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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777597/microdevice-based-solid-phase-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-rapid-detection-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#1
Quang Nghia Pham, Kieu The Loan Trinh, Seung Won Jung, Nae Yoon Lee
We demonstrate the integration of DNA amplification and detection functionalities developed on a lab-on-a-chip microdevice utilizing solid-phase polymerase chain reaction (SP-PCR) for point-of-need (PON) DNA analyses. First, the polycarbonate microdevice was fabricated by thermal bonding to contain microchambers as reservoirs for performing SP-PCR. Next, the microchambers were subsequently modified with polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde for immobilizing amine-modified forward primers. During SP-PCR, the immobilized forward primers and freely diffusing fluorescence-labeled reverse primers cooperated to generate target amplicons, which remained covalently attached to the microchambers for the fluorescence detection...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777442/study-on-immobilization-of-marine-oil-degrading-bacteria-by-carrier-of-algae-materials
#2
Yiran Zhang, Wei Gao, Faxiang Lin, Bin Han, Changfei He, Qian Li, Xiangxing Gao, Zhisong Cui, Chengjun Sun, Li Zheng
This study investigated the immobilizations with of bacteria two kinds of algal materials, Enteromorpha residue and kelp residue. The lipophilicity of them were compared by diesel absorption rates. The immobilization efficiency of Bacillus sp. E3 was measured to evaluate whether these carriers would satisfy the requirement for biodegradation of oil spills. The bacteria were immobilized through adsorption with the sterilized and non-sterilized carriers to compare the differences between the two treatments. Oil degradation rates were determined using gravimetric and GC-MS methods...
May 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777430/the-artificial-humic-substance-hs1500-does-not-inhibit-photosynthesis-of-the-green-alga-desmodesmus-armatus-in-vivo-but-interacts-with-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-of-isolated-spinach-thylakoids-in-vitro
#3
Matthias Gilbert, Hanno Bährs, Christian E W Steinberg, Christian Wilhelm
Humic substances (HSs) can influence the growth and composition of freshwater phytoplankton assemblage. Since HSs contain many phenolic and quinonic moieties and cause growth reductions in eco-physiological field experiments, HSs are considered photosystem II herbicides. To test this specific mode of action in vivo and in vitro, respectively, we used intact cells of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus, as well as thylakoids isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as a model system for the green algal chloroplast...
May 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776927/ecological-engineering-helps-maximize-function-in-algal-oil-production
#4
Sara L Jackrel, Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Robert B Levine, David C Hietala, Phillip E Savage, Todd H Oakley, Vincent J Denef, Bradley J Cardinale
Algal biofuels have the potential to curb emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, but current growing methods fail to produce fuels that meet the multiple standards necessary for economical industrial use. For example, algae grown as monocultures for biofuel production have not simultaneously and economically achieved high yields of the high-quality, lipid-rich biomass desired for the industrial-scale production of bio-oil. Decades of study in the field of ecology have demonstrated that simultaneous increases in multiple functions, such as the quantity and quality of biomass, can occur in natural ecosystems by increasing biological diversity...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776647/-effect-of-green-alga-ulva-lactuca-polysaccharides-supplementation-on-blood-pressure-and-on-atherogenic-risk-factors-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Z I Tair, F Bensalah, F Boukortt
AIM OF THE STUDY: To highlight the benefits of green alga Ulva lactuca polysaccharides supplementation on blood pressure and atherogenic risk factors in rats fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Wistar male rats were fed a high fat diet (30% sheep fat) for 3 months. At an average body weight (BW) of 360g, the rats (n=18) were divided into 3 groups and consumed, for 28 days, either a high fat diet (HFD) or a high fat diet enriched with 1% of whole green algae (WGA) powder or with 1% of its polysaccharides (PLS)...
May 15, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776459/phycoremediation-of-municipal-wastewater-by-the-cold-adapted-microalga-monoraphidium-sp-dek19
#6
(no author information available yet)
Present municipal wastewater treatment technologies often require substantial energy inputs, and fail to completely remove nitrate and phosphate before discharging effluent. In contrast, utilizing the cold-adapted oleaginous microalga Monoraphidium sp. Dek 19 decreased levels of both these polluting ions to 0 mg/dl. Concurrent biomass production was greater at 10oC than at 22 oC, showing that phycoremediation occurred at low temperatures previously thought to be unsuitable for algal-based treatment. Algal growth with uptake of nitrate and phosphate required only short bursts of aeration to suspend cells and maintain CO2 supply for photosynthesis...
