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Paulina Schuller, Alejandra Castillo, Gabriele Voigt, Natalia Semioshkina
The root uptake of radiocaesium by different plant parts of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) and the potential influence of K-fertilising on the transfer behaviour was studied in allophanic volcanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) in Chile under temperate climate and heavy rainfall conditions (∼2660 mm y-1 ) over several vegetation periods. The soils were spiked homogeneously to 0.20 m depth with 100 kBq 134 Cs m-2 and activity concentrations measured...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Genovaitė Liobikienė, Mindaugas Butkus
Climate change policy confronts with many challenges and opportunities. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse the impact of gross domestic product (hereinafter GDP), trade, foreign direct investment (hereinafter FDI), energy efficiency (hereinafter EF) and renewable energy (hereinafter RE) consumption on greenhouse gas (hereinafter GHG) emissions in 1990-2013 and reveal the main challenges and opportunities of climate policy for which policy makers should take the most attention under different stages of economic development...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Candice Y Lumibao, Stephen Formel, Vijaikrishnah Elango, John H Pardue, Michael Blum, Sunshine A Van Bael
The plant microbiome, composed of diverse interacting microorganisms, is thought to undergird host integrity and well-being. Though it is well understood that environmental perturbations like oil pollution can alter the diversity and composition of microbiomes, remarkably little is known about how disturbance alters plant-fungal associations. Using Next-Generation sequencing of the 18S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region, we examined outcomes of enduring oil exposure on aboveground leaf and belowground endophytic root and rhizosphere fungal communities of Spartina alterniflora, a highly valued ecosystem engineer in southeastern Louisiana marshes affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon accident...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katherine L Martin, Ryan E Emanuel, James M Vose
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) pose wide ranging environmental risks to many parts of the US and across the globe, but datasets for CAFO risk assessments are not readily available. Within the United States, some of the greatest concentrations of CAFOs occur in North Carolina. It is also one of the only states with publicly accessible location data for classes of CAFOs that are required to obtain water quality permits from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); however, there are no public data sources for the large number of CAFOs that do not require EPA water quality permits...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
L Proskuryakova
The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sílvia Luís, Maria Luísa Lima, Catarina Roseta-Palma, Nuno Rodrigues, Lisa P Sousa, Fabiana Freitas, Fátima L Alves, Ana I Lillebø, Camille Parrod, Vincent Jolivet, Theodora Paramana, George Alexandrakis, Serafim Poulos
Stakeholder engagement in the processes of planning local adaptation to climate change faces many challenges. The goal of this work was to explore whether or not the intention of engaging could be understood (Study 1) and promoted (Study 2), by using an extension of the theory of planned behaviour. In Study 1, stakeholders from three European Mediterranean case studies were surveyed: Baixo Vouga Lagunar (Portugal), SCOT Provence Méditerranée (France), and the island of Crete (Greece) (N = 115). Stakeholders' intention of engaging was significantly predicted by subjective norm (which was predicted by injunctive normative beliefs towards policy-makers and stakeholders) and by perceived behavioural control (which was predicted by knowledge of policy and instruments)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
F Hayes, D J Spurgeon, S Lofts, L Jones
Trace metals can have far-reaching ecosystem impacts. In this study, we develop consistent and evidence-based logic chains to demonstrate the wider effects of trace metal contamination on a suite of ecosystem services. They demonstrate knock-on effects from an initial receptor that is sensitive to metal toxicity, along a cascade of impact, to final ecosystem services via alterations to multiple ecosystem processes. We developed logic chains to highlight two aspects of metal toxicity: for impacts of copper pollution in soil ecosystems, and for impacts of mercury in freshwaters...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Maurice Sunkpal, Pedram Roghanchi, Karoly C Kocsis
