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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165367/urban-green-space-and-the-pursuit-of-health-equity-in-parts-of-the-united-states
#1
Viniece Jennings, April Karen Baptiste, Na'Taki Osborne Jelks, Renée Skeete
Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093689/coping-with-stress-in-deprived-urban-neighborhoods-what-is-the-role-of-green-space-according-to-life-stage
#2
Jenny J Roe, Peter A Aspinall, Catharine Ward Thompson
This study follows previous research showing how green space quantity and contact with nature (via access to gardens/allotments) helps mitigate stress in people living in deprived urban environments (Ward Thompson et al., 2016). However, little is known about how these environments aid stress mitigation nor how stress levels vary in a population experiencing higher than average stress. This study used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to, first, identify latent health clusters in the same population (n = 406) and, second, to relate health cluster membership to variables of interest, including four hypothetical stress coping scenarios...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864128/residential-green-space-quantity-and-quality-and-child-well-being-a-longitudinal-study
#3
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
INTRODUCTION: There are few studies on the potential benefits of green space quantity and quality for child well-being. The authors hypothesized that more and better quality residential green space would be favorable for well-being and that these associations could be subject to effect modification across childhood. METHOD: Multilevel linear regression adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic confounders was used to track change in well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Total Difficulties Score and "internalizing" and "externalizing" subscales) across five separate occasions among a cohort of 4,968 Australian children aged 4-5 years beginning in 2004...
November 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863302/beyond-the-normalized-difference-vegetation-index-ndvi-developing-a-natural-space-index-for-population-level-health-research
#4
Emily J Rugel, Sarah B Henderson, Richard M Carpiano, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753524/park-availability-and-major-depression-in-individuals-with-chronic-conditions-is-there-an-association-in-urban-india
#5
Debarati Mukherjee, S Safraj, Mohammad Tayyab, Roopa Shivashankar, Shivani A Patel, Gitanjali Narayanan, Vamadevan S Ajay, Mohammed K Ali, Km Venkat Narayan, Nikhil Tandon, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
Green space exposure has been positively correlated with better mental-health indicators in several high income countries, but has not been examined in low- and middle-income countries undergoing rapid urbanization. Building on a study of mental health in adults with a pre-existing chronic condition, we examined the association between park availability and major depression among 1208 adults surveyed in Delhi, India. Major depression was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The ArcGIS platform was used to quantify park availability indexed as (i) park distance from households, (ii) area of the nearest park; and within one km buffer area around households - the (iii) number and (iv) total area of all parks...
September 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711859/associations-between-multiple-green-space-measures-and-birth-weight-across-two-us-cities
#6
Leanne Cusack, Andrew Larkin, Susan E Carozza, Perry Hystad
INTRODUCTION: Several measures of green space exposure have been used in epidemiological research, but their relevance to health, and representation of exposure pathways, remains unclear. Here we examine the relationships between multiple urban green space metrics and associations with term birth weight across two diverse US cities. METHODS: We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort from 2005 to 2009 in the cities of Portland, Oregon (n = 90,265) and Austin, Texas (n = 88,807)...
September 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703756/green-streets-urban-green-and-birth-outcomes
#7
Kathryn Abelt, Sara McLafferty
Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686219/do-inequalities-in-neighborhood-walkability-drive-disparities-in-older-adults-outdoor-walking
#8
Razieh Zandieh, Johannes Flacke, Javier Martinez, Phil Jones, Martin van Maarseveen
Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called "walkability". This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density) relevant to neighborhood walkability...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678168/the-influences-of-landscape-features-on-visitation-of-hospital-green-spaces-a-choice-experiment-approach
#9
Kaowen Grace Chang, Hungju Chien
Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient's recovery from surgery and help staff's recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579664/walking-in-two-french-neighborhoods-a-study-of-how-park-numbers-and-locations-relate-to-everyday-walking
#10
Liliane Rioux, Carol M Werner, Rene Mokounkolo, Barbara B Brown
Research indicates that people are drawn to green spaces with attractive amenities. This study extends that finding by comparing walking patterns in two neighborhoods with different numbers of parks; parks did not differ in rated attractiveness nor did neighborhoods differ substantially in rated walkability. Adults, aged 32-86 years (n = 90), drew their 3 most recent walking routes on maps of their neighborhood. Analyses showed that participants' round trips were longer by 265.5 meters (.16 mile) in the neighborhood with a single, large, centrally located park (p < ...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534841/is-neighborhood-green-space-protective-against-associations-between-child-asthma-neighborhood-traffic-volume-and-perceived-lack-of-area-safety-multilevel-analysis-of-4447-australian-children
#11
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509879/quality-over-quantity-contribution-of-urban-green-space-to-neighborhood-satisfaction
#12
Yang Zhang, Agnes E Van den Berg, Terry Van Dijk, Gerd Weitkamp
There is increasing evidence that the quality of green space significantly contributes to neighborhood satisfaction and well-being, independent of the mere amount of green space. In this paper, we examined residents' perceptions of the quality and beneficial affordances of green space in relation to objectively assessed accessibility and usability. We used data from a survey in two neighborhoods (N = 223) of a medium-sized city in the Netherlands, which were similar in the amount of green space and other physical and socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in the availability of accessible and usable green spaces...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495219/increases-in-use-and-activity-due-to-urban-renewal-effect-of-a-natural-experiment
#13
Henriette Bondo Andersen, Lars Breum Christiansen, Charlotte Demant Klinker, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Jens Troelsen, Jacqueline Kerr, Jasper Schipperijn
INTRODUCTION: Urban green space and other recreational facilities are associated with physical activity. For adolescents living in multistory housing, public outdoor spaces that support physical activity may play an important role in activity promotion strategies. However, stronger evidence for a relation between the built environment and adolescent physical activity is scarce. DESIGN: A natural experiment with a pre-experimental design was used with data collected in 2010 and 2012 before and after an urban renewal...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371668/developing-a-community-level-anti-hiv-aids-stigma-and-homophobia-intervention-in-new-york-city-the-project-chhange-model
#14
Victoria Frye, Mark Q Paige, Steven Gordon, David Matthews, Geneva Musgrave, Mark Kornegay, Emily Greene, Jo C Phelan, Beryl A Koblin, Vaughn Taylor-Akutagawa
HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels...
