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Electromagnetic field

Hui Ye
Bone cells sense mechanical load, which is essential for bone growth and remodeling. In a fracture, this mechanism is compromised. Electromagnetic stimulation has been widely used to assist in bone healing, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A recent hypothesis suggests that electromagnetic stimulation could influence tissue biomechanics; however, a detailed quantitative understanding of EM-induced biomechanical changes in the bone is unavailable. This paper used a muscle/bone model to study the biomechanics of the bone under EM exposure...
March 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Anna Dalecki, Sarah P Loughran, Adam Verrender, Catriona A Burdon, Nigel A S Taylor, Rodney J Croft
OBJECTIVE: To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF)...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
L Bua, E Tibaldi, L Falcioni, M Lauriola, L De Angelis, F Gnudi, M Manservigi, F Manservisi, I Manzoli, I Menghetti, R Montella, S Panzacchi, D Sgargi, V Strollo, A Vornoli, D Mandrioli, F Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Kensuke Teramoto, Shunsuke Inoue, Shigeki Tokita, Ryo Yasuhara, Yoshihide Nakamiya, Takeshi Nagashima, Kazuaki Mori, Masaki Hashida, Shuji Sakabe
We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5×10^{18}W/cm^{2}. The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Joao Paulo Coelho, José Osío Barcina, Elena Junquera, Emilio Aicart, Gloria Tardajos, Sergio Gómez-Graña, Pablo Cruz-Gil, Cástor Salgado, Pablo Díaz-Núñez, Ovidio Peña-Rodríguez, Andrés Guerrero-Martínez
Amphiphilic nonionic ligands, synthesized with a fixed hydrophobic moiety formed by a thiolated alkyl chain and an aromatic ring, and with a hydrophilic tail composed of a variable number of oxyethylene units, were used to functionalize spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in water. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements of the AuNPs in the presence of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) revealed the formation of supramolecular complexes between the ligand and macrocycle at the surface of the nanocrystals...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
G Satta, N Mascia, T Serra, A Salis, L Saba, S Sanna, M G Zucca, E Angelucci, A Gabbas, F Culurgioni, P Pili, E Mura, M Cappai, M G Ennas, P Cocco
We investigated the association between environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and risk of lymphoma subtypes in a case-control study comprised of 322 patients and 444 individuals serving as controls in Sardinia, Italy in 1998-2004. Questionnaire information included the self-reported distance of the three longest held residential addresses from fixed radio-television transmitters and mobile phone base stations. We georeferenced the residential addresses of all study subjects and obtained the spatial coordinates of mobile phone base stations...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Research
Changlong Liu, Lin Wang, Xiaoshuang Chen, Jing Zhou, Weiwei Tang, Wanlong Guo, Jin Wang, Wei Lu
The present work reports on a graphene-like material that is promising for photodetection applications due to its high optical absorption and layer-dependent properties. To date, only narrowband photodetectors have been realized; therefore, extending the working wavelength is becoming more imperative for applications such as high-contrast imaging and remote sensing. In this work, we developed a novel detection technique that provides enhanced performance across the infrared and terahertz bands by using an antenna-assisted top-gated black phosphorus phototransistor...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Kyle M L Unsdorfer, Samir M Abdelmagid
A case of a repaired failed toe arthrodesis is presented. A novel and previously unreported approach using a percutaneously placed Kirschner wire coupled with a pulsed electromagnetic field achieved healing of a painful pseudoarthrosis at 54 days. With a percutaneous technique, open debridement of the failed arthrodesis site can be avoided.
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Amr Almaz Abdel-Aziem, Elsadat Saad Soliman, Dalia Mohammed Mosaad, Amira Hussin Draz
[Purpose] To examine the effect of physiotherapy rehabilitation program on moderate knee osteoarthritis in patients with different pain intensities. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty subjects (37 men and 23 women) with moderate knee osteoarthritis participated in the current study. Randomization software was used to select the participating subjects' numbers from the clinic records. They were classified into three groups according to pain intensity: mild, moderate, and severe pain groups. All groups underwent a standard set of pulsed electromagnetic field, ultrasound, stretching exercises, and strengthening exercises...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Felix A Blyakhman, Nikita A Buznikov, Tatyana F Sklyar, Alexander P Safronov, Elizaveta V Golubeva, Andrey V Svalov, Sergey Yu Sokolov, Grigory Yu Melnikov, Iñaki Orue, Galina V Kurlyandskaya
Hydrogels are biomimetic materials widely used in the area of biomedical engineering and biosensing. Ferrogels (FG) are magnetic composites capable of functioning as magnetic field sensitive transformers and field assisted drug deliverers. FG can be prepared by incorporating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The properties of biomimetic ferrogels for multifunctional biosensor applications can be set up by synthesis. The properties of these biomimetic ferrogels can be thoroughly controlled in a physical experiment environment which is much less demanding than biotests...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Yuriy Akimov
This Letter revises the resonance theory of Kretschmann and Otto configurations, where enhanced electromagnetic fields and strong reflectance dips observed under total internal reflection are conventionally attributed to the resonance on surface plasmon-polaritons, the subsystem eigenwaves supported by a single metal/dielectric interface. The rigorous mathematical analysis demonstrates that the field enhancement and reflection decrease, in fact, are two independent physical phenomena that occur under different conditions...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Saroj R Tripathi, Paul Ben Ishai, Kodo Kawase
