-purity Ag NPs in water with specified surface charge characteristics. In the past, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the bactericidal effects of Ag NPs have been investigated extensively, but little is known of the antibacterial and toxic effects and mechanisms involved in laser-generated Ag NPs...
2016: PloS One
Zhen Zhang, Lei Yang, Lei Lei, Rongping Chen, Hong Chen, Hua Zhang
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are knownt to play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases and related complications. However, whether AOPPs affect the survival of islet microvascular endothelial cells (IMECs) has not been reported to date, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying AOPP-mediated damage in IMECs and the protective role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jute Richter, Julio Jimenez, Taro Nagatomo, Jaan Toelen, Paul Brady, Thomas Salaets, Flore Lesage, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: The administration of supplemental oxygen to treat ventilatory insufficiency may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent tissue damage. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) can modulate hyperoxic lung injury by a currently unknown mechanism. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of administration of omeprazole on the induction of CYP1A1 and its influence on hyperoxic lung injury in an established preterm rabbit model. METHODS: Omeprazole was administered either (1) directly to the fetus, (2) to the mother or (3) after birth to the pups in different doses (2-10 or 20 mg/kg)...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Eric H Bent, Luke A Gilbert, Michael T Hemann
Cancer therapy targets malignant cells that are surrounded by a diverse complement of nonmalignant stromal cells. Therapy-induced damage of normal cells can alter the tumor microenvironment, causing cellular senescence and activating cancer-promoting inflammation. However, how these damage responses are regulated (both induced and resolved) to preserve tissue homeostasis and prevent chronic inflammation is poorly understood. Here, we detail an acute chemotherapy-induced secretory response that is self-limiting in vitro and in vivo despite the induction of cellular senescence...
August 15, 2016: Genes & Development
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