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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151139/integration-of-bacterial-expansin-on-agarolytic-complexes-to-enhance-the-degrading-activity-of-red-algae-by-control-of-gelling-properties
#1
Da Woon Jeong, Jeong Eun Hyeon, Young-Chul Joo, Sang Kyu Shin, Sung Ok Han
Expansin act by loosening hydrogen bonds in densely packed polysaccharides. This work characterizes the biological functions of expansin in the gelling and degradation of algal polysaccharides. In this study, the bacterial expansin BpEX from Bacillus pumilus was fused with the dockerin module of a cellulosome system for assembly with agarolytic complexes. The assembly of chimeric expansin caused an indicative enhancement in agarase activity. The enzymatic activities on agar substrate and natural biomass were 3...
November 18, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150949/chromium-hazard-and-risk-assessment-new-insights-from-a-detailed-speciation-study-in-a-standard-test-medium
#2
Imad Aharchaou, Jean-Sebastien Py, Sebastien Cambier, Jean-Luc Loizeau, Geert Cornelis, Philippe Rousselle, Eric Battaglia, Davide A L Vignati
Despite the consensus about the importance of chemical speciation in controlling the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of trace elements, detailed speciation studies during laboratory ecotoxicity testing remain scarce, contributing to uncertainty when extrapolating laboratory findings to real field situations in risk assessment. We characterized the speciation and ecotoxicological effects of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the ISO medium for algal ecotoxicity testing. Total and dissolved (<0.22 μm) Cr concentrations showed little variability in media spiked with Cr(VI) , while dissolved Cr concentration decreased by as much as 80% over 72 hours in medium amended with Cr(III) ...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150930/photoautotrophic-production-of-macular-pigment-in-a-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-strain-generated-by-using-dna-free-crispr-cas9-rnp-mediated-mutagenesis
#3
Kwangryul Baek, Jihyeon Yu, Jooyeon Jeong, Sang Jun Sim, Sangsu Bae, EonSeon Jin
Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids reported to be protective against age-related macular degeneration. Recently, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has received attention as a photosynthetic cell factory, but the potential of this alga for carotenoid production has not yet been evaluated. In this study, we selected the C. reinhardtii CC-4349 strain as the best candidate among seven laboratory strains tested for carotenoid production. A knock-out mutant of the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene induced by preassembled DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins in the CC-4349 strain had a significantly higher zeaxanthin content (56-fold) and productivity (47-fold) than the wild type without the reduction in lutein level...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150543/toxicokinetics-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-the-shellfish-toxin-domoic-acid-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Jing Jing, Rebekah Petroff, Sara Shum, Brenda Crouthamel, Ariel R Topletz, Kimberly S Grant, Thomas M Burbacher, Nina Isoherranen
Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin, is produced by marine algae and has caused toxications worldwide in animals and humans. However, the toxicokinetics of DA has not been fully evaluated, and information is missing on the disposition of DA following oral exposures at doses that are considered safe for human consumption. In this study, toxicokinetics of DA were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys, following single doses of 5 µg/kg DA iv, 0.075 mg/kg DA po and 0.15 mg/kg DA po. Following iv dosing, DA had a systemic clearance of 124 ± 71 ml/hr/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 131±71 ml/kg and elimination half-life of 1...
