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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241155/dissolved-organic-matter-reduces-cuo-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-duckweed-in-simulated-natural-systems
#1
Devin A Rippner, Peter G Green, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
With increasing demand for recycled wastewater for irrigation purposes, there is a need to evaluate the potential for manufactured nanomaterials in waste water to impact crop production and agroecosystems. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) have previously been shown to negatively impact the growth of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) a model aquatic plant consumed by water fowl and widely found in agricultural runoff ditches in temperate climates. However, prior studies involving CuO NP toxicity to duckweed have focused on systems without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241068/long-term-projections-of-temperature-related-mortality-risks-for-ischemic-stroke-hemorrhagic-stroke-and-acute-ischemic-heart-disease-under-changing-climate-in-beijing-china
#2
Tiantian Li, Radley M Horton, Daniel A Bader, Fangchao Liu, Qinghua Sun, Patrick L Kinney
BACKGROUND: Changing climates have been causing variations in the number of global ischemic heart disease and stroke incidences, and will continue to affect disease occurrence in the future. OBJECTIVES: To project temperature-related mortality for acute ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with concomitant climate warming. METHODS: We estimated the exposure-response relationship between daily cause-specific mortality and daily mean temperature in Beijing...
December 11, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240975/macroecological-patterns-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-turtles-of-the-world
#3
Mickey Agha, Joshua R Ennen, A Justin Nowakowski, Jeffrey E Lovich, Sarah C Sweat, Brian D Todd
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a well-documented phenomenon in both plants and animals; however, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive and maintain SSD patterns across geographic space at regional and global scales are understudied, especially for reptiles. Our goal was to examine geographic variation of turtle SSD and to explore ecological and environmental correlates using phylogenetic comparative methods. We use published body size data on 135 species from nine turtle families to examine how geographic patterns and the evolution of SSD are influenced by habitat specialization, climate (annual mean temperature and annual precipitation) and climate variability, latitude, or a combination of these predictor variables...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240893/risk-and-reputation-obstetricians-cesareans-and-consent
#4
Jacqueline H Wolf
When physicians performed cesarean sections in the nineteenth century, they customarily sought agreement from all present before proceeding. In contrast, after the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring in the late 1960s, obstetricians obtained permission for a cesarean by offering a choice that ensured consent-give birth by cesarean or give birth vaginally to a damaged or dead baby. This article argues that the manner in which physicians obtained consent for cesareans in the nineteenth century was one factor that kept the cesarean rate low, while the manner in which physicians obtained consent in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries was one factor driving up the cesarean rate...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239939/an-environment-is-more-than-a-climate
#5
Jamil Sharif Anwari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239645/keeping-future-rivals-down-temporal-social-comparison-predicts-coworker-social-undermining-via-future-status-threat-and-envy
#6
Susan Reh, Christian Tröster, Niels Van Quaquebeke
The extant social undermining literature suggests that employees envy and, consequently, undermine coworkers when they feel that these coworkers are better off and thus pose a threat to their own current status. With the present research, we draw on the sociofunctional approach to emotions to propose that an anticipated future status threat can similarly incline employees to feel envy toward, and subsequently undermine, their coworkers. We argue that employees pay special attention to coworkers' past development in relation to their own, because faster-rising coworkers may pose a future status threat even if they are still performing worse in absolute terms in the present...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239634/mother-child-positivity-and-negativity-family-wide-and-child-specific-main-effects-and-interactions-predict-child-adjustment
#7
Bonamy R Oliver, Alison Pike
Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity may buffer children's adjustment from negativity. Controlling for behavioral stability, we examined the potential for positive and negative parent-child processes to interact across and between child-specific and family-wide levels in the prediction of children's adjustment...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239602/improving-estimates-of-nitrogen-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment-of-cropping-systems-at-the-scale-of-an-agricultural-territory
#8
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239569/climate-impact-on-malaria-in-northern-burkina-faso
#9
Yves M Tourre, Cécile Vignolles, Christian Viel, Flore Mounier
The Paluclim project managed by the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) found that total rainfall for a 3-month period is a confounding factor for the density of malaria vectors in the region of Nouna in the Sahel administrative territory of northern Burkina Faso. Following the models introduced in 1999 by Craig et al. and in 2003 by Tanser et al., a climate impact model for malaria risk (using different climate indices) was created. Several predictions of this risk at different temporal scales (i...
November 27, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239568/spatiotemporal-transmission-and-socio-climatic-factors-related-to-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-north-western-ethiopia
#10
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Archie C A Clements
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in children reflects continuing and recent transmission within a population. This study aimed to identify spatiotemporal and socio-climatic factors associated with paediatric TB in north-western Ethiopia. Multivariate Poisson regression models were computed using a Bayesian framework. Estimates of parameters were generated using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. A total of 2,240 children aged under 15 years diagnosed with TB during the years 2013- 2016 were included in the analysis...
November 27, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239561/spatial-analysis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-an-endemic-area-of-iran-based-on-environmental-factors
#11
Roghieh Ramezankhani, Nooshin Sajjadi, Roya Nezakati Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Ali Jozi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still a great public health problem in Iran, especially in Isfahan Province. Distribution and abundance of vectors and reservoirs of this disease is affected by different factors such as climatic, socioeconomic and cultural. This study aimed to identify the hotspot areas for CL in Isfahan and assess the relations between the climatic and topographic factors with CL incidence using spatial analysis...
