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Research ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781967/qualitative-research-in-correctional-settings-researcher-bias-western-ideological-influences-and-social-justice
#1
Morgan Wadams, Tanya Park
Within correctional settings, justice, health, and academic systems overlap for forensic nurse researchers. Within an environment that stresses social control, a researcher's implicit views, perspectives, and biases can lead to altering the authentic (re)presentation of a participant's experience. Researcher bias may be influenced by predominately western ideologies and societal discourses. Qualitative methods to mitigate and raise awareness around researcher biases include bracketing, unstructured interviews, diverse peer review, thinking inductively, investigator responsiveness, and critical reflexivity...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#2
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781350/on-line-ethics-education-for-occupational-therapy-clinician-educators-a-single-group-pre-post-test-study
#3
Sandra VanderKaay, Lori Letts, Bonny Jung, Sandra E Moll
PURPOSE: Ethics education is a critical component of training rehabilitation practitioners. There is a need for capacity-building among ethics educators regarding facilitating ethical decision-making among students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an on-line ethics education module for occupational therapy clinician-educators (problem-based learning tutors/clinical placement preceptors/evidence-based practice facilitators). METHOD: The Knowledge-to-Action Process informed development and evaluation of the module...
May 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780892/understanding-barriers-to-the-introduction-of-precision-medicines-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-qualitative-interview-protocol
#4
Stuart Wright, Gavin Daker-White, William Newman, Katherine Payne
Background: While precision medicines targeting genetic mutations and alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been available since 2010, their adoption into clinical practice has been slow. Evidence suggests that a number of barriers, such as insufficient clinician knowledge, a need for training of test providers, or a lack of specific clinical guidelines, may slow the implementation of precision in general. However, little attention has been given to the barriers to providing precision medicines in NSCLC...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780034/improving-predictive-asthma-algorithms-with-modelled-environment-data-for-scotland-an-observational-cohort-study-protocol
#5
Ireneous N Soyiri, Aziz Sheikh, Stefan Reis, Kimberly Kavanagh, Massimo Vieno, Tom Clemens, Edward J Carnell, Jiafeng Pan, Abby King, Rachel C Beck, Hester J T Ward, Chris Dibben, Chris Robertson, Colin R Simpson
INTRODUCTION: Asthma has a considerable, but potentially, avoidable burden on many populations globally. Scotland has some of the poorest health outcomes from asthma. Although ambient pollution, weather changes and sociodemographic factors have been associated with asthma attacks, it remains unclear whether modelled environment data and geospatial information can improve population-based asthma predictive algorithms. We aim to create the afferent loop of a national learning health system for asthma in Scotland...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780028/induced-endometrial-trauma-endometrial-scratch-in-the-mid-luteal-menstrual-cycle-phase-preceding-first-cycle-ivf-icsi-versus-usual-ivf-icsi-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Clare Pye, Robin Chatters, Judith Cohen, Kate Brian, Ying C Cheong, Susan Laird, Lamiya Mohiyiddeen, Jonathan Skull, Stephen Walters, Tracey Young, Mostafa Metwally
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779605/games-as-tools-to-address-conservation-conflicts
#7
REVIEW
Steve M Redpath, Aidan Keane, Henrik Andrén, Zachary Baynham-Herd, Nils Bunnefeld, A Bradley Duthie, Jens Frank, Claude A Garcia, Johan Månsson, Lovisa Nilsson, Chris R J Pollard, O Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Carl F Salk, Henry Travers
Conservation conflicts represent complex multilayered problems that are challenging to study. We explore the utility of theoretical, experimental, and constructivist approaches to games to help to understand and manage these challenges. We show how these approaches can help to develop theory, understand patterns in conflict, and highlight potentially effective management solutions. The choice of approach should be guided by the research question and by whether the focus is on testing hypotheses, predicting behaviour, or engaging stakeholders...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777320/ethical-issues-in-conducting-research-with-children-and-families-affected-by-disasters
#8
REVIEW
Regardt J Ferreira, Fred Buttell, Clare Cannon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review topical evidence on ethical issues in conducting disaster research with children and families affected by natural disasters, with an emphasis on analyzing specific vulnerabilities associated with children and families affected by disasters, identifying significant findings and trends of ethical guidelines and approaches, and discussing key observations into ethical research in a disaster setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence indicates that there is a wide range of research methods for child disaster studies...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777206/the-fair-guiding-principles-for-data-stewardship-fair-enough
#9
REVIEW
Martin Boeckhout, Gerhard A Zielhuis, Annelien L Bredenoord
The FAIR guiding principles for research data stewardship (findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability) look set to become a cornerstone of research in the life sciences. A critical appraisal of these principles in light of ongoing discussions and developments about data sharing is in order. The FAIR principles point the way forward for facilitating data sharing more systematically-provided that a number of ethical, methodological, and organisational challenges are addressed as well.
