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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655202/small-rna-activity-in-archaeological-barley-shows-novel-germination-inhibition-in-response-to-environment
#1
Oliver Smith, Sarah A Palmer, Alan J Clapham, Pamela Rose, Yuan Liu, Jun Wang, Robin G Allaby
The recovery of ancient RNA from archaeological material could enable the direct study of micro-evolutionary processes. Small RNAs are a rich source of information because their small size is compatible with biomolecular preservation, and their roles in gene regulation make them likely foci of evolutionary change. We present here the small RNA fraction from a sample of archaeological barley generated using high-throughput sequencing that has previously been associated with localised adaptation to drought. Its microRNA profile is broadly similar to 19 globally distributed modern barley samples with the exception of three microRNAs (miRNA159, miRNA319, and miR396), all of which are known to have variable expression under stress conditions...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655194/predicting-indirect-effects-of-predator-prey-interactions
#2
Sarah E Gilman
Predicting the effects of climate change on species and communities remains a pre-eminent challenge for biologists. Critical among this is understanding the indirect effects of climate change, which arise when the direct, physiological effects of climate on one species change the outcome of its interaction with a second species, altering the success of the second species. A diverse array of approaches to predicting indirect effects exists from mechanistic models, which attempt to build-up from physiological changes to ecological consequences, to ecological models that focus solely on the ecological scale...
June 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655190/right-ventricular-function-during-exercise-in-children-after-heart-transplantation
#3
B Cifra, C T Morgan, A Dragulescu, V C Guerra, C Slorach, M K Friedberg, C Manlhiot, B W McCrindle, A I Dipchand, L Mertens
Aims: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a common problem after heart transplant (HTx). In this study, we used semi-supine bicycle ergometry (SSBE) stress echocardiography to evaluate RV systolic and diastolic reserve in paediatric HTx recipients. Methods and results: Thirty-nine pediatric HTx recipients and 23 controls underwent stepwise SSBE stress echocardiography. Colour tissue doppler imaging (TDI) peak systolic (s') and peak diastolic (e') velocities, myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA), and RV free wall longitudinal strain were measured at incremental heart rates (HR)...
June 23, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655177/stability-indicating-tlc-densitometric-assay-for-methyltestosterone-and-quantum-chemical-calculations
#4
Syed Ghulam Musharraf, Qamar Ul Arfeen, Faraz Ul Haq, Aliya Khatoon, Rahat Azher Ali
Methyltestosterone is a synthetic testosterone derivative commonly used for the treatment of testosterone deficiency in males and one the anabolic steroids whose use is banned by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This study presents a simple, cost-effective and rapid stability-indicating assay for densitometric quantification of methyltestosterone in pharmaceutical formulation. The developed method employed pre-coated TLC plates with mobile phase hexane:acetone (6.5:3.5 v/v). Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 2...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655148/genetic-variants-in-the-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-2-gene-and-in-the-catalase-gene-are-not-associated-with-alcoholic-chronic-pancreatitis
#5
Alexander Schneider, Jonas Rosendahl, Peter Bugert, Christel Weiss, Heike Unterschütz, Marja-Leena Kylanpää-Bäck, Marko Lempinen, Esko Kemppainen, Brindusa L Diaconu, Matthias P Ebert, Roland H Pfützer
Aims: Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD, SOD2) and catalase (CAT) counteract free radical activity within the mitochondria and the cytosol. Moreover, CAT activity contributes to the transformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, a toxic intermediate product of ethanol metabolism, which has been associated with pancreatic damage. Common functional polymorphisms have been described in the MnSOD gene [rs4880, NM_000636...
