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Adventitious root

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138909/improvement-of-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-of-bioactive-compounds-by-elicitation-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#1
Thanh-Tam Ho, Jong-Du Lee, Cheol-Seung Jeong, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
We examined the effects of abiotic (methyl jasmonate [MeJA] and salicylic acid [SA]) and biotic (yeast extract and chitosan) elicitors for improvement of bioactive compounds production on adventitious root cultures in Polygonum multiflorum. The application of yeast extract resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry root biomass (9.98 g/L) and relative growth rate versus the control. Cultures treated with abiotic elicitors showed higher percentage of dry weight than the other samples. Low concentrations of all elicitors (50 μM MeJA and SA, and 50 mg/L yeast extract) improved secondary metabolite production except for chitosan, whose performance was worse than that of the control...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129002/histological-characterization-of-passiflora-pohlii-mast-root-tips-cryopreserved-using-the-v-cryo-plate-technique
#2
Mariela J Simão, Myriam Collin, Renata O Garcia, Elisabeth Mansur, Georgia Pacheco, Florent Engelmann
Cryopreservation stands out as the main strategy to ensure safe and cost efficient long-term conservation of plant germplasm, especially for biotechnological materials. However, the injuries associated with the procedure may result in structural damage and low recovery rates after cooling. Histological analysis provides useful information on the effects of osmotic dehydration, LN exposure, and recovery conditions on cellular integrity and tissue organization, allowing the determination of the critical steps of the cryopreservation protocol and, thus, the use of optimized treatments...
November 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069281/melatonin-and-its-relationship-to-plant-hormones
#3
M B Arnao, J Hernández-Ruiz
Background: Plant melatonin appears to be a multi-regulatory molecule, similar to those observed in animals, with many specific functions in plant physiology. In recent years, the number of studies on melatonin in plants has increased significantly. One of the most studied actions of melatonin in plants is its effect on biotic and abiotic stress, such as that produced by drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, chemical pollution and UV radiation, among others. Scope: This review looks at studies in which some aspects of the relationship between melatonin and the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid are presented...
October 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067033/events-associated-with-early-age-related-decline-in-adventitious-rooting-competence-of-eucalyptus-globulus-labill
#4
Márcio L Aumond, Artur T de Araujo, Camila F de Oliveira Junkes, Márcia R de Almeida, Hélio N Matsuura, Fernanda de Costa, Arthur G Fett-Neto
The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060511/performance-comparison-of-wavelet-based-denoising-methods-on-discontinuous-adventitious-lung-sounds
#5
Sezer Ulukaya, Gorkem Serbes, Yasemin P Kahya
Crackles and their time-domain characteristics provide important clues about different lung diseases. In this paper, we aim to de-noise synthetically produced crackles under various noise levels while preserving their information bearing parts which significantly affect crackle parameters. Classical wavelet based de-noising algorithms are deteriorated by sharp-sudden noise changes and produce Gibbs like fluctuations. On the other hand, total variation based algorithms, which are capable of alleviating the drawbacks of the classical wavelet based algorithms, are failed when dealing with piecewise-smooth signals like crackles and generate unwanted flat regions on the de-noised signals...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046689/an-updated-protocol-for-high-throughput-plant-tissue-sectioning
#6
Jonathan A Atkinson, Darren M Wells
Quantification of the tissue and cellular structure of plant material is essential for the study of a variety of plant sciences applications. Currently, many methods for sectioning plant material are either low throughput or involve free-hand sectioning which requires a significant amount of practice. Here, we present an updated method to provide rapid and high-quality cross sections, primarily of root tissue but which can also be readily applied to other tissues such as leaves or stems. To increase the throughput of traditional agarose embedding and sectioning, custom designed 3D printed molds were utilized to embed 5-15 roots in a block for sectioning in a single cut...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044323/mini-incubators-improve-the-adventitious-rooting-performance-of-corymbia-and-eucalyptus-microcuttings-according-to-the-environment-in-which-they-are-conditioned
#7
Gilvano E Brondani, Leandro S DE Oliveira, Enéas R Konzen, André L L DA Silva, Jefferson L Costa
We addressed a major challenge in the in vitro clonal propagation of Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and E. benthamii by using an ex vitro adventitious rooting strategy in a mini-incubator. Mini-incubators were placed in four environments for rooting. A shade house with no fogging system and a greenhouse with no ventilation but with a fogging environment had the best performance in terms of rooting, root growth and survival of microcuttings. Daily recording of the temperature within each mini-incubator in each environment allowed the verification of negative correlations between the maximum average temperature and the survival, adventitious rooting and root growth...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036625/ospht1-8-a-phosphate-transporter-is-involved-in-auxin-and-phosphate-starvation-response-in-rice
