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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910953/three-millennia-of-heavy-rainfalls-in-western-mediterranean-frequency-seasonality-and-atmospheric-drivers
#1
J P Corella, B L Valero-Garcés, S M Vicente-Serrano, A Brauer, G Benito
Documenting subdecadal-scale heavy rainfall (HR) variability over several millennia can rarely be accomplished due to the paucity of high resolution, homogeneous and continuous proxy records. Here, using a unique, seasonally resolved lake record from southern Europe, we quantify temporal changes in extreme HR events for the last 2,800 years in this region and their correlation with negative phases of the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO). Notably, scarce HR dominated by a persistent positive MO mode characterizes the so-called Migration period (CE 370-670)...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910905/magnitude-and-pattern-of-arctic-warming-governed-by-the-seasonality-of-radiative-forcing
#2
R Bintanja, F Krikken
Observed and projected climate warming is strongest in the Arctic regions, peaking in autumn/winter. Attempts to explain this feature have focused primarily on identifying the associated climate feedbacks, particularly the ice-albedo and lapse-rate feedbacks. Here we use a state-of-the-art global climate model in idealized seasonal forcing simulations to show that Arctic warming (especially in winter) and sea ice decline are particularly sensitive to radiative forcing in spring, during which the energy is effectively 'absorbed' by the ocean (through sea ice melt and ocean warming, amplified by the ice-albedo feedback) and consequently released to the lower atmosphere in autumn and winter, mainly along the sea ice periphery...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909816/ecological-and-physical-barriers-shape-genetic-structure-of-the-alpine-porcini-boletus-reticuloceps
#3
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909460/attribution-of-net-carbon-change-by-disturbance-type-across-forest-lands-of-the-conterminous-united-states
#4
N L Harris, S C Hagen, S S Saatchi, T R H Pearson, C W Woodall, G M Domke, B H Braswell, B F Walters, S Brown, W Salas, A Fore, Y Yu
BACKGROUND: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes. RESULTS: Forests in the conterminous US sequestered -460 ± 48 Tg C year(-1), while C losses from disturbance averaged 191 ± 10 Tg C year(-1)...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#5
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909425/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-response-of-microbial-reactions-to-high-co2
#6
Qusheng Jin, Matthew F Kirk
Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#7
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909349/spatiotemporal-patterns-and-trends-of-indian-monsoonal-rainfall-extremes
#8
Nishant Malik, Bodo Bookhagen, Peter J Mucha
In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of trends in the extremes during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) months (June to September) at different temporal and spatial scales. Our goal is to identify and quantify spatiotemporal patterns and trends that have emerged during the recent decades and may be associated with changing climatic conditions. Our analysis primarily relies on quantile regression that avoids making any subjective choices on spatial, temporal, or intensity pattern of extreme rainfall events...
February 28, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909293/major-losses-of-nutrients-following-a-severe-drought-in-a-boreal-forest
#9
Daniel Houle, Geneviève Lajoie, Louis Duchesne
Because of global warming, the frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase, which will have an impact on forest ecosystem health worldwide(1). Although the impact of drought on tree growth and mortality is being increasingly documented(2-4), very little is known about the impact on nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Here, based on long-term monitoring data, we report nutrient fluxes in a boreal forest before, during and following a severe drought in July 2012. During and shortly after the drought, we observed high throughfall (rain collected below the canopy) concentrations of nutrient base cations (potassium, calcium and magnesium), chlorine, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), differing by one to two orders of magnitude relative to the long-term normal, and resulting in important canopy losses...