The applications of terahertz (THz) waves have been increasing rapidly in different fields such as information and communication technology, homeland security and biomedical engineering. However, study on the possible health implications due to various biological effects induced by THz waves is relatively scarce. Previously, it has been reported that the human sweat ducts play a significant role in the interaction of the THz wave with human skin due to its coiled structure. This structure imposes on them the electromagnetic character of a helical antenna...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Andreas Pfrommer, Anke Henning
PURPOSE: The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (UISNR) represents an upper bound for the achievable SNR of any receive coil. To reach this threshold a complete basis set of equivalent surface currents is required. This study systematically investigated to what extent either loop- or dipole-like current patterns are able to reach the UISNR threshold in a realistic human head model between 1.5 T and 11.7 T. Based on this analysis, we derived guidelines for coil designers to choose the best array element at a given field strength...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
S A Owerre
Topological magnon insulators are the bosonic analogs of electronic topological insulators. They are manifested in magnetic materials with topologically nontrivial magnon bands as realized experimentally in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) kagomé ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc), and they also possess protected magnon edge modes. These topological magnetic materials can transport heat as well as spin currents, hence they can be useful for spintronic applications. Moreover, as magnons are charge-neutral spin-1 bosonic quasiparticles with a magnetic dipole moment, topological magnon materials can also interact with electromagnetic fields through the Aharonov-Casher effect...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaofeng Yi, Jian Zhang, Tiehu Fan, Baofeng Tian, Chuandong Jiang
Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce the risk of casualties and accidents. However, unlike its application to ground surfaces, the application of MRS to underground environments is constrained by the narrow space, quite weak MRS signal, and complex electromagnetic interferences with high intensities in mines...
March 13, 2018: Sensors
Francisco Pelaez, Navid Manuchehrabadi, Priyatanu Roy, Harishankar Natesan, Yiru Wang, Emilian Racila, Heather Fong, Kevin Zeng, Abby M Silbaugh, John C Bischof, Samira M Azarin
Currently, there are very few therapeutic options for treatment of metastatic disease, as it often remains undetected until the burden of disease is too high. Microporous poly(ε-caprolactone) biomaterials have been shown to attract metastasizing breast cancer cells in vivo early in tumor progression. In order to enhance the therapeutic potential of these scaffolds, they were modified such that infiltrating cells could be eliminated with non-invasive focal hyperthermia. Metal disks were incorporated into poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds to generate heat through electromagnetic induction by an oscillating magnetic field within a radiofrequency coil...
February 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Lisa V Poulikakos, Prachi Thureja, Alexia Stollmann, Eva De Leo, David J Norris
Chiral metallic nanostructures can generate evanescent fields which are more highly twisted than circularly polarized light. However, it remains unclear how best to exploit this phenomenon, hindering the optimal utilization of chiral electromagnetic fields. Here, inspired by optical antenna theory, we address this challenge by introducing chiral antenna parameters: the chirality flux efficiency and the chiral antenna aperture. These quantities, which are based on chirality conservation, quantify the generation and dissipation of chiral light...
March 13, 2018: Nano Letters
Shan Jiang, Chang Chen, Hualiang Zhang, Weidong Chen
The vortex wave that carries orbital angular momentum has attracted much attention due to the fact that it can provide an extra degree of freedom for optical communication, imaging and other applications. In spite of this, the method of OAM generation at high frequency still suffers from limitations, such as chromatic aberration and low efficiency. In this paper, an azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic metasurface with wide bandwidth is designed, fabricated and experimentally demonstrated to efficiently convert a left-handed (right-handed) circularly polarized incident plane wave (with a spin angular momentum (SAM) of ћ) to a right-handed (left-handed) circularly polarized vortex wave with OAM...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Xianglian Song, Zizhuo Liu, Yuanjiang Xiang, Koray Aydin
Most of hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) investigated to date are based on isotropic materials resulting in uniaxial HMMs in which dielectric permittivities perpendicular to the propagation direction are the same. Using an anisotropic material constituent to form a HMM is a promising research direction providing opportunities to control the dielectric permittivity in all three directions independently. Herein, we propose and theoretically demonstrate novel biaxial HMMs composed of multilayer stacks of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) and Au thin films...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Sanjay Sagar, Seid M Adem, Benjamin Struchen, Sarah P Loughran, Michael E Brunjes, Lisa Arangua, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie, Rodney J Croft, Michael Jerrett, Joel M Moskowitz, Tony Kuo, Martin Röösli
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify RF-EMF exposure applying a tested protocol of RF-EMF exposure measurements using portable devices with a high sampling rate in different microenvironments of Switzerland, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa, Australia and the United States of America. METHOD: We used portable measurement devices for assessing RF-EMF exposure in 94 outdoor microenvironments and 18 public transport vehicles. The measurements were taken either by walking with a backpack with the devices at the height of the head and a distance of 20-30 cm from the body, or driving a car with the devices mounted on its roof, which was 170-180 cm above the ground...
March 9, 2018: Environment International
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