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773704/effect-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-frailty-related-phenotypes-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#10
Joanne Stocks, Ana M Valdes
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial effect of dietary omega-3 supplementation in younger adults or older people with acute or chronic disease is established. Knowledge is now needed about the effect in medically stable older people. The objective of this study is to examine and assess the evidence for a role of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in older adults on (1) muscle mass and muscle strength, (2) inflammatory biomarkers and (3) physical activity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review and data synthesis will be conducted of randomised controlled trials in older people not recruited for any given disease diagnosis...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773606/optimising-experimental-research-in-respiratory-diseases-an-ers-statement
#11
Philippe Bonniaud, Aurélie Fabre, Nelly Frossard, Christophe Guignabert, Mark Inman, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Tania Maes, Wei Shi, Martin Stampfli, Stefan Uhlig, Eric White, Martin Witzenrath, Pierre-Simon Bellaye, Bruno Crestani, Oliver Eickelberg, Heinz Fehrenbach, Andreas Guenther, Gisli Jenkins, Guy Joos, Antoine Magnan, Bernard Maitre, Ulrich A Maus, Petra Reinhold, Juanita H J Vernooy, Luca Richeldi, Martin Kolb
Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models...
May 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773528/a-digital-app-to-aid-detection-monitoring-and-management-of-dyslexia-in-young-children-dimmand-protocol-for-a-digital-health-and-education-solution
#12
Mariam R Sood, Annet Toornstra, Martin I Sereno, Mark Boland, Daniele Filaretti, Anuj Sood
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia, a specific learning difficulty and a disability as defined in the Equality Act 2010, is a lifelong condition that affects a child from the start of education. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in language processing (reading, spelling, and writing) which do not correspond with the child's general intellectual abilities. Although dyslexia cannot be cured, there is a consensus that interventions are more effective and have greater impact the earlier they are administered...