#8
Hongfang Jia, Songtao Zhang, Lizhi Wang, Yongxia Yang, Hongying Zhang, Hong Cui, Huifang Shao, Guohua Xu
The responses of plants to auxin and phosphate (Pi) starvation are closely linked. However, the underlying mechanisms connecting the Pi starvation (-Pi) responses to auxin are largely unclear. Here, we show that OsPht1;8 (OsPT8), a phosphate transporter, functions in both the auxin and -Pi responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The overexpression of OsPT8 (OsPT8-Oe) led to the loss of sensitivity to auxin and -Pi in adventitious roots, lateral roots, and root hairs in rice. The expression levels of OsPT8 and pOsPT8::GUS staining in roots, root-shoot junctions and leaves of rice were induced by IAA treatments...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036435/the-wuschel-related-homeobox-5a-ptowox5a-is-involved-in-adventitious-root-development-in-poplar
#9
Jianbo Li, Jin Zhang, Huixia Jia, Bobin Liu, Pei Sun, Jianjun Hu, Lijuan Wang, Mengzhu Lu
Adventitious rooting is an essential step in vegetative propagation. Currently, the mechanism that regulates adventitious root (AR) development in woody plants is poorly understood. This work demonstrates that Populus tomentosa WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5a (PtoWOX5a) transcription factor is involved in AR development in poplar. PtoWOX5a was specifically expressed in the AR tip and lateral root tip during AR and lateral root regeneration from the stem segment. Phenotypic complementation experiments indicated that the PtoWOX5a can functionally complement AtWOX5 in quiescent center (QC) cells...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025393/molecular-basis-of-african-yam-domestication-analyses-of-selection-point-to-root-development-starch-biosynthesis-and-photosynthesis-related-genes
#10
Roland Akakpo, Nora Scarcelli, Hana Chaïr, Alexandre Dansi, Gustave Djedatin, Anne-Céline Thuillet, Bénédicte Rhoné, Olivier François, Karine Alix, Yves Vigouroux
BACKGROUND: After cereals, root and tuber crops are the main source of starch in the human diet. Starch biosynthesis was certainly a significant target for selection during the domestication of these crops. But domestication of these root and tubers crops is also associated with gigantism of storage organs and changes of habitat. RESULTS: We studied here, the molecular basis of domestication in African yam, Dioscorea rotundata. The genomic diversity in the cultivated species is roughly 30% less important than its wild relatives...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021804/calcium-and-calmodulin-are-involved-in-nitric-oxide-induced-adventitious-rooting-of-cucumber-under-simulated-osmotic-stress
#11
Lijuan Niu, Jian Yu, Weibiao Liao, Jihua Yu, Meiling Zhang, Mohammed M Dawuda
Osmotic stress is a major form of abiotic stress that adversely affects growth and development of plants and subsequently reduces yield and quality of crops. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca(2+)) on the process of adventitious rooting in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under simulated osmotic stress was investigated. The results revealed that the effect of exogenous NO and Ca(2+) in promoting the development of adventitious roots in cucumber seedlings under simulated osmotic stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 μM NO donor nitroprusside (SNP) or 200 μM Ca(2+)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993735/comparative-physiological-biochemical-and-genetic-responses-to-prolonged-waterlogging-stress-in-okra-and-maize-given-exogenous-ethylene-priming
#12
Emuejevoke Vwioko, Onyekachukwu Adinkwu, Mohamed A El-Esawi
Waterlogging is an environmental challenge affecting crops worldwide. Ethylene induces the expression of genes linked to important agronomic traits under waterlogged conditions. The ability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) and maize (Zea mays L.) given exogenous ethylene priming to tolerate prolonged waterlogged conditions was investigated in this study. The investigation was carried out as field experiments using 3 week-old plants grouped into four treatments; control, waterlogged plants, ethylene priming of plants before waterlogging, and ethylene priming of plants after waterlogging...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922771/a-specific-role-of-iron-in-promoting-meristematic-cell-division-during-adventitious-root-formation
#13
Alexander Hilo, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten, Nicolaus von Wirén, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
Adventitious root (AR) formation is characterized by a sequence of physiological and morphological processes and determined by external factors, including mineral nutrition, the impacts of which remain largely elusive. Morphological and anatomical evaluation of the effects of mineral elements on AR formation in leafy cuttings of Petunia hybrida revealed a striking stimulation by iron (Fe) and a promotive action of ammonium (NH4+). The optimal application period for these nutrients corresponded to early division of meristematic cells in the rooting zone and coincided with increased transcript levels of mitotic cyclins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912792/genotypic-variation-in-yield-yield-components-root-morphology-and-architecture-in-soybean-in-relation-to-water-and-phosphorus-supply
