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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933557/atypical-presentation-and-treatment-response-in-a-child-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-having-a-novel-ldlr-mutation
#1
S Varma, A D McIntyre, R A Hegele
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominantly inherited disease. The severity of clinical presentation depends on the zygosity of the mutations in the LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9 genes. The homozygous form (HoFH) is associated with high mortality rate by third decade of life, while individuals with HeFH begin to suffer from premature cardiovascular disease in fourth or fifth decade of life. Statin drugs have helped to improve the biochemical profile and life expectancy in HeFH, while they are only minimally effective in HoFH...
December 9, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930863/lessons-from-a-cardiovascular-outcome-trial-with-liraglutide-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and one of common diabetes-related complications in patients with type 2 diabetes(1) . After the US Food and Drug Administration issued guidelines for assessing the CVD risk of all new glucose-lowering agents for type 2 diabetes in 2008(2) , randomized controlled CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic drugs, such as the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin, and sitagliptin) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), lixisenatide, showed CV safety in high CV risk patient populations with type 2 diabtes(3) ...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928185/drug-monographs-atezolizumab-and-everolimus
#3
Matthew A Green, J Aubrey Waddell, Dominic A Solimando
The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr., President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc., 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, email: OncRxSvc@comcast...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921633/healthcare-resources-are-inadequate-to-address-the-burden-of-illness-among-hiv-infected-male-prisoners-in-malaysia
#4
Joseph Bick, Gabriel Culbert, Haider A Al-Darraji, Clayton Koh, Veena Pillai, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick Altice
Purpose Criminalization of drug use in Malaysia has concentrated people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV into prisons where health services are minimal and HIV-related mortality is high. Few studies have comprehensively assessed the complex health needs of this population. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach From October 2012 through March 2013, 221 sequentially selected HIV-infected male prisoners underwent a comprehensive health assessment that included a structured history, physical examination, and clinically indicated diagnostic studies...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919783/the-potential-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-tool-to-study-skeletal-dysplasias-and-cartilage-related-pathologic-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Lei Yang, Fang Fang Yu, Sen Wang, Cuiyan Wu, Chengjuan Qu, Xiong Guo, Mikko J Lammi
The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology has opened up new horizons for development of new research tools especially for skeletal dysplasias, which often lack human disease models. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering could be the next areas to benefit from refinement of iPSC methods to repair focal cartilage defects, while applications for osteoarthritis (OA) and drug screening have evolved rather slowly. Although the advances in iPSC research of skeletal dysplasias and repair of focal cartilage lesions are not directly relevant to OA, they can be considered to pave the way to future prospects and solutions to OA research, too...
December 2, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919344/jcl-roundtable-risk-evaluation-and-mitigation-strategy
#6
REVIEW
W Virgil Brown, Dean A Bramlet, Joyce L Ross, James A Underberg
Many factors enter into the decision by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a new drug for use by physicians and other health care providers in treating diseases. Initially, the FDA authority was restricted to issues of safety and only later did the documentation of efficacy become part of the review process required for approval. However, all drugs have the potential for causing harm at some dose level to all and at lower doses in certain patients with vulnerability to the particular pharmacology of the agent...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916607/current-status-of-biomarker-and-targeted-nanoparticle-development-the-precision-oncology-approach-for-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#7
Lei Zhu, Charles Staley, David Kooby, Bassel El-Rays, Hui Mao, Lily Yang
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality. The majority of pancreatic cancer patients are diagnosed at the advanced stage with unresectable and drug resistant tumors. The new treatments with the combination of chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, and immunotherapy have shown modest effects on therapeutic efficacy and survival of the patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutic approaches targeting highly heterogeneous pancreatic cancer cells and tumor microenvironments...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910765/gene-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Shuang Liu, Kazutaka Maeyama
With the aim of controlling disease relapse and bone deformation of individual joints, the application of gene therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has slowly progressed on a trial-and-error basis. Several new therapeutic targets have been identified in preclinical studies in animal models, although a limited number of gene-based clinical trials have been conducted. In this article, we summarize the status of gene therapy for RA by addressing issues related to innovating drug development. More disease- and target-specific preclinical tests are required to overcome the insufficient information regarding pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics, which are related to safety issues in the field of RA gene therapy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910713/sn-38-loading-capacity-of-hydrophobic-polymer-blend-nanoparticles-formulation-optimization-and-efficacy-evaluation
#9
Simona Dimchevska, Nikola Geskovski, Gjorgji Petruševski, Marina Chacorovska, Riste Popeski-Dimovski, Sonja Ugarkovic, Katerina Goracinova
One of the most important problems in nanoencapsulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs is poor drug loading due to rapid drug crystallization outside the polymer core. The effort to use nanoprecipitation, as a simple one-step procedure with good reproducibility and FDA approved polymers like Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Polycaprolactone (PCL), will only potentiate this issue. Considering that drug loading is one of the key defining characteristics, in this study we attempted to examine whether the nanoparticle core composed of two hydrophobic polymers will provide increased drug loading for 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), relative to nanoparticles prepared using individual polymers...
