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Research ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101699/humanity-at-the-edge-the-moral-laboratory-of-feeding-precarious-lives
#1
Mette N Svendsen, Iben M Gjødsbøl, Mie S Dam, Laura E Navne
At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care...
January 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101293/establishing-the-prevalence-of-low-vitamin-d-in-non-immunoglobulin-e-mediated-gastrointestinal-food-allergic-children-in-a-tertiary-centre
#2
Ru-Xin Foong, Rosan Meyer, Robert Dziubak, Adriana Chebar Lozinsky, Heather Godwin, Kate Reeve, Syeda Tahmida Hussain, Romman Nourzaie, Neil Shah
BACKGROUND: There is no data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children with non-immunoglobulin-E (IgE) mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. The aims of our study were to understand the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in children with non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy and identify predisposing factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective study which looked at data from Great Ormond Street Hospital from January 2002 to September 2015...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100560/prevalence-impact-and-cost-of-multimorbidity-in-a-cohort-of-people-with-chronic-pain-in-ireland-a-study-protocol
#3
Brian W Slattery, Laura O'Connor, Stephanie Haugh, Christopher P Dwyer, Siobhan O'Higgins, Line Caes, Jonathan Egan, Brian E McGuire
INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity (MM) refers to the coexistence of two or more chronic conditions within one person, where no one condition is considered primary. As populations age and healthcare provision improves, MM is becoming increasingly common and poses a challenge to the single morbidity approach to illness management, usually adopted by healthcare systems. Indeed, recent research has shown that 66.2% of the people in primary care in Ireland are living with MM. Healthcare usage and cost is significantly associated with MM, and additional chronic conditions lead to exponential increases in service usage and financial costs, and decreases in physical and mental well-being...
January 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#4
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
: Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099676/development-of-nurses-professional-competence-early-in-their-career-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Olivia Numminen, Helena Leino-Kilpi, Hannu Isoaho, Riitta Meretoja
BACKGROUND: Research on newly graduated nurses' competence development and associated factors is relatively scarce. METHOD: Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, correlation study were collected during 2012-2014 from 318 Finnish nurses to explore their competence development during the first 3 years after graduation and to estimate the extent to which given work-related factors predicted change in competence. Data were analyzed using NCSS 10 statistical software...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099661/pharmaceutical-lobbying-in-brazil-a-missing-topic-in-the-public-health-research-agenda
#6
Francisco José Roma Paumgartten
In the US, where registration of lobbyists is mandatory, the pharmaceutical industry and private health-care providers spend huge amounts of money seeking to influence health policies and government decisions. In Brazil, where lobbying lacks transparency, there is virtually no data on drug industry expenditure to persuade legislators and government officials of their viewpoints and to influence decision-making according to commercial interests. Since 1990, however, the Associação da Indústria Farmacêutica de Pesquisa (Interfarma - Pharmaceutical Research Industry Association), Brazilian counterpart of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), main lobbying organization of the US pharmaceutical industry, has played a major role in the advocacy of interests of major drug companies...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098627/global-collaboration-in-acute-care-clinical-research-opportunities-challenges-and-needs
#7
John C Marshall
The most impactful research in critical care comes from trials groups led by clinician-investigators who study questions arising through the day-to-day care of critically ill patients. The success of this model reflects both "necessity"-the paucity of new therapies introduced through industry-led research-and "clinical reality"-nuanced modulation of standard practice can have substantial impact on clinically important outcomes. Success in a few countries has fueled efforts to build similar models around the world and to collaborate on an unprecedented scale in large international trials...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098520/the-role-of-the-relationship-with-parents-with-respect-to-work-orientation-and-work-ethic
#8
Monique V E Leenders, Abraham P Buunk, Kène Henkens
We examined the extent to which individual relationships with mother and father, social support from partner, and quality of the relationship with the partner, are related to work orientation and work ethic. Survey data were obtained from 3841 respondents from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (wave 2). The results showed that, overall, people with a more positive relationship with their parents had a more positive work orientation and a stronger work ethic. A positive relationship with the father had a greater influence on these work aspects than a positive relationship with the mother, particularly for men...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096898/characteristics-of-adolescents-frequently-restrained-in-acute-psychiatric-units-in-norway-a-nationwide-study
#9
Astrid Furre, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Leiv Sandvik, Svein Friis, Maria Knutzen, Ketil Hanssen-Bauer
BACKGROUND: The use of restraints in adolescent psychiatric settings requires particular professional, ethical, and legal considerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of restraint episodes per patient was related to any of several characteristics of the adolescents. METHODS: In this nationwide study, we included all adolescents restrained during the period 2008-2010 (N = 267) in Norwegian adolescent acute psychiatric inpatient units...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096252/understanding-the-importance-of-therapeutic-relationships-in-the-development-of-self-management-behaviours-during-cancer-rehabilitation-a-qualitative-research-protocol
#10
Wendy M Wilkinson, Jaynie Rance, Deborah Fitzsimmons
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095908/limiting-treatment-and-shortening-of-life-data-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-germany-on-frequencies-determinants-and-patients-involvement
#11
Birte Malena Dahmen, Jochen Vollmann, Stephan Nadolny, Jan Schildmann
BACKGROUND: Limiting treatment forms part of practice in many fields of medicine. There is a scarcity of robust data from Germany. Therefore, in this paper, we report results of a survey among German physicians with a focus on frequencies, aspects of decision making and determinants of limiting treatment with expected or intended shortening of life. METHODS: Postal survey among a random sample of physicians working in the area of five German state chambers of physicians using a modified version of the questionnaire of the EURELD Consortium...