May 8, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775481/widespread-anatoxin-a-detection-in-benthic-cyanobacterial-mats-throughout-a-river-network
#7
Keith Bouma-Gregson, Raphael M Kudela, Mary E Power
Benthic algae fuel summer food webs in many sunlit rivers, and are hotspots for primary and secondary production and biogeochemical cycling. Concerningly, riverine benthic algal assemblages can become dominated by toxic cyanobacteria, threatening water quality and public health. In the Eel River in Northern California, over a dozen dog deaths have been attributed to cyanotoxin poisonings since 2000. During the summers of 2013-2015, we documented spatial and temporal patterns of cyanotoxin concentrations in the watershed, showing widespread distribution of anatoxin-a in benthic cyanobacterial mats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773843/loss-of-live-coral-compromises-predator-avoidance-behaviour-in-coral-reef-damselfish
#8
Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Mary C Bonin, Philip L Munday, Geoffrey P Jones
Tropical reefs have experienced an unprecedented loss of live coral in the past few decades and the biodiversity of coral-dependent species is under threat. Many reef fish species decline in abundance as coral cover is lost, yet the mechanisms responsible for these losses are largely unknown. A commonly hypothesised cause of fish decline is the loss of shelter space between branches as dead corals become overgrown by algae. Here we tested this hypothesis by quantifying changes in predator-avoidance behaviour of a common damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, before and after the death of their coral colony...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773581/dynamic-changes-between-two-lhcx-related-energy-quenching-sites-control-diatom-photoacclimation
#9
Lucilla Taddei, Volha Chukhutsina, Bernard Lepetit, Giulio R Stella, Roberto Bassi, Herbert van Amerongen, Jean-Pierre Bouly, Marianne Jaubert, Giovanni Finazzi, Angela Falciatore
Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms, optimally performing photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family specialized in photoprotection (LHCX), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773385/studies-on-the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-fucoidans-from-brown-algae-kjellmaniella-crassifolia
#10
Shu Liu, Qiukuan Wang, Yuefan Song, Yunhai He, Dandan Ren, Haihua Cong, Long Wu
For illustrating the relation of different structural characteristics correlated with the hepatoprotective effect, studies of fucoidan from algae Kjellmaniella crassifolia, a brown alga distributed in north Japan, were carried out. The fucoidan fractions of K. crassifolia were extracted, separated, and purified using a combinatorial procedure consisting of enzymolysis, ethanol precipitation, DEAE and size-exclusion chromatographies. The fundamental characteristics of the four enriched fucoidan fractions (KF1-KF4), including their sulphate content and monosaccharide composition, were investigated...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773371/modification-of-native-fucoidan-from-fucus-evanescens-by-recombinant-fucoidanase-from-marine-bacteria-formosa-algae
#11
Artem S Silchenko, Anton B Rasin, Mikhail I Kusaykin, Olesya S Malyarenko, Natalie M Shevchenko, Anastasya O Zueva, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Tatyana N Zvyagintseva, Svetlana P Ermakova
Enzymatic depolymerization of fucoidans attracts many researchers due to the opportunity of obtaining standardized fucoidan fragments. Fucoidanase catalyzes the cleavage of fucoidan from Fucus evanescens (FeF) to form low molecular weight products (LMP) and a polymeric fraction (HMP) with 50.8 kDa molecular weight and more than 50% yield. NMR spectroscopy shows that the HMP fraction has regular structure and consists of a repeating fragment [→3)-α-l-Fucp2,4OSO3 - -(1 → 4)-α-l-Fucp2,4OSO3 - -(1 → 4)-α-l-Fucp2OSO3 - -(1→]n ...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773316/rapid-recovery-of-a-coral-dominated-eastern-tropical-pacific-reef-after-experimentally-produced-anthropogenic-disturbance
#12
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Peggy Fong
Local anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, nutrient enrichment and increased sediment loading have been shown to push coral reefs toward greater dominance by algae. In a few cases this shift has been temporary, with the ability to recover to a healthy coral-dominated community after disturbance, suggesting some systems have considerable resilience. However, an understanding of the circumstances under which reefs may recover is only beginning to emerge. We monitored recovery of a coral-dominated reef in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) after cessation of a ∼6 month multiple stressor experiment (with herbivore exclosure, nutrient addition, and sediment addition)...