November 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239552/the-use-of-geographic-information-system-as-a-tool-for-schistosomiasis-surveillance-in-the-province-of-davao-del-norte-the-philippines
#12
Vicente Y Belizario, John Paul Caesar R Delos Trinos, Berne Silawan, Chiqui M De Veyra, Agapito Hornido, Hansel Amoguis, Dominic Basalo, Cherry Dema-Ala, Irenn Mantilla, Rosele Layan
Schistosomiasis (SCH) in The Philippines is caused by Schistosoma japonicum and remains endemic in 28 provinces in 12 regions. Effective SCH control requires describing areas at risk where control efforts may be focused. This study aims at demonstrating the utility of geographical information system (GIS) as a tool for SCH surveillance in the province of Davao del Norte. Qualitative and quantitative data on SCH determinants, obtained from local government offices, partner agencies and institutions, were standardised, formatted and incorporated into a GIS map...
November 6, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239370/antarctic-ice-dynamics-in-warm-climates
#13
Sarah Greenwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239366/five-priorities-for-weather-and-climate-research
#14
Øystein Hov, Deon Terblanche, Sarah Jones, Paolo M Ruti, Oksana Tarasova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239353/initiation-and-long-term-instability-of-the-east-antarctic-ice-sheet
#15
Sean P S Gulick, Amelia E Shevenell, Aleksandr Montelli, Rodrigo Fernandez, Catherine Smith, Sophie Warny, Steven M Bohaty, Charlotte Sjunneskog, Amy Leventer, Bruce Frederick, Donald D Blankenship
Antarctica's continental-scale ice sheets have evolved over the past 50 million years. However, the dearth of ice-proximal geological records limits our understanding of past East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) behaviour and thus our ability to evaluate its response to ongoing environmental change. The EAIS is marine-terminating and grounded below sea level within the Aurora subglacial basin, indicating that this catchment, which drains ice to the Sabrina Coast, may be sensitive to climate perturbations. Here we show, using marine geological and geophysical data from the continental shelf seaward of the Aurora subglacial basin, that marine-terminating glaciers existed at the Sabrina Coast by the early to middle Eocene epoch...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239352/a-compositional-tipping-point-governing-the-mobilization-and-eruption-style-of-rhyolitic-magma
#16
D Di Genova, S Kolzenburg, S Wiesmaier, E Dallanave, D R Neuville, K U Hess, D B Dingwell
The most viscous volcanic melts and the largest explosive eruptions on our planet consist of calcalkaline rhyolites. These eruptions have the potential to influence global climate. The eruptive products are commonly very crystal-poor and highly degassed, yet the magma is mostly stored as crystal mushes containing small amounts of interstitial melt with elevated water content. It is unclear how magma mushes are mobilized to create large batches of eruptible crystal-free magma. Further, rhyolitic eruptions can switch repeatedly between effusive and explosive eruption styles and this transition is difficult to attribute to the rheological effects of water content or crystallinity...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238930/modeling-the-impacts-of-ambient-temperatures-on-cardiovascular-mortality-in-yinchuan-evidence-from-a-northwestern-city-of-china
#17
Huiling Zhang, Qingan Wang, Yajuan Zhang, Yi Yang, Yi Zhao, Jianren Sang, Yulong Zhang, Yine Zhang, Fan Xie, Shanshan Li, Yuhong Zhang, Yuming Guo
No evidence is available on whether cardiovascular mortality is affected by the ambient temperatures in Yinchuan, which is located in the northwestern region of China, with a typical continental semi-humid semi-arid climate. Daily data on cardiovascular mortality and meteorological factors was collected from Yinchuan city for the period of 2010-2015. A distributed lag non-linear model with quasi-Poisson link was used to assess the association between daily temperatures and cardiovascular deaths, after controlling for seasonality, day of the week, atmospheric pressure, humidity, sunshine duration, and wind speed...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238843/management-practices-used-in-agricultural-drainage-ditches-to-reduce-gulf-of-mexico-hypoxia
#18
REVIEW
Derek R Faust, Robert Kröger, Matthew T Moore, Scott A Rush
Agricultural non-point sources of nutrients and sediments have caused eutrophication and other water quality issues in aquatic and marine ecosystems, such as the annual occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Management practices have been implemented adjacent to and in agricultural drainage ditches to promote their wetland characteristics and functions, including reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment losses downstream. This review: (1) summarized studies examining changes in nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations and loads associated with management practices in drainage ditches (i...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238568/predictions-of-response-to-temperature-are-contingent-on-model-choice-and-data-quality
#19
Etienne Low-Décarie, Tobias G Boatman, Noah Bennett, Will Passfield, Antonio Gavalás-Olea, Philipp Siegel, Richard J Geider
The equations used to account for the temperature dependence of biological processes, including growth and metabolic rates, are the foundations of our predictions of how global biogeochemistry and biogeography change in response to global climate change. We review and test the use of 12 equations used to model the temperature dependence of biological processes across the full range of their temperature response, including supra- and suboptimal temperatures. We focus on fitting these equations to thermal response curves for phytoplankton growth but also tested the equations on a variety of traits across a wide diversity of organisms...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238564/evidence-of-exceptional-oyster-reef-resilience-to-fluctuations-in-sea-level
#20
Justin T Ridge, Antonio B Rodriguez, F Joel Fodrie
Ecosystems at the land-sea interface are vulnerable to rising sea level. Intertidal habitats must maintain their surface elevations with respect to sea level to persist via vertical growth or landward retreat, but projected rates of sea-level rise may exceed the accretion rates of many biogenic habitats. While considerable attention is focused on climate change over centennial timescales, relative sea level also fluctuates dramatically (10-30 cm) over month-to-year timescales due to interacting oceanic and atmospheric processes...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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