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Richard Tito, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Kenneth J Feeley
One of the greatest current challenges to human society is ensuring adequate food production and security for a rapidly growing population under changing climatic conditions. Climate change, and specifically rising temperatures, will alter the suitability of areas for specific crops and cultivation systems. In order to maintain yields, farmers may be forced to change cultivation practices, the timing of cultivation, or even the type of crops grown. Alternatively, farmers can change the location where crops are cultivated (e...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
Francesco Ballarin, Shuqiang Li
Caves may offer suitable refugia for troglophilic invertebrates during periods of unfavourable climatic conditions because of their stable microclimates. As a consequence, allopatric divergence from their epigean counterparts may occur, leading to formation of truly hypogean communities (the Climatic Relict Hypothesis). Unlike the well-studied effects of Pleistocene glaciations, we know little about how ancient climate changes drove the development of cave-dwelling organisms living at both middle and lower latitudes...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
Matti Rousi, Boy J M H Possen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Tarja Silfver, Juha Mikola
The acclimation capacity of leading-edge tree populations is crucially important in a warming climate. Theoretical considerations suggest that adaptation through genetic change is needed, but this may be a slow process. Both positive and catastrophic outcomes have been predicted, while empirical studies have lagged behind theory development. Here we present results of a 30-year study of 55 000 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees, planted in 15 common gardens in three consecutive years near and beyond the present Scots pine tree line...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
Qiang Liu, Yongshuo H Fu, Yongwen Liu, Ivan A Janssens, Shilong Piao
Changes in the spring onset of vegetation growth in response to climate change can profoundly impact climate-biosphere interactions. Thus, robust simulation of spring onset is essential to accurately predict ecosystem responses and feedback to ongoing climate change. To date, the ability of vegetation phenology models to reproduce spatiotemporal patterns of spring onset at larger scales has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we took advantage of phenology observations via remote sensing to calibrate and evaluated six models, including both one-phase (considering only forcing temperatures) and two-phase (involving forcing, chilling, and photoperiod) models across the Northern Hemisphere between 1982 and 2012...
October 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
Alison J Parker, Neal M Williams, James D Thomson
Geographical variation in pollinators visiting a plant can produce plant populations adapted to local pollinator environments. We documented two markedly different pollinator climates for the spring ephemeral wildflower Claytonia virginica: in more northern populations, the pollen-specialist bee Andrena erigeniae dominated, but in more southern populations, A. erigeniae visited rarely and the bee-fly Bombylius major dominated. Plants in the northern populations experience faster pollen depletion than plants in southern populations...
October 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
A T Trugman, D Medvigy, W R L Anderegg, S W Pacala
Rapid warming and changes in water availability at high latitudes alter resource abundance, tree competition, and disturbance regimes. While these changes are expected to disrupt the functioning of boreal forests, their ultimate implications for forest composition are uncertain. In particular, recent site-level studies of the Alaskan boreal forest have reported both increases and decreases in productivity over the past few decades. Here, we test the idea that variations in Alaskan forest growth and mortality rates are contingent on species composition...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Zhongkui Luo, Enli Wang, Wenting Feng, Yiqi Luo, Jeff Baldock
In a recent paper, we assessed the legacy data reported by Skjemstad and Spouncer (2003) and found that the amount of aboveground carbon (C) input (i.e., crop residues) in Australian cropping systems was the most important factor affecting soil C change among all the assessed drivers including the quantity and quality of C inputs, climate and soil properties (Luo et al., 2017). Keel et al. (2017) argued that the C input data used in our study "may have led to important biases and critical omissions", due to: 1) ignorance of belowground C inputs from roots/rhizodeposition, and 2) use of a constant harvest index (HI) for crops...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Graeme T Swindles, Paul J Morris, Bronwen Whitney, Jennifer M Galloway, Mariusz Gałka, Angela Gallego-Sala, Andrew L Macumber, Donal Mullan, Mark W Smith, Matthew J Amesbury, Thomas P Roland, Hamed Sanei, R Timothy Patterson, Nicole Sanderson, Lauren Parry, Dan J Charman, Omar Lopez, Elvis Valderamma, Elizabeth J Watson, Ruza F Ivanovic, Paul J Valdes, T Edward Turner, Outi Lähteenoja
The most carbon (C) dense ecosystems of Amazonia are areas characterised by the presence of peatlands. However, Amazonian peatland ecosystems are poorly understood and are threatened by human activities. Here we present an investigation into long-term ecohydrological controls on C accumulation in an Amazonian peat dome. This site is the oldest peatland yet discovered in Amazonia (peat initiation c. 8.9 ka BP), and developed in three stages; (i) peat initiated in an abandoned river channel with open water and aquatic plants; (ii) inundated forest swamp; and (iii) raised peat dome (since c...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Gregory T W McClelland, Res Altwegg, Rudi J van Aarde, Sam Ferreira, Alan E Burger, Steven L Chown
The considerable threats of invasive rodents to island biodiversity are likely to be compounded by climate change. Forecasts for such interactions have been most pronounced for the Southern Ocean islands where ameliorating conditions are expected to decrease thermal and resource restrictions on rodents. Firm evidence for changing rodent populations in response to climate change, and demonstrations of associated impacts on the terrestrial environment, are nonetheless entirely absent for the region. Using data collected over three decades on sub-Antarctic Marion Island, we tested empirically whether mouse populations have changed through time and whether these changes can be associated significantly with changing abiotic conditions...
