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Neighborhood green space

Kathy Arthurson, Iris Levin, Anna Ziersch
This article draws on the concept of residential context of housing and its relationship to health. It considers a bundle of changes through implementation of a housing renewal initiative as part of the Carlton Housing Estate Upgrading Project in Melbourne, Australia. Beyond the quality and appropriateness of the housing, pertinent factors explored include social networks, safety and security, and green open space. Data collection for the research project included in-depth interviews with public housing tenants, private residents, and service providers who live on and service the estate, as well as neighborhood observations and participation in on-site events...
October 2016: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
Jared M Ulmer, Kathleen L Wolf, Desiree R Backman, Raymond L Tretheway, Cynthia Ja Blain, Jarlath Pm O'Neil-Dunne, Lawrence D Frank
The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the health-promoting potential of trees in an urbanized region of the United States. This was done using high-resolution LiDAR and imagery data to quantify tree cover within 250m of the residence of 7910 adult participants in the California Health Interview Survey, then testing for main and mediating associations between tree cover and multiple health measures. The results indicated that more neighborhood tree cover, independent from green space access, was related to better overall health, primarily mediated by lower overweight/obesity and better social cohesion, and to a lesser extent by less type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and asthma...
November 2016: Health & Place
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and contextual factors associated with functional mobility and falls in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: We used data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (Saúde, Bem-estare Envelhecimento [SABE]) Study. The dependent variables were falling in the last year and functional mobility impairment. Individual (marital status, race, education, and perception of income sufficiency) and contextual (green area and violence) factors were analyzed by multilevel logistic models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Vikram Nichani, Kim Dirks, Bruce Burns, Amy Bird, Susan Morton, Cameron Grant
BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has been associated with increased physical activity. However, it is not clear whether this association is because active people preferentially live in greener areas. Relationships between exposure to green space and physical activity during pregnancy are not well defined. Our objective was to determine whether exposure to green space was associated with physical activity in pregnant women. METHODS: The current study was completed within the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study of 6772 pregnant women...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Johannes Flacke, Steffen Andreas Schüle, Heike Köckler, Gabriele Bolte
Spatial differences in urban environmental conditions contribute to health inequalities within cities. The purpose of the paper is to map environmental inequalities relevant for health in the City of Dortmund, Germany, in order to identify needs for planning interventions. We develop suitable indicators for mapping socioeconomically-driven environmental inequalities at the neighborhood level based on published scientific evidence and inputs from local stakeholders. Relationships between socioeconomic and environmental indicators at the level of 170 neighborhoods were analyzed continuously with Spearman rank correlation coefficients and categorically applying chi-squared tests...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gwynne Mhuireach, Bart R Johnson, Adam E Altrichter, Joshua Ladau, James F Meadow, Katherine S Pollard, Jessica L Green
Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Camille Perchoux, Basile Chaix, Ruben Brondeel, Yan Kestens
Neighborhood effects on health have been widely investigated; yet the definition of neighborhoods is usually arbitrary. This study analyses how disparities in environmental exposure according to urbanicity vary when considering a home-centered network-buffer, the perceived residential neighborhood, or the activity space. Exposures to the density of destinations and proportion of green space were compared for three spatial definitions of exposure areas, overall and stratified by urbanicity of the residence. Environmental exposure levels and gradients by urbanicity were found to vary depending on the spatial definition of the exposure area...
July 2016: Health & Place
Leslie J McGrath, Erica A Hinckson, Will G Hopkins, Suzanne Mavoa, Karen Witten, Grant Schofield
BACKGROUND: Urban design may affect children's habitual physical activity by influencing active commuting and neighborhood play. PURPOSE: Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood built-environment features near children's homes and objectively measured physical activity. METHODS: We used geographical information system (GIS) protocols to select 2016 households from 48 low- and high-walkability neighborhoods within four New Zealand cities...
