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Neighborhood green space

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534841/is-neighborhood-green-space-protective-against-associations-between-child-asthma-neighborhood-traffic-volume-and-perceived-lack-of-area-safety-multilevel-analysis-of-4447-australian-children
#1
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509879/quality-over-quantity-contribution-of-urban-green-space-to-neighborhood-satisfaction
#2
Yang Zhang, Agnes E Van den Berg, Terry Van Dijk, Gerd Weitkamp
There is increasing evidence that the quality of green space significantly contributes to neighborhood satisfaction and well-being, independent of the mere amount of green space. In this paper, we examined residents' perceptions of the quality and beneficial affordances of green space in relation to objectively assessed accessibility and usability. We used data from a survey in two neighborhoods (N = 223) of a medium-sized city in the Netherlands, which were similar in the amount of green space and other physical and socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in the availability of accessible and usable green spaces...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495219/increases-in-use-and-activity-due-to-urban-renewal-effect-of-a-natural-experiment
#3
Henriette Bondo Andersen, Lars Breum Christiansen, Charlotte Demant Klinker, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Jens Troelsen, Jacqueline Kerr, Jasper Schipperijn
INTRODUCTION: Urban green space and other recreational facilities are associated with physical activity. For adolescents living in multistory housing, public outdoor spaces that support physical activity may play an important role in activity promotion strategies. However, stronger evidence for a relation between the built environment and adolescent physical activity is scarce. DESIGN: A natural experiment with a pre-experimental design was used with data collected in 2010 and 2012 before and after an urban renewal...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371668/developing-a-community-level-anti-hiv-aids-stigma-and-homophobia-intervention-in-new-york-city-the-project-chhange-model
#4
Victoria Frye, Mark Q Paige, Steven Gordon, David Matthews, Geneva Musgrave, Mark Kornegay, Emily Greene, Jo C Phelan, Beryl A Koblin, Vaughn Taylor-Akutagawa
HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels...
March 19, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319715/small-area-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-heatwave-impacts-on-elderly-mortality-in-paris-a-cluster-analysis-approach
#5
Tarik Benmarhnia, Wahida Kihal-Talantikite, Martina S Ragettli, Séverine Deguen
BACKGROUND: Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712556/public-housing-renewal-and-social-determinants-of-health
#6
Kathy Arthurson, Iris Levin, Anna Ziersch
This article draws on the concept of residential context of housing and its relationship to health. It considers a bundle of changes through implementation of a housing renewal initiative as part of the Carlton Housing Estate Upgrading Project in Melbourne, Australia. Beyond the quality and appropriateness of the housing, pertinent factors explored include social networks, safety and security, and green open space. Data collection for the research project included in-depth interviews with public housing tenants, private residents, and service providers who live on and service the estate, as well as neighborhood observations and participation in on-site events...
October 2016: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639106/multiple-health-benefits-of-urban-tree-canopy-the-mounting-evidence-for-a-green-prescription
#7
Jared M Ulmer, Kathleen L Wolf, Desiree R Backman, Raymond L Tretheway, Cynthia Ja Blain, Jarlath Pm O'Neil-Dunne, Lawrence D Frank
The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the health-promoting potential of trees in an urbanized region of the United States. This was done using high-resolution LiDAR and imagery data to quantify tree cover within 250m of the residence of 7910 adult participants in the California Health Interview Survey, then testing for main and mediating associations between tree cover and multiple health measures. The results indicated that more neighborhood tree cover, independent from green space access, was related to better overall health, primarily mediated by lower overweight/obesity and better social cohesion, and to a lesser extent by less type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and asthma...
November 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634837/individual-and-neighborhood-factors-associated-with-functional-mobility-and-falls-in-elderly-residents-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-a-multilevel-analysis
#8
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and contextual factors associated with functional mobility and falls in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: We used data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (Saúde, Bem-estare Envelhecimento [SABE]) Study. The dependent variables were falling in the last year and functional mobility impairment. Individual (marital status, race, education, and perception of income sufficiency) and contextual (green area and violence) factors were analyzed by multilevel logistic models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633620/green-space-and-physical-activity-in-pregnant-women-evidence-from-the-growing-up-in-new-zealand-study
#9
Vikram Nichani, Kim Dirks, Bruce Burns, Amy Bird, Susan Morton, Cameron Grant
BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has been associated with increased physical activity. However, it is not clear whether this association is because active people preferentially live in greener areas. Relationships between exposure to green space and physical activity during pregnancy are not well defined. Our objective was to determine whether exposure to green space was associated with physical activity in pregnant women. METHODS: The current study was completed within the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study of 6772 pregnant women...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420090/mapping-environmental-inequalities-relevant-for-health-for-informing-urban-planning-interventions-a-case-study-in-the-city-of-dortmund-germany
#10
Johannes Flacke, Steffen Andreas Schüle, Heike Köckler, Gabriele Bolte
Spatial differences in urban environmental conditions contribute to health inequalities within cities. The purpose of the paper is to map environmental inequalities relevant for health in the City of Dortmund, Germany, in order to identify needs for planning interventions. We develop suitable indicators for mapping socioeconomically-driven environmental inequalities at the neighborhood level based on published scientific evidence and inputs from local stakeholders. Relationships between socioeconomic and environmental indicators at the level of 170 neighborhoods were analyzed continuously with Spearman rank correlation coefficients and categorically applying chi-squared tests...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418518/urban-greenness-influences-airborne-bacterial-community-composition
#11
Gwynne Mhuireach, Bart R Johnson, Adam E Altrichter, Joshua Ladau, James F Meadow, Katherine S Pollard, Jessica L Green
Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261634/residential-buffer-perceived-neighborhood-and-individual-activity-space-new-refinements-in-the-definition-of-exposure-areas-the-record-cohort-study
#12
Camille Perchoux, Basile Chaix, Ruben Brondeel, Yan Kestens
Neighborhood effects on health have been widely investigated; yet the definition of neighborhoods is usually arbitrary. This study analyses how disparities in environmental exposure according to urbanicity vary when considering a home-centered network-buffer, the perceived residential neighborhood, or the activity space. Exposures to the density of destinations and proportion of green space were compared for three spatial definitions of exposure areas, overall and stratified by urbanicity of the residence. Environmental exposure levels and gradients by urbanicity were found to vary depending on the spatial definition of the exposure area...
