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A T Lebedev, D M Mazur, O V Polyakova, D S Kosyakov, A Yu Kozhevnikov, T B Latkin, I Andreeva Yu, V B Artaev
Environmental contamination of the Arctic has widely been used as a worldwide pollution marker. Various classes of organic pollutants such as pesticides, personal care products, PAHs, flame retardants, biomass burning markers, and many others emerging contaminants have been regularly detected in Arctic samples. Although numerous papers have been published reporting data from the Canadian, Danish, and Norwegian Arctic regions, the environmental situation in Russian Arctic remains mostly underreported. Snow analysis is known to be used for monitoring air pollution in the regions with cold climate in both short-term and long-term studies...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ana C Dvorak, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Andrea Galletti, Bernardo Benzecry, Hannah Malone, Vicki Boguszewski, Jason Bird
Sea levels are projected to rise in response to climate change, causing the intrusion of sea water into land. In flat coastal regions, this would generate an increase in shallow water covered areas with limited circulation. This scenario raises a concern about the consequences it could have on human health, specifically the possible impacts on disease transmission. In this review paper we identified three categories of diseases which are associated with water and whose transmission can be affected by sea level rise...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
D R Chadwick, L M Cardenas, M S Dhanoa, N Donovan, T Misselbrook, J R Williams, R E Thorman, K L McGeough, C J Watson, M Bell, S G Anthony, R M Rees
Urine patches and dung pats from grazing livestock create hotspots for production and emission of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O), and represent a large proportion of total N2 O emissions in many national agricultural greenhouse gas inventories. As such, there is much interest in developing country specific N2 O emission factors (EFs) for excretal nitrogen (EF3, pasture, range and paddock) deposited during gazing. The aims of this study were to generate separate N2 O emissions data for cattle derived urine and dung, to provide an evidence base for the generation of a country specific EF for the UK from this nitrogen source...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jacopo Bacenetti, Daniela Lovarelli, Doriana Tedesco, Roberto Pretolani, Valentina Ferrante
On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Whanhee Lee, Hayon Michelle Choi, Jae Young Lee, Da Hye Kim, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim
Investigating how well people adapt to heat waves and cold spells has been an important issue under climate change. Also, most of previous studies focused only on the mortality risks for heat waves or cold spells for certain time period not considering its temporal changes and increasing frequencies. This study investigated the change in risks of mortality from heat waves and cold spells over time, and estimated the temporal changes in mortality burden attributed to heat waves and cold spells in Korea and Japan...
April 18, 2018: Environment International
Peng Zhao, Hui-Juan Zhou, Daniel Potter, Yi-Heng Hu, Xiao-Jia Feng, Meng Dang, Li Feng, Saman Zulfiqar, Wen-Zhe Liu, Guifang Zhao, Keith Woeste
Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast genomes (Cp genome) data to infer processes of lineage formation among the five native Chinese species of the walnut genus (Juglans, Juglandaceae), a widespread, economically important group...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Artur Jaworski, Hubert Kuszewski, Adam Ustrzycki, Krzysztof Balawender, Kazimierz Lejda, Paweł Woś
Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH4 , CO2 , NOX , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ann E Holbourn, Wolfgang Kuhnt, Steven C Clemens, Karlos G D Kochhann, Janika Jöhnck, Julia Lübbers, Nils Andersen
The late Miocene offers the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of the Earth's climate to orbital forcing and to changing boundary conditions, such as ice volume and greenhouse gas concentrations, on a warmer-than-modern Earth. Here we investigate the relationships between low- and high-latitude climate variability in an extended succession from the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. Our high-resolution benthic isotope record in combination with paired mixed layer isotope and Mg/Ca-derived temperature data reveal that a long-term cooling trend was synchronous with intensification of the Asian winter monsoon and strengthening of the biological pump from ~7 Ma until ~5...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
El Faith Bashir El Malik, Branavan Manoranjan, Olufemi Ajani, Ahmed Zidan
BACKGROUND: and Importance: Sinusitis is a common clinical condition but sphenoid sinusitis is a less common form and even rarer is hypophysitis as a complication of the latter. Clinically, hypophysitis may mimic a pituitary neoplasm in presenting with mass effect and pituitary hormone dysfunction. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present five cases of sinusitis-related hypophysitis treated at the Royal Care International Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical symptoms at presentation included: headache, fever, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia and history of sinusitis with running nose (nasal discharge)...