June 26, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655134/multiple-mechanisms-linking-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-testosterone-as-a-modifier
#6
Prita R Asih, Michelle L Tegg, Hamid Sohrabi, Malcolm Carruthers, Samuel E Gandy, Farid Saad, Giuseppe Verdile, Lars M Ittner, Ralph N Martins
Evidence in support of links between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased considerably in recent years. AD pathological hallmarks include the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain, which are hypothesized to promote inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal loss. T2DM exhibits many AD pathological features, including reduced brain insulin uptake, lipid dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and depression; T2DM has also been shown to increase AD risk, and with increasing age, the prevalence of both conditions increases...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655042/a-novel-investigation-of-generalized-motor-program-theory-syllable-stress-as-a-motor-class-variable
#7
Kimberly M Meigh
Purpose: This experiment evaluated syllable-stress position as a motor class directed by a syllable-sized generalized motor program. Reaction times were predicted to be slower for stimuli with untrained stress patterns outside the trained motor class. Furthermore, reaction times were predicted to be stable for untrained stimuli within the same motor class regardless of phonetic similarity. Method: Twenty-three young adults with typical speech and hearing participated in a motor-learning study comprised of motor-class training and a judgment task...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655016/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-urinary-leakage-among-women-with-stress-urinary-incontinence-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Zhishun Liu, Yan Liu, Huanfang Xu, Liyun He, Yuelai Chen, Lixin Fu, Ning Li, Yonghui Lu, Tongsheng Su, Jianhua Sun, Jie Wang, Zenghui Yue, Wei Zhang, Jiping Zhao, Zhongyu Zhou, Jiani Wu, Kehua Zhou, Yanke Ai, Jing Zhou, Ran Pang, Yang Wang, Zongshi Qin, Shiyan Yan, Hongjiao Li, Lin Luo, Baoyan Liu
Importance: Electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region may be effective for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but evidence is limited. Objective: To assess the effect of electroacupuncture vs sham electroacupuncture for women with SUI. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 12 hospitals in China and enrolling 504 women with SUI between October 2013 and May 2015, with data collection completed in December 2015...
June 27, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654889/methylomics-of-nitroxidative-stress-on-precancerous-cells-reveals-dna-methylation-alteration-at-the-transition-from-in-situ-to-invasive-cervical-cancer
#9
Po-Hsuan Su, Yao-Wen Hsu, Rui-Lan Huang, Yu-Chun Weng, Hui-Chen Wang, Yu-Chih Chen, Yueh-Ju Tsai, Chiou-Chung Yuan, Hung-Cheng Lai
Epigenetic dysregulation is important in cervical cancer development, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that DNA methylation is sensitive to changes in microenvironmental factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) in the chronic inflammatory cervix. However, the epigenomic effects of NO in cancer have not been investigated. In this study, we explored the methylomic effects of nitroxidative stress in HPV-immortalized precancerous cells. Chronic NO exposure promoted the acquisition of malignant phenotypes such as cell growth, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654849/factors-associated-with-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-ptss-4-6-weeks-and-6-months-after-birth-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#10
Pelin Dikmen-Yildiz, Susan Ayers, Louise Phillips
BACKGROUND: Identifying factors that precipitate and maintain post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after birth is important to inform clinical and research practice; yet, prospective longitudinal studies on the predictors of PTSS are limited. This study aimed to determine the pregnancy and postpartum factors associated with PTSS at 4-6 weeks and 6-months postpartum. METHOD: A systematic sample of 950 pregnant women were recruited from three maternity hospitals in Turkey...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654847/a-model-comparison-approach-to-trauma-related-guilt-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-ptsd-symptoms-and-suicidal-ideation-among-veterans
#11
Katherine C Cunningham, Chloe Farmer, Stefanie T LoSavio, Paul A Dennis, Carolina P Clancy, Michael A Hertzberg, Claire F Collie, Patrick S Calhoun, Jean C Beckham
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a serious issue affecting U.S. veterans, and those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an especially high risk of SI. Guilt has been associated with both PTSD and SI and may therefore be an important link between these constructs. METHODS: The present study compared models of trauma-related guilt and used path analysis to examine the direct and indirect effects of PTSD and trauma-related guilt on SI among a sample of 988 veterans receiving outpatient PTSD treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) specialty clinic...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654832/dyslipdemia-induced-by-chronic-low-dose-co-exposure-to-lead-cadmium-and-manganese-in-rats-the-role-of-oxidative-stress
#12
Olusola Olalekan Oladipo, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Suleiman Folorunsho Ambali, Bisalla Mohammed, Tanang Aluwong
Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) have many potential adverse health effects in vitro and in animal models of clinical toxicity. The current study investigated the dyslipidaemic and oxidative stress effects of chronic low-dose oral exposure to Pb, Cd and Mn and the combination (Pb+Cd+Mn) in rats for 15 weeks. Chronic exposure to the metals did not significantly (P>0.05) alter serum lipid profiles. However, the atherogenic index decreased by 32.2% in the Pb+Cd+Mn group, relative to the control. The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by 39...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654808/leaf-defense-system-of-robinia-pseudoacacia-l-seedlings-exposed-to-3years-of-elevated-atmospheric-co2-and-cd-contaminated-soils
#13
X Jia, Y H Zhao, T Liu, Y H He
Short-term exposure to elevated CO2 increases cadmium (Cd) uptake in some plant species (wheat, poplars, and willows), which triggers an increase in antioxidative system activity to deal with additional reactive oxygen species that are generated. Here, we examined leaf defenses in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings exposed to elevated CO2+Cd for 3years. Three years of elevated CO2 decreased Cd uptake into leaves and the Cd content in soils and increased the pH of rhizosphere soil relative to ambient CO2. In plants exposed to Cd stress, leaf chlorophyll content was greater under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2...