January 17, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095761/the-caring-encounter-in-nursing
#12
Gunilla Holopainen, Lisbet Nyström, Anne Kasén
BACKGROUND: The concept 'encounter' occurs in caring literature as a synonym for dialogue and relation describing deeper levels of interaction between patient and nurse. In nursing and caring research, the concept 'caring encounter' is often used without further reflection on the meaning of the concept. Encounters are, however, continuously taking place in the world of caring, which calls for a clarification of the concept. OBJECTIVES: This study is an analysis of the concept of caring encounter in nursing from the patients' and nurses' point of view...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095760/workplace-justice-and-intention-to-leave-the-nursing-profession
#13
Weishan Chin, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Yu-Ju Hung, Yueh-Tzu Hsieh, Li-Jie Wang, Judith Shu-Chu Shiao
BACKGROUND: Poor psychosocial work environments are considered critical factors of nurses' intention to leave their profession. Workplace injustice has been proven to increase the incidence of psychiatric morbidity among workers. However, few studies have directly investigated the effect of workplace justice on nurses' intention to leave their profession and the population attributable risk among nurses. OBJECTIVE: This study identified factors associated with workplace justice and nurses' intention to leave the profession...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095759/living-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#14
Karen Schipper, Elleke Landeweer, Tineke A Abma
BACKGROUND: Living with a renal disease often reduces quality of life because of the stress it entails. No attention has been paid to the moral challenges of living with renal disease. OBJECTIVES: To explore the moral challenges of living with a renal disease. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case study based on qualitative research. We used Walker's ethical framework combined with narrative ethics to analyse how negotiating care responsibilities lead to a new perspective on moral issues...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095758/ethical-difficulties-in-healthcare
#15
Cinzia Leuter, Carmen La Cerra, Santina Calisse, Danila Dosa, Cristina Petrucci, Loreto Lancia
BACKGROUND: Advances in biomedical sciences, technologies and care practices have resulted in an increase in ethical problems and a resulting growth of difficulties encountered by health workers in their professional activity. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to analyse knowledge in the ethical field and experience with and the propensity for using ethics consultations by nurses and physicians. METHODS: Between March and June 2014, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a sample of 351 nurses and 128 physicians in four central Italian hospitals...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095757/ethical-leadership-outcomes-in-nursing
#16
Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Tahereh Ashktorab, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
BACKGROUND: Leadership style adopted by nursing managers is a key element in progress and development of nursing and quality of healthcare services received by the patients. In this regard, the role of ethical leadership is of utmost importance. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to elaborate on the ethical leadership and its role in professional progress and growth of nurses in the light of work condition in health providing institutes. METHODS: The study was carried out as a qualitative study following conventional content analysis method...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095476/a-systematic-review-of-ebola-treatment-trials-to-assess-the-extent-to-which-they-adhere-to-ethical-guidelines
#17
Thomas Richardson, Andrew McDonald Johnston, Heather Draper
BACKGROUND: Objective: To determine to what extent each trial met criteria specified in three research frameworks for ethical trial conduct. Design: Systematic review and narrative analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data sources: MEDBASE and EMBASE databases were searched using a specific search strategy. The Cochrane database for systematic reviews, the PROSPERO database and trial registries were examined. A grey literature search and citation search were also carried out...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095059/what-s-the-harm-harms-in-research-with-adults-with-intellectual-disability
#18
Katherine E McDonald, Nicole E Conroy, Robert S Olick, The Project Ethics Expert Panel
Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093938/capacity-and-consent
#19
Scott Lamont, Cameron Stewart, Mary Chiarella
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare practitioners have a legal, ethical and professional obligation to obtain patient consent for all healthcare treatments. There is increasing evidence which suggests dissonance and variation in practice in assessment of decision-making capacity and consent processes. AIMS: This study explores healthcare practitioners' knowledge and practices of assessing decision-making capacity and obtaining patient consent to treatment in the acute generalist setting...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093649/naturalistic-experimental-designs-as-tools-for-understanding-the-role-of-genes-and-the-environment-in-prevention-research
#20
Leslie D Leve, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Gordon T Harold, Misaki N Natsuaki, Brendan J M Bohannan, William A Cresko
Before genetic approaches were applied in experimental studies with human populations, they were used by animal and plant breeders to observe, and experimentally manipulate, the role of genes and environment on specific phenotypic or behavioral outcomes. For obvious ethical reasons, the same level of experimental control is not possible in human populations. Nonetheless, there are natural experimental designs in human populations that can serve as logical extensions of the rigorous quantitative genetic experimental designs used by animal and plant researchers...
January 16, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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