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Adventitious root

Hoang Khai Trinh, Inge Verstraeten, Danny Geelen
Adventitious roots (AR) are de novo formed roots that emerge from any part of the plant or from callus in tissue culture, except root tissue. The plant tissue origin and the method by which they are induced determine the physiological properties of emerged ARs. Hence, a standard method encompassing all types of AR does not exist. Here we describe a method for the induction and analysis of AR that emerge from the etiolated hypocotyl of dicot plants. The hypocotyl is formed during embryogenesis and shows a determined developmental pattern which usually does not involve AR formation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Heng Ye, Li Song, Huatao Chen, Babu Valliyodan, Liakat Ali, Tri Vuong, Chengjun Wu, John Orlowski, Blair Buckley, Pengyin Chen, J Grover Shannon, Henry T Nguyen
Natural genetic variations in waterlogging tolerance are controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci (QTL) in major crops, including soybean (Glycine max L.). In this research, two novel QTL associated with waterlogging tolerance were mapped from an elite/exotic soybean cross. The subsequent research was focused on a major QTL (qWT_Gm03) with the tolerant allele from the exotic parent. This QTL was isolated into near-isogenic backgrounds and its effects on waterlogging tolerance were validated in multiple environments...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Han Yong Park, Kyung Won Kang, Doo Hwan Kim, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan
The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzyladenine (BA), and thidiazuron (TDZ) on direct rhizome induction and shoot formation from rhizome explants of Cymbidium goeringii was explored. Rhizome segments obtained from in vitro seed cultures of C. goeringii were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with 5, 10, 20, or 40 µM 2,4-D and 1, 2, 4, or 8 µM BA or TDZ alone or in combination with 20 µM 2,4-D. The explants developed only rhizomes on MS medium with or without 2,4-D...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Chao Lei, Sheng Fan, Ke Li, Yuan Meng, Jiangping Mao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Lu Bao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A J Debnath, G Gangopadhyay, D Basu, S R Sikdar
Establishment of a suitable regeneration protocol is a pre-requisite to carry out transformation study in Sesamum indicum L. (sesame). In this paper, different parameters of regeneration were standardised to develop an efficient protocol for in vitro plant regeneration via direct adventitious shoot organogenesis using de-embryonated cotyledons of sesame as explants. Among the various treatments of MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine, thidiazuron and indole-3-acetic acid, maximum regeneration frequency (25...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Isabel Velada, Dariusz Grzebelus, Diana Lousa, Cláudio M Soares, Elisete Santos Macedo, Augusto Peixe, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Hélia G Cardoso
Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Inês Carqueijeiro, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Arnaud Lanoue, Thu-Thuy Dang, Christiana Teijaro, Christian Paetz, Kevin Billet, Angela Mosquera, Audrey Oudin, Sébastien Besseau, Nicolas Papon, Gaëlle Glévarec, Lucia Atehortùa, Marc Clastre, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Bernd Schneider, Benoit St-Pierre, Rodrigo B Andrade, Sarah E O'Connor, Vincent Courdavault
While the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) in leaves of Catharanthus roseus is now reaching completion, only two enzymes from the root counterpart dedicated to tabersonine metabolism have been identified to date, namely tabersonine 19-hydroxylase (T19H) and minovincine 19-O-acetyltransferase (MAT). Albeit the recombinant MAT catalyzes MIA acetylation at low efficiency in vitro, we demonstrated that MAT was inactive when expressed in yeast and in planta, suggesting an alternative function for this enzyme...
February 13, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Cheng Libao, Jiang Runzhi, Yang Jianjun, Xu Xiaoyong, Zeng Haitao, Li Shuyan
Adventitious roots (ARs) of lotus (Nelumbonucifera Gaertn.) play a critical role in water and nutrient uptake. We found that exogenously applied 10-μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) promoted the formation of ARs, while 150-μM IAA significantly inhibited the emergence of ARs. However, little is known about these different responses to various concentrations of IAA at the molecular level. This study, therefore, examined the gene expression profiling in four libraries treated with 10- and 150-μM IAA based on the high-throughout tag sequencing technique...
February 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Natalia V Zhukovskaya, Elena I Bystrova, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Victor B Ivanov
Background and Aims: Information on cell cycle duration (T) in the root apical meristem (RAM) provides insight into root growth, development and evolution. We have previously proposed a simple method for evaluating T based on the dynamics of root growth (V), the number of cells in the RAM (Nm) and the length of fully elongated cells (l), which we named the rate-of-cell-production (RCP) method. Here, a global analysis was performed to confirm the reliability of this method in a range of angiosperm species and to assess the advantages of this approach...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Udit Sharma, Vinod Kataria, N S Shekhawat
Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst., a drought resistant halophyte tree, is an agroforestry species which can be used for reclamation of waterlogged saline and marginal lands. Due to very low seed viability and unsuitable conditions for seed germination, the tree is becoming rare in Indian Thar desert. Present study concerns the evaluation of aeroponics technique for vegetative propagation of T. aphylla. Effect of various exogenous auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, naphthalene acetic acid) at different concentrations (0...
