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Electromagnetic field

Carlos Gonzalez-Ballestero, Johannes Feist, Eduardo Gonzalo Badía, Esteban Moreno, Francisco J Garcia-Vidal
When a collection of quantum emitters interacts with an electromagnetic field, the whole system can enter into the collective strong coupling regime in which hybrid light-matter states, i.e., polaritons can be created. Only a small portion of excitations in the emitters are coupled to the light field, and there are many dark states that, in principle, retain their pure excitonic nature. Here we theoretically demonstrate that these dark states can have a delocalized character, which is inherent to polaritons, despite the fact that they do not have a photonic component...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Carlos M Gómez, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez
The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in absolute power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of absolute PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the topography of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain...
October 20, 2016: Brain Topography
Roger Duarte de Melo, Daniel Acosta-Avalos
'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is the most studied multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote. It presents a light-dependent photokinesis: green light decreases the translation velocity whereas red light increases it, in comparison to blue and white light. The present article shows that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields cancel the light effect on photokinesis. The frequency to cancel the light effect corresponds to the Zeeman resonance frequency (DC magnetic field of 4 Oe and radio-frequency of 11...
October 20, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Lina Huang, Xiaofang Liu, Dan Chuai, Yaxin Chen, Ronghai Yu
Flaky FeSiAl alloy/multi-wall carbon nanotube (FeSiAl/MWCNT) composite was fabricated by facile and scalable ball milling method. The morphology and electromagnetic properties of the FeSiAl alloy can be well tuned by controlling the milling time. It is found that the magnetic loss of the FeSiAl alloy is improved by optimizing the milling time due to the increased anisotropy field. Meanwhile the addition of MWCNTs enhances the dielectric loss of the composite by increasing the interfacial polarizations, dipolar polarizations and conductive paths...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Djordje Mirkovic, Phillip M Stepanian, Jeffrey F Kelly, Phillip B Chilson
The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Enerelt Urnukhsaikhan, Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir, Soo-Chan Kim, Jung-Keug Park, Young-Kwon Seo
Low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) affect many biological processes; however, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of LF-PEMFs on neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. C57B6 mice were exposed to LF-PEMF (F = 60 Hz, Bm = 10 mT) after photothrombotic occlusion. We measured the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic and pro-survival protein and gene expressions, and the expression of inflammatory mediators and performed behavioral tests in both LF-PEMF-treated and untreated ischemic stroke mice...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ivan Shishkin, Dmitry Baranov, Alexey Slobozhanyuk, Dmitry Filonov, Stanislav Lukashenko, Anton Samusev, Pavel Belov
The rich potential of the microwave experiments for characterization and optimization of optical devices is discussed. While the control of the light fields together with their spatial mapping at the nanoscale is still laborious and not always clear, the microwave setup allows to measure both amplitude and phase of initially determined magnetic and electric field components without significant perturbation of the near-field. As an example, the electromagnetic properties of an add-drop filter, which became a well-known workhorse of the photonics, is experimentally studied with the aid of transmission spectroscopy measurements in optical and microwave ranges and through direct mapping of the near fields at microwave frequencies...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Mary Redmayne, Baki Billah, Michael J Abramson, Geza Benke
The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Q Mahmood, M Hassan, N A Noor
The structural, magnetic and optical characteristics of Zn1-x TM x S/Se (TM  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and x  =  6.25%) have been investigated through the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory. The optimized structures have been used to calculate the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic ground-state energies. The stability of the ferromagnetic phase has been confirmed from the formation and the cohesive energies. The Heisenberg model is used to elucidate the Curie temperature (T c) of these alloys...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Aram Gragossian, Denis V Seletskiy, Mansoor Sheik-Bahae
The interaction of intense near- and mid-infrared laser pulses with rare gases has produced bursts of radiation with spectral content extending into the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray region of electromagnetic spectrum. On the other end of the spectrum, laser-driven gas plasmas has been shown to produce coherent sub-harmonic optical waveforms, covering from terahertz (THz) to mid- and near-infrared frequency spectral band. Both processes can be enhanced via a combination of a driving field and its second harmonic...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Yanjun Wang, Haoyu Li, Xingbin Liu, Yuhui Zhang, Ronghua Xie, Chunhui Huang, Jinhai Hu, Gang Deng
First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%...