April 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ya-Nan Cao, Ian J Wang, Lu-Yao Chen, Yan-Qian Ding, Lu-Xian Liu, Ying-Xiong Qiu
The relative roles of geography, climate and ecology in driving population divergence and (incipient) speciation has so far been largely neglected in studies addressing the evolution of East Asia's island flora. Here, we employed chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequences and restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) loci to investigate the phylogeography and drivers of population divergence of Neolitsea sericea. These data sets support the subdivision of N. sericea populations into the Southern and Northern lineages across the 'Tokara gap'...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Franz Rubel, Katharina Brugger, Melanie Walter, Janna R Vogelgesang, Yuliya M Didyk, Su Fu, Olaf Kahl
The ixodid tick Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844 is a proven vector of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularaemia. In the present study, up-to-date maps depicting the geographical distribution and climate adaptation of H. concinna are presented. A dataset was compiled, resulting in 656 georeferenced locations in Eurasia. The distribution of H. concinna ranges from the Spanish Atlantic coast to Kamchatka, Russia, within the belt of 28-64° N latitude...
April 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Rosa Gabriela Beltrán-López, Omar Domínguez-Domínguez, Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez, Kyle Piller, Ignacio Doadrio
BACKGROUND: Volcanic and tectonic activities in conjunction with Quaternary climate are the main events that shaped the geographical distribution of genetic variation of many lineages. Poeciliopsis infans is the only poeciliid species that was able to colonize the temperate highlands of central Mexico. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships, biogeographic history, and historical demography in the widespread Neotropical species P. infans and correlated this with geological events and the Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate in the highlands of central Mexico, using the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b and Cytochrome oxidase I and two nuclear loci, Rhodopsin and ribosomal protein S7...
April 20, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Sandra Barteit, Ali Sié, Maurice Yé, Anneliese Depoux, Reiner Sauerborn
To teach the basics of climate change and health - such as the nature of health impacts, best practices in adoption strategies and promotion in health co-benefits, mitigation and adaptation strategies - we have developed three massive open online courses (MOOCs). We analysed the three MOOCs with regards to different factors such as course content, student motivation, instructor behaviour, co-learner effects, design and implementation effects. We conducted online surveys for all three MOOCs based on the research model of Hone et al...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Dennis P Swaney, Robert W Howarth, Bongghi Hong
National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Peng, Jing Ma, Qianyuan Liu, Yanxu Liu, Yi'na Hu, Yingru Li, Yuemin Yue
As an important theme in global climate change and urban sustainable development, the changes of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) have been more and more focused by urban ecologists. This study used land-use data to identify the urban-rural areas in 285 cities in China and comparatively analyzed LST in urban-rural areas with the perspective of spatial-temporal dynamics heterogeneity. The results showed that, 98.9% of the cities exhibited SUHI effect in summer nighttime and the effect was stronger in northern cities than that in southern cities...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zengxin Zhang, Juan Chang, Chong-Yu Xu, Yang Zhou, Yanhong Wu, Xi Chen, Shanshan Jiang, Zheng Duan
Lakes and vegetation are important factors of the Earth's hydrological cycle and can be called an "indicator" of climate change. In this study, long-term changes of lakes' area and vegetation coverage in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and their relations to the climate change were analyzed by using Mann-Kendall method during the past 30years. Results showed that: 1) the lakes' area of the QTP increased significantly during the past 30years as a whole, and the increasing rates have been dramatically sped up since the year of 2000...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuan Liu, Xuefa Wen, Yunhai Zhang, Jing Tian, Yang Gao, Nichloas J Ostle, Shuli Niu, Shiping Chen, Xiaomin Sun, Nianpeng He
Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool in terrestrial ecosystems. Periodic changes in environmental temperature occur diurnally and seasonally; yet, the response of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition to varying temperatures remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a modified incubation experiment using soils from 16 forest ecosystems in China with periodically and continuously varying incubation temperature to investigate how heterotrophic respiration (Rh ) responds to different temperature patterns (both warming and cooling temperature ranging between 5 and 30°C)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Susan Gottesman
Cold-shocked bacteria transiently shut down protein translation, but the mechanisms whereby they adaptively restore translation were incompletely understood. Zhang et al. (2018) demonstrate a global increase in mRNA structure after cold shock and that, as structured RNA decreases, translation returns, dependent upon ribonuclease RNase R and cold shock protein CspA and its homologs.
April 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
Huawu Wu, Jing Li, Xiao-Yan Li, Bin He, Jinzhao Liu, Zhiyun Jiang, Cicheng Zhang
Understanding species-specific changes in water-use patterns under recent climate scenarios is necessary to predict accurately the responses of seasonally dry ecosystems to future climate. In this study, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment to investigate the changes in water-use patterns of two coexisting species (Achnatherum splendens and Allium tanguticum) to alterations in soil water content (SWC) resulting from increased and decreased rainfall treatments. The results showed that the leaf water potential (Ψ) of A...
2018: PloS One
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