July 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091360/associations-between-the-neighborhood-environment-and-moderate-to-vigorous-walking-in-new-zealand-children-findings-from-the-urban-study
#13
Leslie J McGrath, Erica A Hinckson, Will G Hopkins, Suzanne Mavoa, Karen Witten, Grant Schofield
BACKGROUND: Urban design may affect children's habitual physical activity by influencing active commuting and neighborhood play. PURPOSE: Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood built-environment features near children's homes and objectively measured physical activity. METHODS: We used geographical information system (GIS) protocols to select 2016 households from 48 low- and high-walkability neighborhoods within four New Zealand cities...
July 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26958606/housing-land-transaction-data-and-structural-econometric-estimation-of-preference-parameters-for-urban-economic-simulation-models
#14
Geoffrey Caruso, Jean Cavailhès, Dominique Peeters, Isabelle Thomas, Pierre Frankhauser, Gilles Vuidel
This paper describes a dataset of 6284 land transactions prices and plot surfaces in 3 medium-sized cities in France (Besançon, Dijon and Brest). The dataset includes road accessibility as obtained from a minimization algorithm, and the amount of green space available to households in the neighborhood of the transactions, as evaluated from a land cover dataset. Further to the data presentation, the paper describes how these variables can be used to estimate the non-observable parameters of a residential choice function explicitly derived from a microeconomic model...
December 2015: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796324/can-neighborhood-green-space-mitigate-health-inequalities-a-study-of-socio-economic-status-and-mental-health
#15
Takemi Sugiyama, Karen Villanueva, Matthew Knuiman, Jacinta Francis, Sarah Foster, Lisa Wood, Billie Giles-Corti
This study examined whether the association of psychological distress with area-level socio-economic status (SES) was moderated by the area and attractiveness of local green space. As expected, the odds of higher psychological distress was higher in residents in lower SES areas than those in higher SES areas. However, our results were inconclusive with regard to the moderating role of green space in the relationship between psychological distress and SES. Further investigations incorporating safety and maintenance features of green space and street-level greenery are warranted...
March 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780582/why-the-neighborhood-social-environment-is-critical-in-obesity-prevention
#16
EDITORIAL
Shakira F Suglia, Rachel C Shelton, Amber Hsiao, Y Claire Wang, Andrew Rundle, Bruce G Link
The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment...
February 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26742051/a-walk-in-the-park-the-influence-of-urban-parks-and-community-violence-on-physical-activity-in-chelsea-ma
#17
Judy Y Ou, Jonathan I Levy, Junenette L Peters, Roseann Bongiovanni, Jovanna Garcia-Soto, Rafael Medina, Madeleine K Scammell
Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354) of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts) was associated with physical activity...
January 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610540/the-effects-of-the-urban-built-environment-on-mental-health-a-cohort-study-in-a-large-northern-italian-city
#18
Giulia Melis, Elena Gelormino, Giulia Marra, Elisa Ferracin, Giuseppe Costa
Mental health (MH) has a relevant burden on the health of populations. Common MH disorders (anxiety and non-psychotic depression) are well associated to socioeconomic individual and neighborhood characteristics, but little is known about the influence of urban structure. We analyzed among a Turin (Northwest Italy) urban population the association at area level of different urban structure characteristics (density, accessibility by public transport, accessibility to services, green and public spaces) and consumption of antidepressants...
November 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26569280/green-space-attachment-and-health-a-comparative-study-in-two-urban-neighborhoods
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yang Zhang, Terry van Dijk, Jianjun Tang, Agnes E van den Berg
The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents' emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. The present research aimed to examine the links between self-reported health, attachment to green space, and the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Data were collected via paper-mailed surveys in two neighborhoods (n = 223) of a medium-sized Dutch city in the Netherlands...
November 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26453194/neighborhood-environment-is-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-particularly-in-older-residents-results-from-cross-sectional-study-in-dutch-municipality
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Polina Putrik, Ludovic van Amelsvoort, Nanne K De Vries, Suhreta Mujakovic, Anton E Kunst, Hans van Oers, Maria Jansen, Ijmert Kant
We explored whether overweight and obesity were associated with the physical and social environment at neighborhood level. Data from Maastricht municipality survey (The Netherlands) were used (n = 9771 adults). Multinomial regression models were computed (outcome being normal weight, overweight, or obese). We found inconsistent associations between neighborhood social and physical environment characteristics and overweight and obesity in the total sample. The effects were more consistent and stronger for older residents (>65) and obesity as an outcome...
December 2015: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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