May 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772529/microbial-bio-fuels-a-solution-to-carbon-emissions-and-energy-crisis
#13
Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772502/effect-of-temperature-on-kinetics-of-biogas-production-from-macroalgae
#14
Edward Membere, Paul Sallis
An assessment was carried out on the effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of Laminaria digitata biomass, in batch reactors (25, 35, 45 and 55 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. The first order, modified Gompertz and logistics models were used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the biogas production process. Results indicate the chemical composition of the algae substrate could be written as C316 H613 O289 N13 S1 , with a theoretical methane yield of 336 ± 0.86 L CH4  kg VS-1 ...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772290/nature-engineered-diatom-biosilica-as-drug-delivery-systems
#15
REVIEW
U T Uthappa, Varsha Brahmkhatri, G Sriram, Ho-Young Jung, Jingxian Yu, Nikita Kurkuri, Tejraj M Aminabhavi, Tariq Altalhi, Gururaj M Neelgund, Mahaveer D Kurkuri
Diatoms, unicellular photosynthetic algae covered with siliceous cell wall, are also called frustule. These are the most potential naturally available materials for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility, high surface area, low cost and ease of surface modification. Mesoporous silica materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 have been extensively used in drug delivery area. Their synthesis is challenging, time consuming, requires toxic chemicals and are energy intensive, making the entire process expensive and non-viable...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771926/evolutionary-and-genomic-analysis-of-the-caleosin-peroxygenase-clo-pxg-gene-protein-families-in-the-viridiplantae
#16
Farzana Rahman, Mehedi Hassan, Rozana Rosli, Ibrahem Almousally, Abdulsamie Hanano, Denis J Murphy
Bioinformatics analyses of caleosin/peroxygenases (CLO/PXG) demonstrated that these genes are present in the vast majority of Viridiplantae taxa for which sequence data are available. Functionally active CLO/PXG proteins with roles in abiotic stress tolerance and lipid droplet storage are present in some Trebouxiophycean and Chlorophycean green algae but are absent from the small number of sequenced Prasinophyceaen genomes. CLO/PXG-like genes are expressed during dehydration stress in Charophyte algae, a sister clade of the land plants (Embryophyta)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769706/red-algal-extracts-from-plocamium-lyngbyanum-and-ceramium-secundatum-stimulate-osteogenic-activities-in-vitro-and-bone-growth-in-zebrafish-larvae
#17
Matthew A Carson, John Nelson, M Leonor Cancela, Vincent Laizé, Paulo J Gavaia, Margaret Rae, Svenja Heesch, Eugene Verzin, Christine Maggs, Brendan F Gilmore, Susan A Clarke
Through the current trend for bioprospecting, marine organisms - particularly algae - are becoming increasingly known for their osteogenic potential. Such organisms may provide novel treatment options for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal conditions, helping to address their large healthcare burden and the limitations of current therapies. In this study, extracts from two red algae - Plocamium lyngbyanum and Ceramium secundatum - were tested in vitro and in vivo for their osteogenic potential. In vitro, the growth of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) was significantly greater in the presence of the extracts, particularly with P...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769325/the-ancient-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-system-is-a-master-regulator-of-energy-and-carbon-metabolism-in-algae
#18
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768724/on-the-simultaneous-identification-and-quantification-of-microalgae-populations-based-on-fluorometric-techniques
#19
Natalia S Gsponer, M Claudia Rodríguez, Rodrigo E Palacios, Carlos A Chesta
In this study, the phytoplankton structure of a freshwater reservoir located in central Argentina (Embalse Río Tercero) was analyzed using Beutler's method (Photosynthesis Research 72: 39-53, 2002), aiming to provide water quality control agencies with a reliable tool for early detection of algae blooms, particularly cyanobacteria. The method estimates the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) contributed by individual algal groups in a real sample by fitting its fluorescence excitation spectrum to a linear combination of norm spectra of relevant algae groups...
May 16, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767780/medical-phycology-2017
#20
John R Todd, Tadahiko Matsumoto, Ryohei Ueno, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Allan Britten, John W King, Yoshinobu Odaka, Arnold Oberle, Christoph Weise, Uwe Roesler, R Scott Pore
In 2014, ISHAM formed a new working group: "Medical Phycology: Protothecosis and Chlorellosis." The purpose of this working group is to help facilitate collaboration and communication among people interested in the pathogenic algae, to share ideas and work together. Here we present reports on recent work we have done in five areas. 1. The history of medical phycology as a branch of science. 2. Aspects of the genetics of Prototheca. 3. Aspects of the proteins of Prototheca. 4. Human infections caused by Prototheca...
May 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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