July 2016: Sports Medicine
Geoffrey Caruso, Jean Cavailhès, Dominique Peeters, Isabelle Thomas, Pierre Frankhauser, Gilles Vuidel
This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model...
December 2015: Data in Brief
Takemi Sugiyama, Karen Villanueva, Matthew Knuiman, Jacinta Francis, Sarah Foster, Lisa Wood, Billie Giles-Corti
This study examined whether the association of psychological distress with area-level socio-economic status (SES) was moderated by the area and attractiveness of local green space. As expected, the odds of higher psychological distress was higher in residents in lower SES areas than those in higher SES areas. However, our results were inconclusive with regard to the moderating role of green space in the relationship between psychological distress and SES. Further investigations incorporating safety and maintenance features of green space and street-level greenery are warranted...
March 2016: Health & Place
Shakira F Suglia, Rachel C Shelton, Amber Hsiao, Y Claire Wang, Andrew Rundle, Bruce G Link
The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment...
February 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Judy Y Ou, Jonathan I Levy, Junenette L Peters, Roseann Bongiovanni, Jovanna Garcia-Soto, Rafael Medina, Madeleine K Scammell
Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354) of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts) was associated with physical activity...
January 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Giulia Melis, Elena Gelormino, Giulia Marra, Elisa Ferracin, Giuseppe Costa
Mental health (MH) has a relevant burden on the health of populations. Common MH disorders (anxiety and non-psychotic depression) are well associated to socioeconomic individual and neighborhood characteristics, but little is known about the influence of urban structure. We analyzed among a Turin (Northwest Italy) urban population the association at area level of different urban structure characteristics (density, accessibility by public transport, accessibility to services, green and public spaces) and consumption of antidepressants...
November 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yang Zhang, Terry van Dijk, Jianjun Tang, Agnes E van den Berg
The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands...
November 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Polina Putrik, Ludovic van Amelsvoort, Nanne K De Vries, Suhreta Mujakovic, Anton E Kunst, Hans van Oers, Maria Jansen, Ijmert Kant
We explored whether overweight and obesity were associated with the physical and social environment at neighborhood level. Data from Maastricht municipality survey (The Netherlands) were used (n = 9771 adults). Multinomial regression models were computed (outcome being normal weight, overweight, or obese). We found inconsistent associations between neighborhood social and physical environment characteristics and overweight and obesity in the total sample. The effects were more consistent and stronger for older residents (>65) and obesity as an outcome...
December 2015: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Yanhui Mao, Ferdinando Fornara, Sara Manca, Mirilia Bonnes, Marino Bonaiuto
This paper concerns people's assessment of their neighborhood of residence in a Chinese urban context. The aim of the study was to verify the factorial structure and the reliability of two instruments originally developed and validated in Italy (the full versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators [PREQIs] and of the Neighborhood Attachment Scale [NAS]) in a different cultural and linguistic context. The instruments consist of 11 scales measuring the PREQIs and one scale measuring neighborhood attachment (NA)...
September 2015: PsyCh Journal
E Jessica Hrudey, Anton E Kunst, Karien Stronks, Tanja G M Vrijkotte
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder) neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)). METHODS: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5-6 years of age...
May 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alan C Logan
Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors...
2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Richard J Mitchell, Elizabeth A Richardson, Niamh K Shortt, Jamie R Pearce
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that socioeconomic inequalities in health might be reduced among populations with good access to green space. However, the potential for other neighborhood characteristics to reduce socioeconomic health inequalities, or to confound the effects of green space, has not been well explored. Therefore, this study investigates which, if any, neighborhood characteristics are associated with narrower socioeconomic inequalities in mental well-being in a large, international sample of urban residents...
July 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Ian Janssen, Andrei Rosu
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between the physical environment and physical activity in children has focused on built and developed features or total green space. The impact of natural, undeveloped green spaces is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of undeveloped green spaces in the home neighborhood are associated with physical activity in 11 to 13-year-olds. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of grade 6 to 8 urban residing Canadian students who participated in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey...
2015: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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