November 28, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909212/black-carbon-emission-reduction-strategies-in-healthcare-industry-for-effective-global-climate-change-management
#10
Emilia Mmbando Raila, David O Anderson
Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO2). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908721/stress-response-in-honeybees-is-associated-with-changes-in-task-related-physiology-and-energetic-metabolism
#11
Célia Bordier, Séverine Suchail, Maryline Pioz, Jean Marc Devaud, Claude Collet, Mercedes Charreton, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
In a rapidly changing environment, honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to diverse sources of stress (e.g., new parasites, pesticides, climate warming), which represent a challenge to individual and social homeostasis. However, bee physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood. We therefore exposed bees specialised in different tasks (nurses, guards and foragers) to ancient (immune and heat stress) or historically more recent sources of stress (pesticides), and we determined changes in the expression of genes linked to behavioural maturation (vitellogenin - vg and juvenile hormone esterase - jhe) as well as in energetic metabolism (glycogen level, expression level of the receptor to the adipokinetic hormone - akhr, and endothermic performance)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#12
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F Japyassú
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908625/a-novel-integrated-modelling-framework-to-assess-the-impacts-of-climate-and-socio-economic-drivers-on-land-use-and-water-quality
#13
Matthias Zessner, Martin Schönhart, Juraj Parajka, Helene Trautvetter, Hermine Mitter, Mathias Kirchner, Gerold Hepp, Alfred Paul Blaschke, Birgit Strenn, Erwin Schmid
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water interfaces...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908624/a-review-of-biomass-burning-emissions-and-impacts-on-air-quality-health-and-climate-in-china
#14
REVIEW
Jianmin Chen, Chunlin Li, Zoran Ristovski, Andelija Milic, Yuantong Gu, Mohammad S Islam, Shuxiao Wang, Jiming Hao, Hefeng Zhang, Congrong He, Hai Guo, Hongbo Fu, Branka Miljevic, Lidia Morawska, Phong Thai, Yun Fat Lam, Gavin Pereira, Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Umesh C Dumka
Biomass burning (BB) is a significant air pollution source, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate. Worldwide an extensive range of studies has been conducted on almost all the aspects of BB, including its specific types, on quantification of emissions and on assessing its various impacts. China is one of the countries where the significance of BB has been recognized, and a lot of research efforts devoted to investigate it, however, so far no systematic reviews were conducted to synthesize the information which has been emerging...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908077/tropical-littoral-ambient-noise-probability-density-function-model-based-on-sea-surface-temperature
#15
Piyush Asolkar, Arnab Das, Suhas Gajre, Yashwant Joshi
Ambient noise variability in tropical shallow water presents a critical challenge for sonar designers and operators due to site-specific sea surface fluctuations. Sea surface temperature (SST) is a direct measure of energy balance defining the local climate of the region and hence ambient noise characteristics. In this work, an ambient noise probability density function (pdf) model for a spectral band of 3-10 kHz has been designed based on the statistical distribution of SST and validated using real field data...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907880/release-of-1-3-5-trinitroperhydro-1-3-5-triazine-rdx-from-polymer-bonded-explosives-pbxn-109-into-water-by-artificial-weathering
#16
M Kumar, M K Ladyman, N Mai, T Temple, F Coulon
Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental impacts of PBX are unclear, even though it is likely that PBX residues from low-order detonations and unexploded ordnance are deposited on military training ranges. The release of high explosives from the polymer matrix into the environment has not been studied in detail, although as polymers degrade slowly in the environment we anticipate high explosives to be released into the environment. In this study, PBXN-109 (nominally 64% RDX) samples were exposed to variable UK climatic conditions reproduced in the laboratory to determine the effects of temperature, UV irradiation and rainfall on the release of RDX from the polymer binder...
November 28, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907262/potential-breeding-distributions-of-u-s-birds-predicted-with-both-short-term-variability-and-long-term-average-climate-data
#17
Brooke L Bateman, Anna M Pidgeon, Volker C Radeloff, Curtis H Flather, Jeremy VanDerWal, H Resit Akçakaya, Wayne E Thogmartin, Thomas P Albright, Stephen J Vavrus, Patricia J Heglund
Climate conditions, such as temperature or precipitation, averaged over several decades strongly affect species distributions, as evidenced by experimental results and a plethora of models demonstrating statistical relations between species occurrences and long-term climate averages. However, long-term averages can conceal climate changes that have occurred in recent decades and may not capture actual species occurrence well because the distributions of species, especially at the edges of their range, are typically dynamic and may respond strongly to short-term climate variability...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907257/do-multiple-fires-interact-to-affect-vegetation-structure-in-temperate-eucalypt-forests
#18
Angie Haslem, Steve W J Leonard, Matthew J Bruce, Fiona Christie, Greg J Holland, Luke T Kelly, Josephine MacHunter, Andrew F Bennett, Michael F Clarke, Alan York
Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907254/re-evaluation-of-individual-diameter-height-allometric-models-to-improve-biomass-estimation-of-tropical-trees
#19
Alicia Ledo, Thomas Cornulier, Janine B Illian, Yoshiko Iida, Abdul Rahman Kassim, David F R P Burslem
Accurate estimation of tree biomass is necessary to provide realistic values of the carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere. A recognized source of errors in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation is introduced when individual tree height values (H) are not directly measured but estimated from diameter at breast height (DBH) using allometric equations. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of 12 alternative DBH : H equations and compare their effects on AGB estimation for three tropical forests that occur in contrasting climatic and altitudinal zones...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907253/decadal-shifts-in-grass-and-woody-plant-cover-are-driven-by-prolonged-drying-and-modified-by-topo-edaphic-properties
#20
Seth M Munson, Temuulen T Sankey, George Xian, Miguel L Villarreal, Collin G Homer
Woody plant encroachment and overall declines in perennial vegetation in dryland regions can alter ecosystem properties and indicate land degradation, but the causes of these shifts remain controversial. Determining how changes in the abundance and distribution of grass and woody plants are influenced by conditions that regulate water availability at a regional scale provides a baseline to compare how management actions alter the composition of these vegetation types at a more local scale and can be used to predict future shifts under climate change...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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