#14
Jin He, Yi Jin, Yan-Lei Du, Tao Wang, Neil C Turner, Ru-Ping Yang, Kadambot H M Siddique, Feng-Min Li
Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg(-1) dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840683/-characterization-of-tissue-expression-of-ginsenoside-biosynthetic-gene-expression-in-panax-ginseng
#15
Juan Liu, Rui-Feng Ji, Tong Chen, Yuan Yuan, Juan Guo, Ying-Ping Wang, Wen-Yuan Gao, Lu-Qi Huang
The study is aimed to characterize the tissue expression of 10 key ginsenoside biosynthetic genes using bioinformatics method and real-time quantitative PCR. Heatmap and cluster analysis of 10 ginsenoside biosynthetic genes were performed in four-year-old Jilin ginseng. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression correlation of 10 key genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis was analyzed in different organs of four-year-old Jilin ginseng including, tissue culture seedling and adventitious root. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relation between those 10 key genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819197/mortierella-alpina-cs10e4-an-oleaginous-fungal-endophyte-of-crocus-sativus-l-enhances-apocarotenoid-biosynthesis-and-stress-tolerance-in-the-host-plant
#16
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Amit Kumar, Phalisteen Sultan, Kushal Bindu, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Nasheeman Ashraf
Crocus sativus is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in significant amounts. These compounds impart organoleptic properties to saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus flower) making it world's costliest spice. Crocus apocarotenoids have tremendous medicinal properties as well. Effect of endophytes on Crocus apocarotenoid production and the molecular mechanism involved has not been reported so far. Here we studied the effect of an oleaginous fungal endophyte, Mortierella alpina CS10E4 on Crocus growth, apocarotenoid metabolism and tolerance to corm rot disease...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794929/high-frequency-direct-shoot-organogenesis-of-leaf-explants-and-a-comparative-evaluation-of-phytochemicals-antioxidant-potential-of-wild-vs-in-vitro-plant-extracts-of-lysimachia-laxa
#17
Sanjoy Gupta, Tapan Seal, A A Mao, Soneswar Sarma
The present studies were attempted to develop direct shoot organogenesis from in vitro grown leaf explants of Lysimachia laxa and comparative evaluation of phytochemical and antioxidant potential of in vitro raised and wild plants extracts. The fresh leaves of this species are used for deworming gastrointestinal worm infection in traditional medicine. Overexploitation of this species and poor regeneration has led to rapid decline in wild population, therefore, present investigation was attempted to develop an efficient rapid mass propagation protocol for this species...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755334/optimized-direct-organogenesis-from-shoot-tip-explants-of-date-palm
#18
Rehab Sidky
In vitro propagation is an available alternative to produce uniform and good-quality planting material to establish large-scale date palm cultivation in a short time. This study was carried out to achieve organogenesis and multiplication directly from shoot tips without callus formation, thus avoiding any possibility of undesirable genetic variability among the regenerated plants. The shoot tips explants are cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 1 mg/L naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA), 2...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755333/direct-organogenesis-from-immature-female-inflorescence-of-date-palm-by-gradual-reduction-of-2-4-d-concentration
#19
Ezz El-Din G Gadalla
Inflorescences represent an alternative explant source for superior date palm trees, especially those that do not produce offshoots. They provide large numbers of explants free of fungal and bacterial contamination for successful tissue culture initiation. Furthermore, they are characterized by the capacity of plant regeneration within a short time as compared to other explant types. This chapter focuses on the procedures employed for plant regeneration by direct organogenesis using immature female inflorescence explants, including initiation of adventitious buds, differentiation, multiplication, shoot elongation, rooting, and acclimatization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755332/naa-induced-direct-organogenesis-from-female-immature-inflorescence-explants-of-date-palm
#20
Hussam S M Khierallah, Saleh M Bader, Makki A Al-Khafaji
Micropropagation has great potential for the multiplication of female and male date palms of commercially grown cultivars by using inflorescences. This approach is simple, convenient, and much faster than the conventional method of using shoot-tip explants. We describe here a stepwise micropropagation procedure using inflorescence explants of Iraqi date palm cultivar Maktoom. Cultured explants were derived from 0.5-cm-long spike segments excised from 8 to 10-cm-long spathes. About 70% formed adventitious buds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 4 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 40 g/L sucrose and maintained in the dark for 16 weeks before transferring to normal light conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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