May 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772961/contrasts-in-older-persons-experiences-and-significant-others-perceptions-of-existential-loneliness
#13
Helena Larsson, Anna-Karin Edberg, Ingrid Bolmsjö, Margareta Rämgård
BACKGROUND: As frail older people might have difficulties in expressing themselves, their needs are often interpreted by others, for example, by significant others, whose information health care staff often have to rely on. This, in turn, can put health care staff in ethically difficult situations, where they have to choose between alternative courses of action. One aspect that might be especially difficult to express is that of existential loneliness. We have only sparse knowledge about whether, and in what way, the views of frail older persons and their significant others concerning existential loneliness are in concordance...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772484/does-informed-consent-given-by-healthy-individuals-when-enrolling-in-clinical-research-feel-less-voluntary-than-for-ill-individuals
#14
Laura Roberts, Jane Paik Kim
Clinical research is predicated ethically on the authentic voluntarism of individuals who choose to enroll in human studies. Existing literature has focused on aspects of informed consent for clinical research other than voluntarism. The objective of this study was to compare the perspectives of clinical research participants who are in good health and who are ill regarding voluntarism-related aspects of informed consent and to assess situational influences that enable voluntarism in the process of obtaining clinical research consent...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771102/-reclusion-and-physical-restraint-in-psychiatry-influencing-factors-and-alternatives
#15
Jérôme Morisset
Introduction and context: The use of reclusion and restraint is neither a recent practice nor a rare practice in psychiatric services. In France, the Controller General of Places of Deprivation of Liberty reported certain drifts in 2015. Since then, the public authorities have sought to frame this practice with the aim of limiting its use. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The purpose of this study is to examine how, through a literature review, the topic of limitation of constraint measures and the definition of a future direction of research is discussed...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770625/risks-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-grade-3-or-invasive-cancers-in-ascus-women-with-different-management-a-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Yi Jou Tai, Yun Yuan Chen, Huang Cheng Hsu, Chun Ju Chiang, San Lin You, Chi An Chen, Wen Fang Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the progression risk of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with different clinical managements. METHODS: Women with their first diagnosis of ASCUS cytology were retrieved from the national cervical cancer screening database and linked to the national health insurance research database to identify the management of these women. The incidences of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and invasive cervical cancer (CIN3+) were calculated, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770559/ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-forensic-molecular-phenotyping-in-south-africa
#17
Nandi Slabbert, Laura Jane Heathfield
Conventional forensic DNA analysis involves a matching principle, which compares DNA profiles from evidential samples to those from reference samples of known origin. In casework, however, the accessibility to a reference sample is not guaranteed which limits the use of DNA as an investigative tool. This has led to the development of phenotype prediction, which uses SNP analysis to estimate the physical appearance of the sample donor. Physical traits, such as eye, hair and skin colour, have been associated with certain alleles within specific genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways...
May 17, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770210/identification-of-publicly-available-data-sources-to-inform-the-conduct-of-health-technology-assessment-in-india
#18
Laura Downey, Neethi Rao, Lorna Guinness, Miqdad Asaria, Shankar Prinja, Anju Sinha, Rajni Kant, Arvind Pandey, Francoise Cluzeau, Kalipso Chalkidou
Background: Health technology assessment (HTA) provides a globally-accepted and structured approach to synthesising evidence for cost and clinical effectiveness alongside ethical and equity considerations to inform evidence-based priorities. India is one of the most recent countries to formally commit to institutionalising HTA as an integral component of the heath resource allocation decision-making process. The effective conduct of HTA depends on the availability of reliable data.   Methods : We draw from our experience of collecting, synthesizing, and analysing health-related datasets in India and internationally, to highlight the complex requirements for undertaking HTA, and explore the availability of such data in India...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770085/a-guide-to-publishing-scientific-research-in-the-health-sciences
#19
P Huston, Bck Choi
Effective communication of scientific research is critical to advancing science and optimizing the impact of one's professional work. This article provides a guide on preparing scientific manuscripts for publication in the health sciences. It is geared to health professionals who are starting to report their findings in peer-reviewed journals or who would like to refresh their knowledge in this area. It identifies five key steps. First, adopt best practices in scientific publications, including collaborative writing and ethical reporting...
September 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769257/optimum-hospice-at-home-services-for-end-of-life-care-protocol-of-a-mixed-methods-study-employing-realist-evaluation
#20
Claire Butler, Charlotte Brigden, Heather Gage, Peter Williams, Laura Holdsworth, Kay Greene, Bee Wee, Stephen Barclay, Patricia Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Hospice at home (HAH) services aim to enable patients to be cared for and die in their place of choice, if that is at home, and to achieve a 'good death'. There is a considerable range of HAH services operating in England. The published evidence focuses on evaluations of individual services which vary considerably, and there is a lack of consistency in terms of the outcome measures reported. The evidence, therefore, does not provide generalisable information, so the question 'What are the features of hospice at home service models that work, for whom, and under what circumstances?' remains unanswered...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
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