June 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654806/ginger-extract-mitigates-ethanol-induced-changes-of-alpha-and-beta-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-gene-expression-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-heart-of-male-wistar-rats
#14
Alireza Shirpoor, Mitra Zerehpoosh, Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari, Fatemeh Kheradmand, Yousef Rasmi
The association between ethanol consumption and heart abnormalities, such as chamber dilation, myocyte damage, ventricular hypertrophy, and hypertension is well known. However, underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms gene expression transition and oxidative stress in rats' heart. It was also planned to find out whether ginger extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats' heart...
June 21, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654798/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-kidney-function-and-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Fariba Mahmoodpoor, Yalda Rahbar Saadat, Abolfazl Barzegari, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Sepideh V Zununi Vahed
Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are a global health problem. Besides diverse leading reasons in initiation and progression of CKDs, it is evident that they might largely originate from changes in the gut microbial community (microbiota). Mounting evidence indicates that a bidirectional relationship exists between host and microbiome in humans and animals with CKDs. Changes in the microbiota composition and structure (dysbiosis) produce excessive amounts of uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate and trimethylamine-N-oxide) but less reno-protective metabolites that are implicated in oxidative stress, uremia, inflammation, deterioration of kidney function, kidney diseases progression, a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk, and mortality in patients with CKD...
June 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654781/comparison-of-sec-and-ce-sds-methods-for-monitoring-hinge-fragmentation-in-igg1-monoclonal-antibodies
#16
Oluwatosin O Dada, Romesh Rao, Natalie Jones, Nomalie Jaya, Oscar Salas-Solano
Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute routinely monitored to assess the purity and integrity of the product from development to commercialization. Cleavage in the upper hinge region of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies is a common fragmentation pattern widely studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate (CE-SDS) is a well-established technique commonly used for monitoring antibody fragments as well, but its comparability to SEC in monitoring hinge fragments has not been established until now...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654774/fkbp5-moderation-of-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-maladaptive-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-adolescents
#17
Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Ana Paula Soares de Matos, Yvonne Awaloff, Eiríkur Örn Arnarson, W Edward Craighead, Elisabeth B Binder
Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination and catastrophizing, are transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) has been found to moderate the relationship between stressful life events and various psychiatric disorders. Given the cross-disorder moderation effect of FKBP5 at the diagnostic level, the aim of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between exposure to childhood trauma and transdiagnostic maladaptive emotion regulation processes would also be moderated by genetic FKBP5 variation in a community sample of adolescents...
June 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654771/trajectories-of-social-anxiety-cognitive-reappraisal-and-mindfulness-during-an-rct-of-cbgt-versus-mbsr-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#18
Philippe R Goldin, Amanda S Morrison, Hooria Jazaieri, Richard G Heimberg, James J Gross
Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not yet clear, however, whether they share similar trajectories of change and underlying mechanisms in the context of SAD. This randomized controlled study of 108 unmedicated adults with generalized SAD investigated the impact of CBGT vs. MBSR on trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness during 12 weeks of treatment. CBGT and MBSR produced similar trajectories showing decreases in social anxiety and increases in reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude)...
June 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654759/taurine-reverses-sodium-fluoride-mediated-increase-in-inflammation-caspase-3-activity-and-oxidative-damage-along-the-brain-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-male-rats
#19
Isaac A Adedara, Bolanle F Olabiyi, TeminiJesu D Ojuade, Umar F Idris, Esther M Onibiyo, Ebenezer O Farombi
Excessive exposure to fluoride is associated with male reproductive dysfunction in humans and animals. Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of taurine on fluoride-induced reproductive toxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated the influence of taurine on sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced functional changes along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. NaF was administered singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days...
June 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654685/spatial-variability-of-spanish-sardine-sardinella-aurita-abundance-as-related-to-the-upwelling-cycle-off-the-southeastern-caribbean-sea
#20
Digna Rueda-Roa, Jeremy Mendoza, Frank Muller-Karger, Juan José Cárdenas, Alina Achury, Yrene Astor
The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995-1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons...
2017: PloS One
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