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Islamic ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872117/protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-feasibility-trial-evaluating-early-surgery-alone-in-low-rectal-cancer-sailor
#1
Dean A Harris, Kymberley Thorne, Hayley Hutchings, Saiful Islam, Gail Holland, Olivia Hatcher, Sarah Gwynne, Ian Jenkins, Peter Coyne, Michael Duff, Melanie Feldman, Des C Winter, Simon Gollins, Phil Quirke, Nick West, Gina Brown, Deborah Fitzsimmons, Alan Brown, John Beynon
INTRODUCTION: There are 11 500 rectal cancers diagnosed annually in the UK. Although surgery remains the primary treatment, there is evidence that preoperative radiotherapy (RT) improves local recurrence rates. High-quality surgery in rectal cancer is equally important in minimising local recurrence. Advances in MRI-guided prediction of resection margin status and improvements in abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APER) technique supports a reassessment of the contribution of preoperative RT...
November 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798018/text2preventcvd-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-of-text-message-based-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
Clara K Chow, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Andrew Farmer, Kirsty Bobrow, Ralph Maddision, Robyn Whittaker, Leila Pfaeffli Dale, Andreas Lechner, Louis Niessen, Scott A Lear, Zubin J Eapen, Karla Santo, Sandrine Stepien, Julie Redfern, Anthony Rodgers
INTRODUCTION: Text message interventions have been shown to be effective in prevention and management of several non-communicable disease risk factors. However, the extent to which their effects might vary in different participants and settings is uncertain. We aim to conduct a systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials examining text message interventions aimed to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD) through modification of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs)...
October 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762091/reexamining-the-prohibition-of-gestational-surrogacy-in-sunni-islam
#3
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716560/the-perception-and-acceptability-of-pre-slaughter-and-post-slaughter-stunning-for-halal-production-the-views-of-uk-islamic-scholars-and-halal-consumers
#4
Awal Fuseini, Steve B Wotton, Phil J Hadley, Toby G Knowles
The importance of religious slaughter from economic, emotive and ethical viewpoints is significant. There are apparent economic benefits associated with trading in meats slaughtered according to religious traditions. Some religious authorities insist on the slaughter of animals without stunning, but this, according to many researchers, compromises animal welfare. We conducted a survey of Islamic scholars and Halal consumers, 66 scholars from 55 organisations and 314 consumers from 54 UK cities/towns were surveyed...
September 29, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699713/personal-autonomy-in-health-settings-and-shi-i-islamic-jurisprudence-a-literature-review
#5
Zohrehsadat Naji, Zari Zamani, Sofia A Koutlaki, Payman Salamati
Respect for personal autonomy in decision-making is one of the four ethical principles in medical circumstances. This paper aims to present evidence that can be considered good exemplars in the clarification of the ethical viewpoints of the western and Shi'i Islamic perspectives on this issue. The method followed was originally a search in international indexing services in April 2016. Our findings point towards various controversies on individuals' autonomy lead to different decision making outcomes by health workers in both different traditions...
October 3, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648992/pros-and-cons-for-the-medical-age-assessments-in-unaccompanied-minors-a-mini-review
#6
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Nada A Soliman, Rania Elalaily, Salvatore Di Maio, Elsaid M A Bedair, Islam Kassem, Giuseppe Millimaggi
Unaccompanied minors refer to immigrants who are under the age of 18 and are not under the care of a parent or legal guardian. Age assessment is used in Europe mainly to establish whether or not an individual is under 18 years of age and therefore eligible for protection under the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN - CRC). EU Member States use a combination of techniques to determine the age of a minor and to certify minor status, including interviews and documentation, physical examinations (anthropometric assessment; sexual maturity assessment; dental observation); psychological and sociological assessment; radiological tests (carpal, dental or collarbone x-rays)...
