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Yongting Qiu, Zhihong Wang, Feng Liu, Junxia Liu, Tao Zhou
As a necessary micronutrient for algal growth, iron (Fe) has important effects on the physiological metabolism and enzymatic reactions of algae. In this study, a series of experiments were designed to compare the effects of different kinds of iron on the growth of Anabaena flos-aquae. Results showed that the promotion of iron species on algae growth was in order of ferric ammonium citrate >EDTA-Fe> iron ions> iron oxalate. When the concentration of iron is in the range of 0.1mg/L to 0.8mg/L, iron species have more significant influences on Anabaena bloom compared with iron concentration...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Technology
Liqun Jiang, Lijie Zhang, Changliang Nie, Haiyan Pei
Background: An economical strategy for producing microalgae as biofuel feedstock is driven by the freshwater and nutrients input. In this study, seawater was applied to limnetic algal cultivation and the behavior of algae in seawater media was observed including growth, lipid synthesis, and ultrastructure. To make seawater cater algae, a kind of wastewater, anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW), was used as nutrient sources. Results: Pure seawater cannot support the growth demand of freshwater microalga, due to high salinity and lack of nutrients...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Thomas Roach, Wolfgang Stöggl, Theresa Baur, Ilse Kranner
Photosynthetic organisms suffering from light stress have to cope with an increased formation of reactive short-chain aldehydes. Singlet oxygen generated from highly-charged reaction centres can peroxidise the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich thylakoid membranes they are embedded in. Lipid peroxides decay to release α,β-unsaturated aldehydes that are reactive electrophile species (RES). Acrolein is one of the most abundant and reactive RES produced in chloroplasts. Here, in the model chlorophyte alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a clear concentration-dependent "distress" induced by acrolein intoxication was observed in conjunction with depletion of the glutathione pool...
March 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wenxia Wang, Xiaohong Gu, Lijun Zhou, Huihui Chen, Qingfei Zeng, Zhigang Mao
Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture, however, this often results in undesirable ecological effects. To evaluate the occurrence, temporal variations, and ecological risk of antibiotics in five crab ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China, 44 antibiotics from nine classes were analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Twelve antibiotics belonging to six classes were detected in the aqueous phase of five crab ponds, among which sulfonamides and macrolides were the predominant classes, and six compounds (sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H₂O, monensin, and florfenicol) were frequently detected at high concentrations...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Burcu Şerbetçioğlu Sert, Benan İnan, Didem Özçimen
In recent years, algal bioethanol production comes into prominence as a trend towards sustainable development. Due to being sustainable energy source and environmental friendly, bioethanol production from algae is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. However, yield of bioethanol production from algae is lower than first generation feedstock's currently, and needs to be improved. In order to increase bioethanol yield, pre-treatments should be performed as cell disruption process on algal biomass...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Elizabeth Bevan, Scott Whiting, Tony Tucker, Michael Guinea, Andrew Raith, Ryan Douglas
Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1...
2018: PloS One
Claudiu T Supuran
Although the role of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC in metabolism is well-established, pharmacological applications of this phenomenon started to be considered only recently. In organisms all over the phylogenetic tree, the seven CA genetic families known to date are involved in biosynthetic processes and pH modulation, which may influence metabolism in multiple ways, with both processes being amenable to pharmacologic intervention. CA inhibitors possess antiobesity action directly by inhibiting lipogenesis, whereas the hypoxic tumor metabolism is highly controlled by the transmembrane isoforms CA IX and XII, which contribute to the acidic extracellular environment of tumors and supply bicarbonate for their high proliferation rates...
March 21, 2018: Metabolites
Eliel Ruiz-May, Iben Sørensen, Zhangjun Fei, Sheng Zhang, David S Domozych, Jocelyn K C Rose
The secretome can be defined as the population of proteins that are secreted into the extracellular environment. Many proteins that are secreted by eukaryotes are N -glycosylated. However, there are striking differences in the diversity and conservation of N -glycosylation patterns between taxa. For example, the secretome and N -glycosylation structures differ between land plants and chlorophyte green algae, but it is not clear when this divergence took place during plant evolution. A potentially valuable system to study this issue is provided by the charophycean green algae (CGA), which is the immediate ancestors of land plants...
