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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432996/toxicological-effects-of-phenol-on-four-marine-microalgae
#1
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang
The toxic effects of phenol on four marine microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Platymonas subcordiformis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and Skeletonema costatum) were evaluated. The 96h EC50 values were 72.29, 92.97, 27.32, and 27.32mgL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those values of freshwater microalgae reported in the literature. During a 96-h exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of phenol (1/2 96h EC50) with green alga (D. salina) and diatom (S. costatum), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content decrease were simultaneously observed in diatom cells after 48h treatment...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432498/co-cultivation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-with-azotobacter-chroococcum-improved-h2-production
#2
Lili Xu, Xianglong Cheng, Shuangxiu Wu, Quanxi Wang
OBJECTIVES: To improve H2 production, the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cc849 was co-cultured with Azotobacter chroococcum. RESULTS: The maximum H2 production of the co-culture was 350% greater than that of the pure algal cultures under optimal H2 production conditions. The maximum growth and the respiratory rate of the co-cultures were about 320 and 300% of the controls, and the dissolved O2 of co-cultures was decreased 74%. Furthermore, the in vitro maximum hydrogenase activity of the co-culture was 250% greater than that of the control, and the in vivo maximum hydrogenase activity of the co-culture was 1...
April 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431944/green-seaweed-enteromorpha-compressa-chlorophyta-ulvaceae-derived-sulphated-polysaccharides-inhibit-herpes-simplex-virus
#3
Nayara Lopes, Sayani Ray, Samantha Fernandes Espada, Weslei Andrade Bomfim, Bimalendu Ray, Lígia Carla Faccin-Galhardi, Rosa Elisa Carvalho Linhares, Carlos Nozawa
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) diseases represent a relevant medical and social problem due to their communicability and recurrence following latency. The green algae are rich source of polysaccharides referred to as ulvans, reported as being biologically and pharmacologically active. In this work, we analyzed the activity of seven chemically modified polysaccharides from Enteromorpha compressa (Chlorophyta, Ulvaceae), against HSV. Only the derivative named SU1F1 showed satisfactory viral inhibition activity, with a high selectivity index, and, therefore, it was submitted to analysis of the probable mechanism of action and structure...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#4
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431349/impacts-of-environmental-factors-on-arsenate-biotransformation-and-release-in-microcystis-aeruginosa-using-the-taguchi-experimental-design-approach
#5
Zhenhong Wang, Zhuanxi Luo, Changzhou Yan, Baoshan Xing
Very limited information is available on how and to what extent environmental factors influence arsenic (As) biotransformation and release in freshwater algae. These factors include concentrations of arsenate (As(V)), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and ambient pH. This study conducted a series of experiments using Taguchi methods to determine optimum conditions for As biotransformation. We assessed principal effective factors of As(V), N, P, and pH and determined that As biotransformation and release actuate at 10...
April 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430951/evidence-for-a-strong-correlation-between-transcription-factor-protein-disorder-and-organismic-complexity
#6
Inmaculada Yruela, Christopher J Oldfield, Karl J Niklas, A Keith Dunker
Studies of diverse phylogenetic lineages reveal that protein disorder increases in concert with organismic complexity but that differences nevertheless exist among lineages. To gain insight into this phenomenology, we analyzed all of the transcription factor (TF) families for which sequences are known for 17 species spanning bacteria, yeast, algae, land plants, and animals and for which the number of different cell types has been reported in the primary literature. Although the fraction of disordered residues in TF sequences is often moderately or poorly correlated with organismic complexity as gauged by cell type number (r2 < 0...
April 18, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430794/experimental-demonstration-of-a-trophic-cascade-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-rocky-subtidal-effects-of-consumer-identity-and-behavior
#7
Jon D Witman, Franz Smith, Mark Novak
In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429814/sulfated-polysaccharides-from-enteromorpha-prolifera-suppress-srebp-2-and-hmg-coa-reductase-expression-and-attenuate-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Rendong Ren, Junjie Gong, Yanyan Zhao, Xinyun Zhuang, Yin Ye, Wenting Lin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Previous work indicates that polysaccharides from alga Enteromorpha prolifera improve glucose metabolism and lower cholesterol in diabetic rats. Thus, we studied the possible protective effects of E. prolifera polysaccharides (EP) in the development of NAFLD and underlying mechanisms. EP (200 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced the liver weight and significantly lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) mRNA protein expression...
April 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429593/model-amphiphilic-block-copolymers-with-tailored-molecular-weight-and-composition-in-pdms-based-films-to-limit-soft-biofouling
#9
Brandon M Wenning, Elisa Martinelli, Sophie Mieszkin, John A Finlay, Daniel A Fischer, James A Callow, Maureen E Callow, Amanda Leonardi, Christopher K Ober, Giancarlo Galli
A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic surface-active block copolymers dispersed in a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry as well as antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) performance. AF and FR properties were assessed by carrying out settlement and removal assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to non-polar surfaces)...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429531/sugar-enrichment-provides-evidence-for-a-role-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-coral-bleaching
#10
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra, Christian Wild
The disruption of the coral-algae symbiosis (coral bleaching) due to rising sea surface temperatures has become an unprecedented global threat to coral reefs. Despite decades of research, our ability to manage mass bleaching events remains hampered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we induced a coral bleaching phenotype in the absence of heat and light stress by adding sugars. The sugar addition resulted in coral symbiotic breakdown accompanied by a fourfold increase of coral-associated microbial nitrogen fixation...