2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634489/hughes-abdominal-repair-trial-hart-abdominal-wall-closure-techniques-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-incisional-hernias-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
J Cornish, R L Harries, D Bosanquet, B Rees, J Ansell, N Frewer, P K Dhruva Rao, C Parry, R Ellis-Owen, S M Phillips, C Morris, J Horwood, M L Davies, M M Davies, R Hargest, Z Davies, J Hilton, D Harris, A Ben-Sassi, R Rajagopal, D Hanratty, S Islam, A Watkins, N Bashir, S Jones, I R Russell, J Torkington
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernias are common complications of midline closure following abdominal surgery and cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life and increased health care costs. The 'Hughes Repair' combines a standard mass closure with a series of horizontal and two vertical mattress sutures within a single suture. This theoretically distributes the load along the incision length as well as across it. There is evidence to suggest that this technique is as effective as mesh repair for the operative management of incisional hernias; however, no trials have compared the Hughes Repair with standard mass closure for the prevention of incisional hernia formation following a midline incision...
September 15, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630071/investigating-the-feasibility-of-an-enhanced-contact-intervention-in-self-harm-and-suicidal-behaviour-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-delivering-a-social-support-and-wellbeing-intervention-following-self-harm-swish
#8
Nilufar Ahmed, Ann John, Saiful Islam, Richard Jones, Pippa Anderson, Charlotte Davies, Ashra Khanom, Shaun Harris, Peter Huxley
INTRODUCTION: Self-harm is a strong predictor for suicide. Risks for repeat behaviour are heightened in the aftermath of an index episode. There is no consensus on the most effective type of intervention to reduce repetition. Treatment options for patients who do not require secondary mental health services include no support, discharge to general practitioner or referral to primary care mental health support services. The aim of this study is to assess whether it is feasible to deliver a brief intervention after an episode and whether this can reduce depressive symptoms and increase the sense of well-being for patients who self-harm...
September 14, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613411/islamic-perspectives-on-clinical-intervention-near-the-end-of-life-we-can-but-must-we
#9
Aasim I Padela, Omar Qureshi
The ever-increasing technological advances of modern medicine have increased physicians' capacity to carry out a wide array of clinical interventions near the end-of-life. These new procedures have resulted in new "types" of living where a patient's cognitive functions are severely diminished although many physiological functions remain active. In this biomedical context, patients, surrogate decision-makers, and clinicians all struggle with decisions about what clinical interventions to pursue and when therapeutic intent should be replaced with palliative goals of care...
September 9, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540319/a-preliminary-insight-into-an-islamic-mechanism-for-neuroethics
#10
Azizan Baharuddin, Mohd Noor Musa, Sm Saifuddeen Sm Salleh
Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522844/modesty-among-muslim-women-implications-for-nursing-care
#11
Alaa Mujallad, Elizabeth Johnston Taylor
Modesty is central to Islamic life. Modesty is exemplified in dress and behavior with persons of the opposite sex. Because ethical nursing care requires respecting patient culture and religiosity, nurses should be able to provide care that respects Muslim interpretations of modesty.
May 2016: Medsurg Nursing: Official Journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418832/the-iranian-physicians-attitude-toward-the-do-not-resuscitate-order
#12
Masood Fallahi, Homayion Banaderakhshan, Alireza Abdi, Fariba Borhani, Rasool Kaviannezhad, Hassan Ali Karimpour
BACKGROUND: Physicians are responsible for making decisions about the do not resuscitate (DNR) order of patients; however, most of them are faced with some uncertainty in decision making and ethical aspects. Moreover, there are differences on decision making related to the DNR order among physicians, which may be related to the different attitudes toward this issue. Considering the lack of information, this study was performed to investigate doctors' attitude about DNR order for patients in their final phases of life...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365102/religious-scholars-attitudes-and-views-on-ethical-issues-pertaining-to-pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis-pgd-in-malaysia
#13
A Olesen, S N Nor, L Amin
Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) represents the first fusion of genomics and assisted reproduction and the first reproductive technology that allows prospective parents to screen and select the genetic characteristics of their potential offspring. However, for some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be, at a minimum, worrying and, at most, repugnant. Religious doctrines particularly are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions...
