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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938217/deriving-nitrogen-critical-levels-and-loads-based-on-the-responses-of-acidophytic-lichen-communities-on-boreal-urban-pinus-sylvestris-trunks
#1
Sirkku Manninen
The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4-5μgm(-3) to >50μgm(-3)...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938155/nickel-accumulation-by-the-green-algae-like-euglena-gracilis
#2
J D García-García, K A Peña-Sanabria, R Sánchez-Thomas, R Moreno-Sánchez
Nickel accumulation and nickel effects on cellular growth, respiration, photosynthesis, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and levels of thiols, histidine and phosphate-molecules were determined in Euglena gracilis. Cells incubated with 0.5-1mM NiCl2 showed impairment of O2 consumption, photosynthesis, Chl a+b content and APX activity whereas cellular integrity and viability were unaltered. Nickel accumulation was depressed by Mg(2+) and Cu(2+), while Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) were innocuous. The growth half-inhibitory concentrations for Ni(2+) in the culture medium supplemented with 2 or 0...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938119/the-pyrenoid-an-overlooked-organelle-comes-out-of-age
#3
Jean-David Rochaix
The pyrenoid is a membrane-less organelle that exists in various photosynthetic organisms, such as algae, and wherein most global CO2 fixation occurs. Two papers from the Jonikas lab in this issue of Cell provide new insights into the structure, protein composition, and dynamics of this important organelle.
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938114/the-eukaryotic-co2-concentrating-organelle-is-liquid-like-and-exhibits-dynamic-reorganization
#4
Elizabeth S Freeman Rosenzweig, Bin Xu, Luis Kuhn Cuellar, Antonio Martinez-Sanchez, Miroslava Schaffer, Mike Strauss, Heather N Cartwright, Pierre Ronceray, Jürgen M Plitzko, Friedrich Förster, Ned S Wingreen, Benjamin D Engel, Luke C M Mackinder, Martin C Jonikas
Approximately 30%-40% of global CO2 fixation occurs inside a non-membrane-bound organelle called the pyrenoid, which is found within the chloroplasts of most eukaryotic algae. The pyrenoid matrix is densely packed with the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco and is thought to be a crystalline or amorphous solid. Here, we show that the pyrenoid matrix of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is not crystalline but behaves as a liquid that dissolves and condenses during cell division. Furthermore, we show that new pyrenoids are formed both by fission and de novo assembly...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938113/a-spatial-interactome-reveals-the-protein-organization-of-the-algal-co2-concentrating-mechanism
#5
Luke C M Mackinder, Chris Chen, Ryan D Leib, Weronika Patena, Sean R Blum, Matthew Rodman, Silvia Ramundo, Christopher M Adams, Martin C Jonikas
Approximately one-third of global CO2 fixation is performed by eukaryotic algae. Nearly all algae enhance their carbon assimilation by operating a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) built around an organelle called the pyrenoid, whose protein composition is largely unknown. Here, we developed tools in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the localizations of 135 candidate CCM proteins and physical interactors of 38 of these proteins. Our data reveal the identity of 89 pyrenoid proteins, including Rubisco-interacting proteins, photosystem I assembly factor candidates, and inorganic carbon flux components...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936877/botryococcus-as-an-alternative-source-of-carotenoids-and-its-possible-applications-an-overview
#6
Ranga Rao Ambati, Deepika Gogisetty, Ravishankar Aswathnarayana Gokare, Sarada Ravi, Panduranga Narasimharao Bikkina, Yuepeng Su, Bo Lei
The enhanced interest in carotenoid research arises partly because of their application in the food and health industries and partly because of the necessity to find a commercially viable natural source for their mass production. The bottlenecks in finding a natural source of carotenoids which can compete with the synthetic products is the mass production of the organism that produces carotenoids, cell harvesting and extraction methods of carotenoids. The microalga Botryococcus braunii is an interesting organism for its commercial value as a rich source of carotenoids...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936499/low-cost-ionic-liquid-water-mixtures-for-effective-extraction-of-carbohydrate-and-lipid-from-algae
#7
Trang Q To, Kerryn Procter, Blake A Simmons, Suresh Subashchandrabose, Rob Atkin