March 21, 2018: Proteomes
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Michael T Guarnieri, Alida T Gerritsen, Calvin A Henard, Eric P Knoshaug
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Valéria Nagy, Anna Podmaniczki, André Vidal-Meireles, Roland Tengölics, László Kovács, Gábor Rákhely, Alberto Scoma, Szilvia Z Tóth
Background: Photobiological H2 production has the potential of becoming a carbon-free renewable energy source, because upon the combustion of H2 , only water is produced. The [Fe-Fe]-type hydrogenases of green algae are highly active, although extremely O2 -sensitive. Sulphur deprivation is a common way to induce H2 production, which, however, relies substantially on organic substrates and imposes a severe stress effect resulting in the degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Results: We report on the establishment of an alternative H2 production method by green algae that is based on a short anaerobic induction, keeping the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle inactive by substrate limitation and preserving hydrogenase activity by applying a simple catalyst to remove the evolved O2 ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fazeela Mahaboob Begum S M, Kalai Chitra, Benin Joseph, Raji Sundararajan, Hemalatha S
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of Non small cell lung cancer in which the PI3K/Akt cascade is frequently deregulated. The ubiquitous expression of the PI3K and the frequent inactivation of PTEN accounts for the prolonged survival, evasion of apoptosis and metastasis in cancer. This has led to the development of PI3K inhibitors in the treatment of cancer. Synthetic PI3K inhibitors undergoing clinical and preclinical studies are toxic in animals. Hence, there is a critical need to identify PI3K inhibitor(s) of natural origin...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Fan Yang, Liqing Zeng, Zhuanxi Luo, Zaosheng Wang, Fuyi Huang, Qiuquan Wang, Damjana Drobne, Changzhou Yan
Increasing concern has been focused on the potential risks associated with the trophic transfer to aquatic organisms of ambient contaminants in the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ). This study investigated the influence of nano-TiO2 on the trophic transfer of arsenic (As) from the microalgae Nannochloropsis maritima to the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii. We found that nano-TiO2 could significantly facilitate As sorption on N. maritima within an exposure period of 24 h, and this sorption subsequently led to higher As trophic transfer from the algae to A...
March 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ciarán Condon, Jéremie Piton, Frédérique Braun
We recently identified a novel ribonuclease in Bacillus subtilis called Rae1 that cleaves mRNAs in a translation-dependent manner. Rae1 is a member of the NYN/PIN family of ribonucleases and is highly conserved in the Firmicutes, the Cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of photosynthetic algae and plants. We have proposed a model in which Rae1 enters the A-site of ribosomes that are paused following translation of certain sequences that are still ill-defined. In the only case identified thus far, Rae1 cleaves between a conserved glutamate and lysine codon during translation of a short peptide called S1025...
March 20, 2018: RNA Biology
Linda Wegley Kelly, Andreas F Haas, Craig E Nelson
Over the past 2 decades, molecular techniques have established the critical role of both free-living and host-associated microbial partnerships in the environment. Advancing research to link microbial community dynamics simultaneously to host physiology and ecosystem biogeochemistry is required to broaden our understanding of the ecological roles of environmental microbes. Studies on coral reefs are actively integrating these data streams at multiple levels, from the symbiotic habitat of the coral holobiont to microbially mediated interactions between corals and algae to the effects of these interactions on the microbial community structure, metabolism, and organic geochemistry of the reef ecosystem...
March 2018: MSystems
Erika Salavarría, Sujay Paul, Patricia Gil-Kodaka, Gretty K Villena
To understand the physiological responses of the brown macroalga Macrocystis integrifolia during the marine tidal cycle, two RNA libraries were prepared from algal frond samples collected in the intertidal zone (0 m depth) and subtidal zone (10 m depth). Samples collected from intertidal zone during low tide was considered as abiotic stressed (MI0), while samples collected from subtidal zone was considered as control (MI10). Both RNA libraries were sequenced on Illumina NextSeq 500 which generated approx...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
A Torri, S Bertini, P Schiavone, F Congestrì, M Matteucci, M Sparacino, G Testa, M F Pedna, V Sambri
Shewanella algae are Gram-negative, nonfermentative, motile bacilli, classified in the genus Shewanella in 1985. These environmental bacteria are occasionally identified in human infections, with a relatively strong association with exposure to seawater during warm seasons. This report describes a case series of 17 patients with infection correlated to S. algae in the coastal area of Romagna, Italy, from 2013 to 2016. The types of infection included otitis, pneumonia, sepsis and soft tissue (wound). Exposure to the marine environment during hot months was confirmed in 12 of 17 patients...
May 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Rainer Kurmayer, Guntram Christiansen, Andreas Holzinger, Eugen Rott
In order to understand Chamaesiphon spp. evolution and ecological diversification, we investigated the phylogenetic differentiation of three morphospecies from field samples by means of single colony genetics. Individual colonies of three different morphospecies ( C. starmachii, C. polonicus, C. geitleri, ) were isolated from lotic gravel streams and their 16S rDNA nucleotide variability was analyzed. For a number of individual colonies, microscopical and ultrastructural analysis was also performed. A phylogenetic tree of all major lineages of the phylum of Cyanobacteria assigned all Chamaesiphon genotypes (1149-1176 bp) most closely with the family of Gomontiellaceae of the order Oscillatoriales...
April 2018: Hydrobiologia
Philip Mercurio, Geoff Eaglesham, Stephen Parks, Matt Kenway, Victor Beltran, Florita Flores, Jochen F Mueller, Andrew P Negri
The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/Fm ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroki Murakami, Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Mie Shimojima, Hiroyuki Ohta
Diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) is a non-phosphorus, polar glycerolipid that is regarded as analogous to the phosphatidylcholine in bacteria, fungi, algae, and basal land plants. In some species of algae, including the stramenopile microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica, DGTS contains an abundance of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is relatively scarce in phosphatidylcholine, implying that DGTS has a unique physiological role. In this study, we addressed the role of DGTS in N. oceanica. We identified two DGTS biosynthetic enzymes that have distinct domain configurations compared to previously identified DGTS synthases...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
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