September 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364347/abortion-in-islamic-ethics-and-how-it-is-perceived-in-turkey-a-secular-muslim-country
#14
Perihan Elif Ekmekci
Abortion is among the most widely discussed concepts of medical ethics. Since the well-known ethical theories have emerged from Western world, the position of Islamic ethics regarding main issues of medical ethics has been overlooked. Muslims constitute a considerable amount of world population. Turkish Republic is the only Muslim country ruled with secular democracy and one of the three Muslim countries where abortion is legalized. The first aim of this paper is to present discussions on abortion in Islamic ethics in the context of major ethical concepts; the legal status of the fetus, respect for life and the right not to be born...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357878/comparing-the-effects-of-cumin-peppermint-and-milk-of-magnesia-on-gastrointestinal-complications-after-caesarean-section
#15
Maryam Tofighi Niaki, Zoleykha Atarod, Shabnam Omidvar, Mandana Zafari, Azar Aghamohammadi, Tahereh Asadi, Taiebeh Rastegar
CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal problems are common after Cesarean section. During the past three decades, there has been an increasing trend in the use of herbal plants in the treatment of various medical conditions. AIMS: This study aimed to compare the effects of cumin, peppermint with magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia; MOM) on gastrointestinal complications of Caesarean section. SETTINGS & DESIGN: This randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of Imam Hospital (affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran) during November 2013-August 2014...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348832/the-role-of-physicians-in-state-sponsored-corporal-punishment
#16
Ruaim Muaygil
The question of whether there is justification for physicians to participate in state-sanctioned corporal punishment has prompted long and heated debates around the world. Several recent and high-profile sentences requiring physician assistance have brought the conversation to Saudi Arabia. Whether a physician is asked to participate actively or to assess prisoners' ability to withstand this form of punishment, can there be an ethical justification for medical training and skills being put toward these purposes? The aim of this article is to examine aspects of Islamic law along with the different professional and religious obligations of Saudi Arabian physicians, and how these elements may inform the debate...
July 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323633/regulation-of-australian-medical-professionals-and-national-security-lessons-from-three-case-studies
#17
Thomas Faunce, Michael McKenna, Johanna Rayner, Jazmin Hawes
In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru...
March 2016: Journal of Law and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234477/ethical-assessment-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-research-according-to-turkish-muslim-scholars-first-critical-analysis-and-some-reflections
#18
Ahmet Karakaya, Ilhan Ilkilic
BACKGROUND: Turkey, with a Muslim population of officially over 99 %, is one of the few secular states in the Muslim world. Although state institutions are not based on Islamic juridical and ethical norms, the latter play a significant role in defining people's attitudes towards controversial issues in the modern world, especially when backed by opinions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey. Accordingly, opinions of Muslim scholars undoubtedly have an important effect on bioethical decisions made by institutions and individuals...
August 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145944/theories-and-modules-applied-in-islamic-counseling-practices-in-malaysia
#19
Norazlina Zakaria, Noor Shakirah Mat Akhir
Some Malaysian scholars believe that the theoretical basis and models of intervention in Islamic counseling practices in Malaysia are deficient and not eminently identified. This study investigated and describes the nature of current Islamic counseling practices including the theories and modules of Islamic counseling that are been practiced in Malaysia. This qualitative research has employed data that mainly consist of texts gathered from literatures and semi-structured interviews of 18 informants. It employed grounded theory analysis, and the result shows that most of the practitioners had applied integrated conventional counseling theories with Islamic rituals, references, interventions and ethics...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112701/the-medical-and-ethical-challenges-of-fertility-preservation-in-teenage-girls-a-case-series-of-sickle-cell-anaemia-patients-prior-to-bone-marrow-transplant
#20
Stuart A Lavery, Rumana Islam, Jennifer Hunt, Anna Carby, Richard A Anderson
Cryopreservation of oocytes has been proposed as a way of storing gametes in young patients at high risk of infertility and premature ovarian failure. Recent advances in cryobiology have yielded promising results, leading to oocyte cryopreservation becoming a mainstay of fertility preservation. In this case series, we describe the feasibility of performing ovarian stimulation, and the ethical challenges faced, in teenage girls, aged 14-18 years, prior to undergoing bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anaemia...
July 2016: Human Reproduction
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