October 14, 2016: Sensors
Suman Chowdhury, Debnarayan Jana
Inspired by the success of graphene, various two dimensional (2D) structures in free standing (FS) (hypothetical) form and on different substrates have been proposed recently. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, is predicted to possess massless Dirac fermions and to exhibit an experimentally accessible quantum spin Hall effect. Since the effective spin-orbit interaction is quite significant compared to graphene, buckling in silicene opens a gap of 1.55 meV at the Dirac point. This band gap can be further tailored by applying in plane stress, an external electric field, chemical functionalization and defects...
October 18, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Thomas Sannicolo, Mélanie Lagrange, Anthony Cabos, Caroline Celle, Jean-Pierre Simonato, Daniel Bellet
Transparent electrodes attract intense attention in many technological fields, including optoelectronic devices, transparent film heaters and electromagnetic applications. New generation transparent electrodes are expected to have three main physical properties: high electrical conductivity, high transparency and mechanical flexibility. The most efficient and widely used transparent conducting material is currently indium tin oxide (ITO). However the scarcity of indium associated with ITO's lack of flexibility and the relatively high manufacturing costs have a prompted search into alternative materials...
October 18, 2016: Small
F Alpeggiani, S D'Agostino, D Sanvitto, D Gerace
We report theoretical evidence that bulk nonlinear materials weakly interacting with highly localized plasmonic modes in ultra-sub-wavelength metallic nanostructures can lead to nonlinear effects at the single plasmon level in the visible range. In particular, the two-plasmon interaction energy in such systems is numerically estimated to be comparable with the typical plasmon linewidths. Localized surface plasmons are thus predicted to exhibit a purely nonclassical behavior, which can be clearly identified by a sub-Poissonian second-order correlation in the signal scattered from the quantized plasmonic field under coherent electromagnetic excitation...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Priten Savaliya, Anuj Dhawan
Employing finite difference time domain simulations, we demonstrate that electromagnetic field enhancement is substantially greater for tapered optical fibers with plasmonic nanostructures present on their tips as compared with non-tapered optical fibers having those plasmonic nanostructures, or with tapered optical fibers without the plasmonic nanostructures. We also carried out fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on optical fiber tips.
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Bofeng Zhu, Guobin Ren, Beilei Wu, Yixiao Gao, Haisu Li, Shuisheng Jian
In this Letter, we investigate the nanofocusing of hybrid plasmons-phonons-polaritons (SPP-HPhPs) in a graphene-hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure with a graphene coating on a tapered h-BN slab. Compared with the hyperbolic phonon polariton (HPhP) in h-BN, the hybrid SPP-HPhP in a heterostructure exhibits much smaller losses, which is validated through both analytical and numerical methods. Furthermore, the thickness dependent dispersions of a hybrid SPP-HPhP enable the tapered heterostructure to achieve a function of focusing electromagnetic waves...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Thomas Zahnert, Marie-Luise Metasch, Hannes Seidler, Matthias Bornitz, Nicoloz Lasurashvili, Marcus Neudert
HYPOTHESIS: Electromagnetical excitation of ossicular vibration is suitable for middle ear transmission measurements in the experimental and clinical setting. Thereby, it can be used as a real-time monitoring system for quality control in ossiculoplasty. BACKGROUND: Positioning and coupling of middle ear prosthesis are a precondition for good postoperative hearing results, but at the same time completely dependent upon the surgeon's subjective judgment during surgery...
October 4, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Jaume Miranda-Rius, Eduard Lahor-Soler, Lluís Brunet-Llobet, Xavier Sabaté de la Cruz
Patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices should take special precautions when exposed to electromagnetic fields. Proximity to equipment used in clinical dentistry may cause interference. This study evaluated in vitro the risks associated with different types/makes of cardiac devices and types of dental equipment. Six electronic dental tools were tested on three implantable cardioverter defibrillators and three pacemakers made by different manufacturers. Overall, the risk of interference with the pacemakers was 37% lower than with the implantable cardioverter defibrillators...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Maria Vadalà, Julio Cesar Morales-Medina, Annamaria Vallelunga, Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Tommaso Iannitti
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Available treatments are associated with numerous side effects and only a low percentage of patients achieve complete remission. Therefore, there is a strong need for new therapeutic strategies. In this regard, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy presents several potential advantages including non-invasiveness, safety, lack of toxicity for non-cancerous cells, and the possibility of being combined with other available therapies. Indeed, PEMF stimulation has already been used in the context of various cancer types including skin, breast, prostate, hepatocellular, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, bladder, thyroid, and colon cancer in vitro and in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
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