February 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Micah E Stevens, Keith E Woeste, Paula M Pijut
Cutting propagation plays a large role in the forestry and horticulture industries where superior genotypes need to be clonally multiplied. Integral to this process is the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots. Recalcitrance to adventitious root development is a serious hurdle for many woody plant propagation systems including black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), an economically valuable species. The inability of black walnut to reliably form adventitious roots limits propagation of superior genotypes...
January 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
Jie Liu, Xiaomei Hu, Peng Qin, Kalika Prasad, Yuxin Hu, Lin Xu
De novo shoot regeneration in tissue culture experiences at least two phases. Explants are first cultured on auxin rich callus-inducing medium (CIM) to produce a group of pluripotent cells termed callus; the callus is then transferred to cytokinin rich shoot-inducing medium (SIM) to promote the formation of shoot progenitor cells, from which adventitious shoots may differentiate. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor gene LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 (LBD16) is involved in pluripotency acquisition in callus cells...
January 18, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Perumal Venkatachalam, Udayabhanu Jinu, Palanivel Sangeetha, Natesan Geetha, Shivendra Vikram Sahi
Influence of cytokinins, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and auxins on plant regeneration from cucumber was investigated. The cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS medium augmented with various concentrations (0.5-2.5 mg l-1) of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN) for shoot bud induction. BAP at 1.5 mg l-1 was found to be the best concentration for induction of high frequency of multiple shoots (98.4%). Interestingly, maximum percent of multiple shoot regeneration (100%) as well as number of shoot buds (54...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Kim-Cuong Le, Wan-Taek Im, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
Biotic elicitation is an important biotechnological strategy for triggering the accumulation of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. These biotic elicitors can be obtained from safe, economically important strains of bacteria found in the rhizosphere and fermented foods. Here, we assayed the effects of filtered cultures of five nitrogen-fixing bacteria and four types of fermentation bacteria on mutant adventitious Panax ginseng root cultures induced in a previous study by colchicine treatment...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xuewen Xu, Jing Ji, Qiang Xu, Xiaohua Qi, Yiqun Weng, Xuehao Chen
In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis remains fragmentary. Here, through combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based whole genome sequencing, SNP haplotyping and fine genetic mapping, we identified a candidate gene for a major-effect QTL ARN6.1 that was responsible for waterlogging tolerance due to increased AR formation in the cucumber line Zaoer-N. Through multiple lines of evidence, we show that the CsARN6...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xin Yao, Fengfeng Ma, Youzhi Li, Xiaohui Ding, Dongsheng Zou, Yandong Niu, Hualin Bian, Jiajun Deng
The growth performance of Salix triandroides cuttings at three water cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, and 40 mg L-1) and three water levels (- 40 cm, water level 40 cm below the soil surface; 0 cm, water level even with the soil surface; and 40 cm, water level 40 cm above soil surface) was investigated to evaluate its potential in phytoextraction strategies. Compared to cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels, cuttings in the 40 cm water level showed significantly lower biomass, height, and adventitious root length and significantly fewer leaves and adventitious roots...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sergey Y Turin, Robert L Walton, Gregory A Dumanian, John B Hijjawi, John A LoGiudice, Mohammed Alghoul
BACKGROUND:  Postoperative microvascular arterial vasospasm is a rare clinical entity. There are no published management algorithms and also the pathophysiology of this phenomenon has not been elucidated. METHODS:  An email survey of American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery (ASRM) and World Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) members regarding their experiences with postoperative arterial vasospasm was conducted, returning 116 responses. A comprehensive literature search was conducted regarding the current body of knowledge on this entity...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Takashi Baba, Satoshi Nakaba, Satoshi Noma, Ryo Funada, Takuya Ban
All fine root systems consist of individual fine roots. Individual roots have morphological, anatomical, and functional heterogeneity (heterorhizy). Heterorhizy plays crucial roles in plant ecosystems. However, in many species, the heterorhizy and fine root system architecture based on individual root units are unclear. This study investigated heterorhizy along the root system architecture of Vaccinium virgatum Ait (rabbiteye blueberry) softwood-cuttings (propagated from annual shoots in growing season) using protoxylem groups (PGs), a classification according to the number of protoxylem poles, as an indicator of individual root traits...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Tomasz Wróbel, Mariola Dreger, Karolina Wielgus, Ryszard Słomski
Cannabinoids have considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the production of medicines from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in most countries is restricted by law. Large-scale, field cultivation of hemp is difficult to control. Cannabinoid content in plants is variable and depends on multiple factors. Therefore, alternative methods of production have been investigated. The development of micropropagation techniques is a necessary step for genetic modification. Promising results have been obtained for certain narcotic genotypes...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
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