Background: Work comfort studies have been extensively conducted, especially in the underground and meteorological fields resulting in an avalanche of recommendations for their evaluation. Nevertheless, no known or universally accepted model for comprehensively assessing the thermal work condition of the underground mine environment is currently available. Current literature presents several methods and techniques, but none of these can expansively assess the underground mine environment since most methods consider only one or a few defined factors and neglect others...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Emma F Young, Niklas Tysklind, Michael P Meredith, Mark de Bruyn, Mark Belchier, Eugene J Murphy, Gary R Carvalho
In the marine environment, understanding the biophysical mechanisms that drive variability in larval dispersal and population connectivity is essential for estimating the potential impacts of climate change on the resilience and genetic structure of populations. Species whose populations are small, isolated and discontinuous in distribution will differ fundamentally in their response and resilience to environmental stress, compared with species that are broadly distributed, abundant and frequently exchange conspecifics...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Patrick J Bigelow, Wayne Loescher, James F Hancock, Rebecca Grumet
Reducing crop losses due to abiotic stresses is a major target of agricultural biotechnology that will increase with climate change and global population growth. Concerns, however, have been raised about potential ecological impacts if transgenes become established in wild populations and cause increased competitiveness of weedy or invasive species. Potential risks will be a function of transgene movement, population sizes, and fitness effects on the recipient population. While key components influencing gene flow have been extensively investigated, there have been few studies on factors subsequent to transgene movement that can influence persistence and competitiveness...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Ali Soltani, Samira MafiMoghaddam, Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi, Katelynn Walter, Patrick J Kearns, Jose Vasquez-Guzman, Sujan Mamidi, Rian Lee, Ashley L Shade, Janette L Jacobs, Martin I Chilivers, David B Lowry, Phillip McClean, Juan M Osorno
Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Quazi Shihab Uddin Ibrahim, Md Shafiqul Bari, M M Jahangir Alam, Susanna J Dunachie, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Md Ismail Patwary
Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries for climate change. This observational study examined the association of temperature, humidity and rainfall with six common climate-sensitive infectious diseases in adults (malaria, diarrheal disease, enteric fever, encephalitis, pneumonia and bacterial meningitis) in northeastern Bangladesh. Subjects admitted to the adult medicine ward of a tertiary referral hospital in Sylhet, Bangladesh from 2008 to 2012 with a diagnosis of one of the six chosen climate-sensitive infectious diseases were enrolled in the study...
2018: PloS One
Kishor Kumar Paul, Parnali Dhar-Chowdhury, C Emdad Haque, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Doli Rani Goswami, Mohammad Abdullah Heel Kafi, Michael A Drebot, L Robbin Lindsay, Gias Uddin Ahsan, W Abdullah Brooks
Dengue viruses are responsible for over 100 million infections a year worldwide and are a public health concern in Bangladesh. Although risk of transmission is high, data on vector population characteristics are scanty in Bangladesh; therefore, a comprehensive prediction of the patterns of local virus transmission is not possible. Recognizing these gaps, multi-year entomological surveys were carried out in Dhaka, where the disease is most frequently reported. The specific objectives of the present study are threefold: i) to determine the risk factors for the presence of Aedes mosquitoes; ii) to identify the types of most productive and key containers; and iii) to estimate the effects of climatic factors on Aedes abundance in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh...
2018: PloS One
Zhendong Wu, Niklas Boke-Olén, Rasmus Fensholt, Jonas Ardö, Lars Eklundh, Veiko Lehsten
Biogeochemical models use meteorological forcing data derived with different approaches (e.g. based on interpolation or reanalysis of observation data or a hybrid hereof) to simulate ecosystem processes such as gross primary productivity (GPP). This study assesses the impact of different widely used climate datasets on simulated gross primary productivity and evaluates the suitability of them for reproducing the global and regional carbon cycle as mapped from independent GPP data. We simulate GPP with the biogeochemical model LPJ-GUESS using six historical climate datasets (CRU, CRUNCEP, ECMWF, NCEP, PRINCETON, and WFDEI)...