Biomass based biofuels are already an important energy source, and will increasingly be so in the future as the need for renewable energy rises. Due to their fast multiplication rates, algae can provide a sustainable supply of biomass, and are attractive because they do not compete with food crops for habitat. Here we show that biomass derived from Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis can be pretreated with low cost choline amino acid based ionic liquids to effectively yield lipids (30.6% and 51% total lipids) and sugars (71% and 26% total sugars)...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935906/resilience-of-the-larval-slipper-limpet-crepidula-onyx-to-direct-and-indirect-diet-effects-of-ocean-acidification
#8
Elizaldy A Maboloc, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Ocean acidification (OA) is known to directly impact larval physiology and development of many marine organisms. OA also affects the nutritional quality and palatability of algae, which are principal food sources for many types of planktonic larvae. This potential indirect effect of OA via trophic interactions, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, veligers of Crepidula onyx were exposed to different pH levels representing the ambient (as control) and low pH values (pH 7.7 and pH 7.3) for 14 days, and were fed with Isochrysis galbana cultured at these three respective pHs...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934710/calcium-availability-but-not-its-content-modulates-metal-toxicity-in-scenedesmus-quadricauda
#9
Jozef Kováčik, Sławomir Dresler
Impact of calcium nutrition (pre-culture on solid medium with standard or elevated Ca dose, i. e. 0.17 and 4.40mM marked as low and high Ca) on acute metal toxicity (Cd, Mn and Pb, 24h of exposure to 10µM) in freshwater green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. Surprisingly, Ca content differed only slightly between low and high Ca samples and applied metals rather suppressed its amount. Na content was higher in metal-exposed high Ca samples, indicating that Ca/Na ratio may affect accumulation of metals...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934659/comparison-on-the-effects-of-water-borne-and-dietary-borne-accumulated-zno-nanoparticles-on-daphnia-magna
#10
Yanjiao Chen, Fengxia Wu, Wenying Li, Tiangang Luan, Li Lin
Nanoparticles (NPs) can exert toxicity to aquatic animals through water and dietary exposure. However, little is known about the contribution of the two exposure pathways to the total toxicity of NPs to aquatic animals. In the present study, we fed Daphnia magna with ZnO NPs-accumulated-algae or directly exposed them to ZnO NPs suspension at the same Zn concentration. The body Zn concentrations were the same in both treatments, but the surface elastic modulus in the water-borne group was lower than that in the dietary-borne group, indicating more severe surface damage in the water-borne treatment...
August 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934290/the-oldest-known-digestive-system-consisting-of-both-paired-digestive-glands-and-a-crop-from-exceptionally-preserved-trilobites-of-the-guanshan-biota-early-cambrian-china
#11
Melanie J Hopkins, Feiyang Chen, Shixue Hu, Zhifei Zhang
The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop") under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933323/on-names-of-genera-of-prokaryotes-that-are-later-homonyms-of-generic-names-with-standing-in-the-zoological-or-the-botanical-nomenclature-proposal-of-neomegalonema-gen-nov-and-neomegalonema-perideroedes-comb-nov-as-replacements-for-the-prokaryotic-generic-name
#12
Aharon Oren
I here present a survey of generic names with standing in the prokaryotic nomenclature that have homonyms with standing under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and/or the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. I especially discuss such names added after Principle 2 of the Bacteriological Code/Prokaryotic Code was changed in 1999 to make the prokaryote nomenclature not independent of botanical and zoological nomenclature. Cases include the genera Micromonas, Quadrococcus, Yania, Sinococcus, and Meganema...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931960/schusteria-marina-sp-nov-acari-oribatida-selenoribatidae-an-intertidal-mite-from-caribbean-coasts-with-remarks-on-taxonomy-biogeography-and-ecology
#13
Tobias Pfingstl, Andrea Lienhard
Schusteria marina sp. nov. is a newly discovered intertidal mite species found on the Lesser Antillean Islands of Martinique and Grenada. It represents the first record of the genus Schusteria within the Caribbean area. Schusteria marina sp. nov. is very similar to the type species, S. littorea from Brazil, but can be distinguished by its smaller body size, a median sternal dark sclerotized small ridge on epimeron I and a few other less pronounced differences. Both species are closely related and form a Western Atlantic Schusteria clade, which is characterized by the possession of a pair of faint anterior epimeral ridges...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931721/neuropeptidergic-integration-of-behavior-in-trichoplax-adhaerens-an-animal-without-synapses