March 19, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319715/small-area-spatiotemporal-analysis-of-heatwave-impacts-on-elderly-mortality-in-paris-a-cluster-analysis-approach
#15
Tarik Benmarhnia, Wahida Kihal-Talantikite, Martina S Ragettli, Séverine Deguen
BACKGROUND: Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. OBJECTIVES: To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712556/public-housing-renewal-and-social-determinants-of-health
#16
Kathy Arthurson, Iris Levin, Anna Ziersch
This article draws on the concept of residential context of housing and its relationship to health. It considers a bundle of changes through implementation of a housing renewal initiative as part of the Carlton Housing Estate Upgrading Project in Melbourne, Australia. Beyond the quality and appropriateness of the housing, pertinent factors explored include social networks, safety and security, and green open space. Data collection for the research project included in-depth interviews with public housing tenants, private residents, and service providers who live on and service the estate, as well as neighborhood observations and participation in on-site events...
October 2016: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639106/multiple-health-benefits-of-urban-tree-canopy-the-mounting-evidence-for-a-green-prescription
#17
Jared M Ulmer, Kathleen L Wolf, Desiree R Backman, Raymond L Tretheway, Cynthia Ja Blain, Jarlath Pm O'Neil-Dunne, Lawrence D Frank
The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the health-promoting potential of trees in an urbanized region of the United States. This was done using high-resolution LiDAR and imagery data to quantify tree cover within 250m of the residence of 7910 adult participants in the California Health Interview Survey, then testing for main and mediating associations between tree cover and multiple health measures. The results indicated that more neighborhood tree cover, independent from green space access, was related to better overall health, primarily mediated by lower overweight/obesity and better social cohesion, and to a lesser extent by less type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and asthma...
November 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634837/individual-and-neighborhood-factors-associated-with-functional-mobility-and-falls-in-elderly-residents-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-a-multilevel-analysis
#18
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic and contextual factors associated with functional mobility and falls in elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: We used data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging (Saúde, Bem-estare Envelhecimento [SABE]) Study. The dependent variables were falling in the last year and functional mobility impairment. Individual (marital status, race, education, and perception of income sufficiency) and contextual (green area and violence) factors were analyzed by multilevel logistic models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633620/green-space-and-physical-activity-in-pregnant-women-evidence-from-the-growing-up-in-new-zealand-study
#19
Vikram Nichani, Kim Dirks, Bruce Burns, Amy Bird, Susan Morton, Cameron Grant
BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has been associated with increased physical activity. However, it is not clear whether this association is because active people preferentially live in greener areas. Relationships between exposure to green space and physical activity during pregnancy are not well defined. Our objective was to determine whether exposure to green space was associated with physical activity in pregnant women. METHODS: The current study was completed within the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort study of 6772 pregnant women...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420090/mapping-environmental-inequalities-relevant-for-health-for-informing-urban-planning-interventions-a-case-study-in-the-city-of-dortmund-germany
#20
Johannes Flacke, Steffen Andreas Schüle, Heike Köckler, Gabriele Bolte
Spatial differences in urban environmental conditions contribute to health inequalities within cities. The purpose of the paper is to map environmental inequalities relevant for health in the City of Dortmund, Germany, in order to identify needs for planning interventions. We develop suitable indicators for mapping socioeconomically-driven environmental inequalities at the neighborhood level based on published scientific evidence and inputs from local stakeholders. Relationships between socioeconomic and environmental indicators at the level of 170 neighborhoods were analyzed continuously with Spearman rank correlation coefficients and categorically applying chi-squared tests...
July 13, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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