October 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Alexis D Synodinos, Britta Tietjen, Dirk Lohmann, Florian Jeltsch
Savannas are mixed tree-grass ecosystems whose dynamics are predominantly regulated by resource competition and the temporal variability in climatic and environmental factors such as rainfall and fire. Hence, increasing inter-annual rainfall variability due to climate change could have a significant impact on savannas. To investigate this, we used an ecohydrological model of stochastic differential equations and simulated African savanna dynamics along a gradient of mean annual rainfall (520-780 mm/year) for a range of inter-annual rainfall variabilities...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Stephanie D Jurburg, Tiago Natal-da-Luz, João Raimundo, Paula V Morais, José Paulo Sousa, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Joana Falcao Salles
Increasing climatic and anthropogenic pressures on soil ecosystems are expected to create a global patchwork of disturbance scenarios. Some regions will be strongly impacted by climate change, others by agricultural intensification, and others by both. Soil microbial communities are integral components of terrestrial ecosystems, but their responses to multiple perturbations are poorly understood. Here, we exposed soils from sustainably- or intensively-managed grasslands in an agro-silvo-pastoral oak woodland to month-long intensified drought and flood simulation treatments in a controlled mesocosm setting...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pradip P Kalbar, Ivan Muñoz, Morten Birkved
We present a second-generation wastewater treatment inventory model, WW LCI 2.0, which on many fronts represents considerable advances compared to its previous version WW LCI 1.0. WW LCI 2.0 is a novel and complete wastewater inventory model integrating WW LCI 1.0, i.e. a complete life cycle inventory, including infrastructure requirement, energy consumption and auxiliary materials applied for the treatment of wastewater and disposal of sludge and SewageLCI, i.e. fate modelling of chemicals released to the sewer...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ioannis Karaouzas, Evangelia Smeti, Aikaterini Vourka, Leonidas Vardakas, Aggeliki Mentzafou, Elisabet Tornés, Sergi Sabater, Isabel Muñoz, Nikolaos Th Skoulikidis, Eleni Kalogianni
Temporary rivers are dynamic and complex ecosystems that are widespread in arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean. Biotic communities adapted in their intermittent nature could withstand recurrent drought events. However, anthropogenic disturbances in the form of water stress and chemical pollution challenge biota with unpredictable outcomes, especially in view of climate change. In this study we assess the response of the biotic community of a temporary river to environmental stressors, focusing on water stress and pollution...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yunquan Zhang, Chuanhua Yu, Minjin Peng, Lan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Compared with death rates, years of life lost (YLL) has been widely used as a more informative indicator to quantify the burden of premature death. In the context of global climate change, existing evidence linking ambient temperatures and YLL was very scarce across the globe. METHODS: Daily mortality and meteorological data during 2009-2012 were obtained from 12 communities across Hubei Province in central China. A two-stage approach was used for statistical analysis...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Danuta Szumińska, Małgorzata Szopińska, Sara Lehmann-Konera, Łukasz Franczak, Waldemar Kociuba, Stanisław Chmiel, Paweł Kalinowski, Żaneta Polkowska
Climate changes observed in the Arctic (e.g. permafrost degradation, glacier retreat) may have significant influence on sensitive polar wetlands. The main objectives of this paper are defining chemical features of water within six small arctic lakes located in Bellsund (Svalbard) in the area of continuous permafrost occurrence. The unique environmental conditions of the study area offer an opportunity to observe phenomena influencing water chemistry, such as: chemical weathering, permafrost thawing, marine aerosols, atmospheric deposition and biological inputs...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hongli Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Lina Wang, Shengao Jing, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Jing Liu, Mingzhou Yu, Li Li, Li Lin, Ying Chen, Alfred Wiedensohler, Changhong Chen
Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Patryk Czortek, Anna Delimat, Marcin K Dyderski, Antoni Zięba, Andrzej M Jagodziński, Bogdan Jaroszewicz
Mountain vegetation is highly specialized to harsh climatic conditions and therefore is sensitive to any change in environment. The rarest and most vulnerable plants occurring in alpine regions are expected to respond rapidly to environmental changes. An example of such a species is Carex lachenalii subsp. lachenalii Schkuhr, which occurs in Poland on only a few isolated sites in the Tatra Mts. The aim of this study was to assess changes in distribution of C. lachenalii in the Tatra Mts over the past 50-150years and the effects of climate change, tourism and historical grazing on the ecological niche of C...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ibrahim Yurtseven, Yusuf Serengil, Ferhat Gökbulak, Kamil Şengönül, Süleyman Ozhan, Umit Kılıç, Betül Uygur, Mehmet Said Ozçelik
Adaptation to climate change has become a more serious concern as IPCC assessment reports estimate a rise of up to 2°C in average global temperatures by the end of the century. Several recently published studies have underlined the importance of forest management in mitigating the impacts of climate change and in supporting the adaptation capacity of the ecosystem. This study focuses on the role of water-related forest services in this adaptation process. The effects of forestry practices on streamflow can best be determined by paired watershed analysis...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sen Li, Linda Juhász-Horváth, László Pintér, Mark D A Rounsevell, Paula A Harrison
Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Alexsandra Duarte de Oliveira, Isis Lima Dos Santos, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza Ferreira, Juaci Vitoria Malaquias, Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho, João de Deus Gomes Dos Santos
In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N2O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N2O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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