November 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150496/alginate-lyases-diversity-of-three-dimensional-structures-and-catalytic-mechanisms
#5
Fei Xu, Peng Wang, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Xiu-Lan Chen
Alginate is a linear polysaccharide mainly produced by brown algae in marine environments. Alginate consists of a linear block copolymer made up of two monomeric units, β-d-mannuronate (M) and its C5 epimer α-l-guluronate (G). Alginate lyases are polysaccharide lyases (PL) that degrade alginate via a β-elimination reaction. These enzymes play an important role in marine carbon recycling, and also have widespread industrial applications. So far, more than 1774 alginate lyase sequences have been identified and are distributed into 7 PL families...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150257/utilization-of-organic-residues-using-heterotrophic-microalgae-and-insects
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Pleissner, Birgit A Rumpold
Various organic residues occur globally in the form of straw, wood, green biomass, food waste, feces, manure etc. Other utilization strategies apart from anaerobic digestion, composting and incineration are needed to make use of the whole potential of organic residues as sources of various value added compounds. This review compares the cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae and insects using organic residues as nutrient sources and illuminates their potential with regard to biomass production, productivity and yield, and utilization strategies of produced biomasses...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149859/medicinal-plants-used-by-women-in-mecca-urban-muslim-and-gendered-knowledge
#7
Afnan Alqethami, Julie A Hawkins, Irene Teixidor-Toneu
BACKGROUND: This study explores medicinal plant knowledge and use among Muslim women in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Ethnobotanical research in the region has focused on rural populations and male herbal healers in cities, and based on these few studies, it is suggested that medicinal plant knowledge may be eroding. Here, we document lay, female knowledge of medicinal plants in an urban centre, interpreting findings in the light of the growing field of urban ethnobotany and gendered knowledge and in an Islamic context...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149711/enantiomeric-characterization-of-herbicide-lactofen-enantioseparation-absolute-configuration-assignment-and-enantioselective-activity-and-toxicity
#8
Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Fangjie Guo, Zunwei Chen, Weiping Liu
Chiral herbicides consist of two or more enantiomers, which usually differ in their biological properties and behave enantioselectively in biochemical process. Scant studies have been published in the past decades to characterize the enantiomers of herbicide lactofen. In this study, a laboratory method was developed to prepare the lactofen enantiomers using normal phase high performance liquid chromatography with an AD-H column, and μg level production yield was achieved in a single run. The two separated enantiomers had purity of ≫99%, with their absolute configurations assigned by experimental and calculated electronic and vibrational circular dichroism...
October 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149093/evolutionarily-distant-streptophyta-respond-differently-to-genotoxic-stress
#9
Radka Vágnerová, Alena Lukešová, Martin Lukeš, Petra Rožnovská, Marcela Holá, Jana Fulnečková, Jiří Fajkus, Karel J Angelis
Research in algae usually focuses on the description and characterization of morpho-and phenotype as a result of adaptation to a particular habitat and its conditions. To better understand the evolution of lineages we characterized responses of filamentous streptophyte green algae of the genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema, and of a land plant-the moss Physcomitrellapatens-to genotoxic stress that might be relevant to their environment. We studied the induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) elicited by the radiomimetic drug bleomycin, DNA single strand breaks (SSB) as consequence of base modification by the alkylation agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and of ultra violet (UV)-induced photo-dimers, because the mode of action of these three genotoxic agents is well understood...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148254/connecting-color-with-assembly-in-the-fluorescent-b-phycoerythrin-protein-complex
#10
Aneika C Leney, Aline Tschanz, Albert J R Heck
Phycoerythrin is the major light-harvesting pigment protein in red algae and is nowadays widely used as a fluorescent probe in biotechnological applications such as flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, it has had substantial economic impact due to its potential as a natural food colorant. However, knowledge on the precise molecular composition of phycoerythrin is limited. Here, we use a combination of high resolution native mass spectrometry (MS) and fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the assembly properties of the B-phycoerythrin protein complex from Porphyridium cruentum...
November 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147717/the-role-of-hierarchical-design-and-morphology-in-the-mechanical-response-of-diatom-inspired-structures-via-simulation
#11
Alejandro Gutiérrez, Metin G Guney, Gary K Fedder, Lilian P Dávila
Diatoms are microscopic algae with intricate shell morphologies and features ranging from the nanometer to the micrometer scale, which have been proposed as templates for drug delivery carriers, optical devices, and metamaterials design. Several studies have found that diatom shells show unique mechanical properties such as high specific strength and resilience. One hypothesis is that these properties stem from the structural arrangement of the material at the nanometer and micrometer length scales, challenging the concept between what constitutes a "material" versus a "structure"...
November 17, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146498/synthesis-and-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-gelidium-amansii-and-its-antimicrobial-property-against-various-pathogenic-bacteria
#12
Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Desika Prabakar, Jaya Mary Jacob, Indira Karuppusamy, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale
Microfouling is evolving at a fast rate causing augmented mortality rates and damage worldwide. Until now, several remedial measures have been exploited to overcome microfouling, amongst them nanoparticles play a superior role. Currently, green synthesized nanoparticles have been centered owing to its eco-friendly, cost effectively and non-toxic nature which has also increased its industrial applications (biomedicine, food and textile). In the present research Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized using marine red algae Gelidium amansii...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145173/a-new-method-for-fast-extraction-and-determination-of-chlorophylls-in-natural-water
#13
Nianwei Qiu, Xiushun Wang, Feng Zhou
Algae collection and chlorophyll extraction are two troublesome steps in the traditional methods used for the determination of chlorophyll concentration in natural water. A new method was established in this study for fast collection and extraction of chlorophyll. Based on our results, the optimum centrifugation condition for collecting algae was determined as: 5000 g for 15 min at 4 °C, and the optimum dilution ratio of dimethyl sulfoxide: 90% acetone was 1:4. The specific steps were as follows: the algae in water samples were collected by centrifugation at 5000 g at 4 °C for 15 min...