April 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429461/deodorization-of-arthrospira-platensis-biomass-for-further-scale-up-food-applications
#11
Sara P Cuellar-Bermúdez, Bertha Barba-Davila, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Roberto Parra-Saldivar, José Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Sandra Morales-Davila, Koen Goiris, Koenraad Muylaert, Cristina Chuck-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Given the importance of A. platensis as a potential food protein source, we achieve an affordable deodorization process that does not significantly affect the nutritional value of algae biomass. RESULTS: Ethanol, acetone or hexane were used to deodorize algae biomass and then to identify the profile of volatile compounds associated with its distinctive odor. Sensorial characteristics were improved in the biomass cake after the proposed solvent extraction...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429330/growth-kinetics-fatty-acid-composition-and-metabolic-activity-changes-of-crypthecodinium-cohnii-under-different-nitrogen-source-and-concentration
#12
Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Xinyi Zan, Junaid Haider, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Muhammad Shoaib, Yuanda Song
The effect of varying concentrations of the nitrogen source on the growth kinetics, lipid accumulation, lipid and DHA productivity, and fatty acid composition of C. cohnii was elucidated. Growth of C. cohnii was in three distinct growth stages: cell growth, lipid accumulation and a final lipid turnover stage. Most of lipids were accumulated in lipid accumulation stage (48-120 h) though, slow growth rate was observed during this stage. NaNO3 supported significantly higher lipid content (26.9% of DCW), DHA content (0...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#13
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429323/protein-targeting-to-the-plastid-of-euglena
#14
Dion G Durnford, Steven D Schwartzbach
The lateral transfer of photosynthesis between kingdoms through endosymbiosis is among the most spectacular examples of evolutionary innovation. Euglena, which acquired a chloroplast indirectly through an endosymbiosis with a green alga, represents such an example. As with other endosymbiont-derived plastids from eukaryotes, there are additional membranes that surround the organelle, of which Euglena has three. Thus, photosynthetic genes that were transferred from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and whose proteins are required in the new plastid, are now faced with targeting and plastid import challenges...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429314/evolutionary-origin-of-euglena
#15
Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski, Anna Karnkowska
Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428847/lichen-acclimation-to-changing-environments-photobiont-switching-vs-climate-specific-uniqueness-in-psora-decipiens
#16
Laura Williams, Claudia Colesie, Anna Ullmann, Martin Westberg, Mats Wedin, Burkhard Büdel
Unraveling the complex relationship between lichen fungal and algal partners has been crucial in understanding lichen dispersal capacity, evolutionary processes, and responses in the face of environmental change. However, lichen symbiosis remains enigmatic, including the ability of a single fungal partner to associate with various algal partners. Psora decipiens is a characteristic lichen of biological soil crusts (BSCs), across semi-arid, temperate, and alpine biomes, which are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and climate change...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428552/divergent-copies-of-the-large-inverted-repeat-in-the-chloroplast-genomes-of-ulvophycean-green-algae
#17
Monique Turmel, Christian Otis, Claude Lemieux
The chloroplast genomes of many algae and almost all land plants carry two identical copies of a large inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can pair for flip-flop recombination and undergo expansion/contraction. Although the IR has been lost multiple times during the evolution of the green algae, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. A recent comparison of IR-lacking and IR-containing chloroplast genomes of chlorophytes from the Ulvophyceae (Ulotrichales) suggested that differential elimination of genes from the IR copies might lead to IR loss...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427949/parasitism-finds-many-solutions-to-the-same-problems-in-red-algae-florideophyceae-rhodophyta
#18
Jillian M Freese, Christopher E Lane
Parasitic red algae evolve from a common ancestor with their hosts, parasitizing cousins using familiar cellular mechanisms. They have independently evolved over one hundred times within the exclusively multicellular red algal class Florideophyceae. Reduced morphology, a lack of pigmentation, and direct cell-cell connections with their hosts are markers of red algal parasitism. With so many potential evolutionary pathways, red algal parasite diversity offers a unique test case to understand the earliest stages of this lifestyle transition...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427570/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-screening-reveals-lipophilic-toxins-in-multiple-trophic-levels-from-the-north-sea
#19
Gabriel Orellana, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Maarten De Rijcke, Colin R Janssen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426712/the-culturable-mycobiota-of-flabellia-petiolata-first-survey-of-marine-fungi-associated-to-a-mediterranean-green-alga
#20
Giorgio Gnavi, Laura Garzoli, Anna Poli, Valeria Prigione, Gaëtan Burgaud, Giovanna Cristina Varese
Algae-inhabiting marine fungi represent a taxonomically and ecologically interesting group of microorganisms still largely neglected, especially in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the culturable mycobiota associated with Flabellia petiolata, a green alga frequently retrieved in the Mediterranean basin. Twenty algal thalli were collected from two different sampling sites in the Mediterranean Sea (Elba Island, Italy). A polyphasic approach showed the presence of a relevant alga-associated mycobiota with 64 taxa identified...
2017: PloS One
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