December 2, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909097/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#10
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. While migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the central nervous system, we used CGRP-induced light aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injection of CGRP resulted in light aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion previously seen following central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) injection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908294/outcomes-of-notifications-to-health-practitioner-boards-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Matthew J Spittal, David M Studdert, Ron Paterson, Marie M Bismark
BACKGROUND: Medical boards and other practitioner boards aim to protect the public from unsafe practice. Previous research has examined disciplinary actions against doctors, but other professions (e.g., nurses and midwives, dentists, psychologists, pharmacists) remain understudied. We sought to describe the outcomes of notifications of concern regarding the health, performance, and conduct of health practitioners from ten professions in Australia and to identify factors associated with the imposition of restrictive actions...
December 2, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907224/single-versus-combination-intravenous-anti-pseudomonal-antibiotic-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Heather E Elphick, Alison Scott
BACKGROUND: Choice of antibiotic, and the use of single or combined therapy are controversial areas in the treatment of respiratory infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF). Advantages of combination therapy include wider range of modes of action, possible synergy and reduction of resistant organisms; advantages of monotherapy include lower cost, ease of administration and reduction of drug-related toxicity. Current evidence does not provide a clear answer and the use of intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis requires further evaluation...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904057/potential-of-ravuconazole-and-its-prodrugs-as-the-new-oraltherapeutics-for-onychomycosis
#13
Hideyo Yamaguchi
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail apparatus caused by dermatophytes, Candida and non-dermatophytic molds. It is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide and also responsible for significant morbidity and complications and does not usually cure itself. Thus, the condition needs to be treated in view of physical and psychological problems produced. Currently, oral medications using terbinafine are the most effective therapy, but it has relatively limited therapeutic success, particularly for long-term management...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903216/treatment-and-response-to-statins-gender-related-differences
#14
Raparelli Valeria, Pannitteri Gaetano, Todisco Tommaso, Toriello Filippo, Napoleone Laura, Manfredini Roberto, Basili Stefania
Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most common used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings...
November 17, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903151/how-to-manage-the-obese-patient-with-cancer
#15
Andrew G Renehan, Michelle Harvie, Ramsey I Cutress, Michael Leitzmann, Tobias Pischon, Sacha Howell, Anthony Howell
Purpose Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is common among patients with cancer. We reviewed management issues in the obese patient with cancer, focusing on how obesity influences treatment selection (including chemotherapy dosing), affects chemotherapy toxicity and surgical complications, and might be a treatment effect modifier. Methods The majority of evidence is drawn from observational studies and secondary analyses of trial data, typically analyzed in N × 3 BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, and obese) matrix structures...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902462/the-synthetic-lethal-killing-of-rad54b-deficient-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-parp1-inhibition-is-enhanced-with-sod1-inhibition
#16
Erin N McAndrew, Chloe C Lepage, Kirk J McManus
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. Despite improved screening efforts, most CRCs are diagnosed at late stages when surgery alone is not curative. Moreover, the low 5-year survival rate (~8-13%) for those living with stage IV CRC highlights the need for better treatment options. Many current chemotherapeutic approaches are non-specific and associated with side effects due to their tendency to target both normal and cancer cells. To address this issue, synthetic lethal (SL) approaches are now being explored in cancer and are defined as the lethal combination of two independently viable mutations/deletions...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902445/focus-issue-new-horizons-for-treating-neurological-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This issue of Science Signaling highlights research that uncovers protein interaction networks and potential drug targets, as well as research that identifies molecular mechanisms of action of novel or existing drugs, for neurological and psychological disease. This Editorial Guide features a handful of papers from 2016 that join the ranks of Science Signaling's vast archive of articles related to neuroscience.
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902153/nurse-led-medicines-monitoring-a-study-examining-the-effects-of-the-west-wales-adverse-drug-reaction-profile
#18
Richard Jones, Christopher Moyle, Sue Jordan
Aim The physical health of people with mental health conditions is often suboptimal, and in many cases this may be related to their prescription medicines. One issue is that patients are monitored inconsistently for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aim of this study was to explore whether the nurse-led West Wales Adverse Drug Reaction (WWADR) Profile for Mental Health Medicines could improve recognition and management of ADRs in a crisis resolution home treatment service. Method The WWADR Profile was implemented in addition to usual care, in a one-group 'before and after' comparison study (n=20)...
November 30, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898136/pharmacological-approaches-for-the-management-of-persistent-pain-in-older-adults-what-nurses-need-to-know
#19
Fabio Guerriero, Ruth Bolier, Janet H Van Cleave, M Cary Reid
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894237/new-insight-in-improving-therapeutic-efficacy-of-antipsychotic-agents-an-overview-of-improved-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-efficacy-upgradation-and-future-prospects
#20
Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that rigorously affect patient personality, critical thinking, and perceptional ability. High prevalence, global dissemination and limitations of conventional pharmacological approaches compel a significant burden to the patient, medical professionals and the healthcare system. To date, numerous orally administered therapies are available for the management of depressive disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, bipolar disorders and autism spectrum problems. However, poor water solubility, erratic oral absorption, extensive first-pass metabolism, low oral bioavailability and short half-lives are major factors which limit the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of these agents...
November 25, 2016: Current Drug Targets
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