November 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145142/is-ozonation-environmentally-benign-for-reverse-osmosis-concentrate-treatment-four-level-analysis-on-toxicity-reduction-based-on-organic-matter-fractionation
#14
Jingxia Weng, Huichao Jia, Bing Wu, Bingcai Pan
Ozonation is a promising option to treat reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). However, a systematic understanding and assessment of ozonation on toxicity reduction is insufficient. In this study, ROC sampled from a typical industrial park wastewater treatment plant of China was fractionated into hydrophobic acid (HOA), hydrophobic base (HOB), hydrophobic neutral (HON), and hydrophilic fraction (HI). Systematic bioassays covering bacteria, algae, fish, and human cell lines were conducted to reveal the role of ozonation in toxicity variation of the four ROC fractions...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145117/biodiesel-production-from-microbial-granules-in-sequencing-batch-reactor
#15
Lin Liu, Yuling Hong, Xin Ye, Lili Wei, Jie Liao, Xu Huang, Chaoxiang Liu
Effect of reaction variables of in situ transesterification on the biodiesel production, and the characteristic differences of biodiesel obtained from aerobic granular sludge (AG) and algae-bacteria granular consortia (AAG) were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of variables on the biodiesel yield decreased in the order of methanol quantity > catalyst concentration > reaction time, yet the parameters change will not significantly affect biodiesel properties. The maximum biodiesel yield of AAG was 66...
November 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143886/rapid-in-situ-assessment-for-predicting-soil-quality-using-an-algae-soaked-disc-seeding-assay
#16
Sun-Hwa Nam, Jongmin Moon, Shin Woong Kim, Hakyeong Kim, Seung-Woo Jeong, Youn-Joo An
The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140270/the-oxepane-motif-in-marine-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Héctor Barbero, Carlos Díez-Poza, Asunción Barbero
Oceans have shown to be a remarkable source of natural products. The biological properties of many of these compounds have helped to produce great advances in medicinal chemistry. Within them, marine natural products containing an oxepanyl ring are present in a great variety of algae, sponges, fungus and corals and show very important biological activities, many of them possessing remarkable cytotoxic properties against a wide range of cancer cell lines. Their rich chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have reported interesting synthetic approaches to these targets...
November 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139238/corrigendum-to-the-green-tetrahymena-utriculariae-n-sp-ciliophora-oligohymenophorea-with-its-endosymbiotic-algae-micractinium-sp-living-in-traps-of-a-carnivorous-aquatic-plant-by-pitsch-et%C3%A2-al
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138451/improvement-on-lipid-production-by-scenedesmus-obliquus-triggered-by-low-dose-exposure-to-nanoparticles
#19
Meilin He, Yongquan Yan, Feng Pei, Mingzhu Wu, Temesgen Gebreluel, Shanmei Zou, Changhai Wang
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano Fe2O3) and MgO nanoparticles (nano MgO) were evaluated for the effects on algae growth and lipid production. Nano Fe2O3 promoted cell growth in the range of 0-20 mg·L(-1). CNTs, nano Fe2O3 and nano MgO inhibited cell growth of Scenedesmus obliquus at 10, 40 and 0.8 mg·L(-1) respectively. Neutral lipid and total lipid content increased with the increasing concentration of all tested nanoparticles. The maximum lipid productivity of cultures exposed to CNTs, nano Fe2O3 and nano MgO was observed at 5 mg·L(-1), 5 mg·L(-1) and 40 mg·L(-1), with the improvement by 8...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137732/ultrasound-assisted-biosynthesis-of-cuo-nps-using-brown-alga-cystoseira-trinodis-characterization-photocatalytic-aop-dpph-scavenging-and-antibacterial-investigations
#20
Haidong Gu, Xiao Chen, Feng Chen, Xing Zhou, Zohreh Parsaee
This contribution reports the biosynthesis of CuO NPs via ultrasound method using the Cystoseira trinodis extracts as an eco friendly and time saving process. The characterization of cupric oxide NPs was performed using XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, TEM, AFM, photoluminescence, UV-Vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy investigations. SEM images show the spherical structure with the average crystallite size 6nm to 7.8nm of CuO. XRD analysis approved the formation of pure monoclinic crystallite structures of CuO NPs. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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