2018: PloS One
Pedro Pinho, Teresa Dias, Cláudia M D S Cordovil, Ulrike Dragosits, Nancy B Dise, Mark A Sutton, Cristina Branquinho
In this paper, we assess and map the risk that atmospheric nitrogen (atN) pollution poses to biodiversity in Natura 2000 sites in mainland Portugal. We first review the ecological impacts of atN pollution on terrestrial ecosystems, focusing on the biodiversity of Natura 2000 sites. These nature protection sites, especially those located within the Mediterranean Basin, are under-characterized regarding the risk posed by atN pollution. We focus on ammonia (NH3) because this N form is mostly associated with agriculture, which co-occurs at or in the immediate vicinity of most areas of conservation interest in Portugal...
2018: PloS One
Emilio Vilanova, Hirma Ramírez-Angulo, Armando Torres-Lezama, Gerardo Aymard, Luis Gámez, Cristabel Durán, Lionel Hernández, Rafael Herrera, Geertje van der Heijden, Oliver L Phillips, Gregory J Ettl
Using data from 50 long-term permanent plots from across Venezuelan forests in northern South America, we explored large-scale patterns of stem turnover, aboveground biomass (AGB) and woody productivity (AGWP), and the relationships between them and with potential climatic drivers. We used principal component analysis coupled with generalized least squares models to analyze the relationship between climate, forest structure and stem dynamics. Two major axes associated with orthogonal temperature and moisture gradients effectively described more than 90% of the environmental variability in the dataset...
2018: PloS One
Elena Grossman, Michelle Hathaway, Kathleen F Bush, Matthew Cahillane, Dorette Q English, Tisha Holmes, Colleen E Moran, Christopher K Uejio, Emily A York, Samuel Dorevitch
CONTEXT: Human health is threatened by climate change. While the public health workforce is concerned about climate change, local health department (LHD) administrators have reported insufficient knowledge and resources to address climate change. Minigrants from state to LHDs have been used to promote a variety of local public health initiatives. OBJECTIVE: To describe the minigrant approach used by state health departments implementing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework, to highlight successes of this approach in promoting climate change preparedness at LHDs, and to describe challenges encountered...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Jessica H Mirman, Brianne Roche, Ann Higgins-D'Alessandro
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to extend the current literature on school climate that is focused on understanding how teacher, administrator, and student perceptions about driving-focused aspects of the social, educational, and institutional climate of schools can affect students' achievement, behavior, and adjustment towards the development of the concept of school safe driving climate (SSDC) and initiate the development of tools and processes for assessing SSDC. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used to develop an initial version of a survey-based measure of SSDC that involved self-report surveys (students) and in-depth interviews (teachers)...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Guoyan Wang, Carol C Baskin, Jerry M Baskin, Xuejun Yang, Guofang Liu, Xuehua Ye, Xinshi Zhang, Zhenying Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Much research has focused on plant responses to ongoing climate change, but there is relatively little information about how climate change will affect the early plant life history stages. Understanding how global warming and changes in winter snow pattern will affect seed germination and seedling establishment is crucial for predicting future alpine population and vegetation dynamics. METHODS: In a 2-year study, we tested how warming and alteration in the snowmelt regime, both in isolation and combination, influence seedling emergence phenology, first-year growth, biomass allocation, and survival of four native alpine perennial herbs on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Daniel J Hocking, James T Thorson, Kyle O'Neil, Benjamin H Letcher
Population dynamics are often correlated in space and time due to correlations in environmental drivers as well as synchrony induced by individual dispersal. Many statistical analyses of populations ignore potential autocorrelations and assume that survey methods (distance and time between samples) eliminate these correlations, allowing samples to be treated independently. If these assumptions are incorrect, results and therefore inference may be biased and uncertainty under-estimated. We developed a novel statistical method to account for spatio-temporal correlations within dendritic stream networks, while accounting for imperfect detection in the surveys...
June 21, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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