#14
Adriano Senatore, Thomas S Reese, Carolyn L Smith
Trichoplax adhaerens is a flat, millimeter-sized marine animal that adheres to surfaces and grazes on algae. Trichoplax displays a repertoire of different feeding behaviors despite the apparent absence of a true nervous system with electrical or chemical synapses. It glides along surfaces to find food, propelled by beating cilia on cells at its ventral surface, and pauses during feeding by arresting ciliary beating. We found that when endomorphin-like peptides are applied to an animal, ciliary beating is arrested, mimicking natural feeding pauses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931093/synthesis-of-udp-apiose-in-bacteria-the-marine-phototroph-geminicoccus-roseus-and-the-plant-pathogen-xanthomonas-pisi
#15
James Amor Smith, Maor Bar-Peled
The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930617/genetic-manipulation-of-microalgae-for-the-production-of-bioproducts
#16
Patricia Vazquez-Villegas, Mario A Torres-Acosta, Sergio A Garcia-Echauri, Jose M Aguilar-Yanez, Marco Rito-Palomares, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz
Microalgae have been used during the past four decades in the Bio-industries for the production of high added value products and development of useful approaches with environmental applications. The fast growing rate, simple growth requirements and using sunlight as the major source of energy are the key factors for usage of algae. In the past 15 years, a considerable progress has been made regarding the use of microalgae for production of proteins, nutraceuticals, food supplements, molecular tags for diagnostics and fixation of greenhouse gases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930187/viruses-of-microbes
#17
EDITORIAL
Laurent Debarbieux, Matthias Fischer, Tessa E F Quax
Viruses of microbes encompass all viruses that infect archaea, bacteria, and single-celled eukaryotes, especially algae and protozoa [...].
September 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929276/the-photosynthetic-responses-to-stocking-depth-and-algal-mat-density-in-the-farmed-seaweed-gracilaria-lemaneiformis-gracilariales-rhodophyta
#18
Heng Jiang, Dinghui Zou, Weizhou Chen, Yufeng Yang
The branches and mass of Gracilaria lemaneiformis increase with growth season, and the thalli sink to deeper depths with increasing biomass density during maricultivation. The changing depth and algal mat density may affect the physiology of the algae. In the present study, the photosynthetic behaviors regarding different biomass densities in G. lemaneiformis thalli collected from different stocking depths were determined, to examine how photosynthesis of this farmed alga was affected by the growth depths and algal mat densities...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928524/volatiles-formation-in-gelled-emulsions-enriched-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-storage-type-of-oil-and-antioxidant
#19
Lucía Gayoso, Candelaria Poyato, María Isabel Calvo, Rita Yolanda Cavero, Diana Ansorena, Iciar Astiasarán
Gelled emulsions with carrageenan are a novel type of emulsion that could be used as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids in functional foods formulations. Lipid degradation through volatile compounds was studied in gelled emulsions which were high in polyunsaturated oils (sunflower or algae oil) after 49 days of storage. Aqueous Lavandula latifolia extract was tested as a natural antioxidant. Analysis of the complete volatile profile of the samples resulted in a total of 40 compounds, classified in alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, furans, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926608/epibenthic-and-mobile-species-colonisation-of-a-geotextile-artificial-surf-reef-on-the-south-coast-of-england
#20
Roger J H Herbert, Ken Collins, Jenny Mallinson, Alice E Hall, Josephine Pegg, Kathryn Ross, Leo Clarke, Tom Clements
With increasing coastal infrastructure and use of novel materials there is a need to investigate the colonisation of assemblages associated with new structures, how these differ to natural and other artificial habitats and their potential impact on regional biodiversity. The colonisation of Europe's first artificial surf reef (ASR) was investigated at Boscombe on the south coast of England (2009-2014) and compared with assemblages on existing natural and artificial habitats. The ASR consists of geotextile bags filled with sand located 220m offshore on a sandy sea bed at a depth of 0-5m...
2017: PloS One
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