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Economic evaluation developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161605/sustainability-of-uk-shale-gas-in-comparison-with-other-electricity-options-current-situation-and-future-scenarios
#1
Jasmin Cooper, Laurence Stamford, Adisa Azapagic
Many countries are considering exploitation of shale gas but its overall sustainability is currently unclear. Previous studies focused mainly on environmental aspects of shale gas, largely in the US, with scant information on socio-economic aspects. To address this knowledge gap, this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and social aspects of shale gas to evaluate its overall sustainability. The focus is on the UK which is on the cusp of developing a shale gas industry. Shale gas is compared to other electricity options for the current situation and future scenarios up to the year 2030 to investigate whether it can contribute towards a more sustainable electricity mix in the UK...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161597/sustainability-of-mega-water-diversion-projects-experience-and-lessons-from-china
#2
Min Yu, Chaoran Wang, Yi Liu, Gustaf Olsson, Chunyan Wang
Water availability and water demand are not evenly distributed in time and space. Many mega water diversion projects have been launched to alleviate water shortages in China. This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial features of 59 mega water diversion projects in China using statistical analysis. The relationship between nine major basins is measured using a network analysis method, and the associated economic, environmental and social impacts are explored using an impact analysis method. The study finds the development of water diversion has experienced four stages in China, from a starting period through to a period of high-speed development...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154052/unmasking-decoupling-redefining-the-resource-intensity-of-the-economy
#3
Kostas Bithas, Panos Kalimeris
Interest in investigating the complex link between resources and developments has revived recently following studies which support striking "dematerialized" growth over the last hundred years or so. This so-called decoupling effect is defined as the declining quantity of resources required for producing one unit of GDP. Decoupling studies adopt aggregate GDP as the measure of the outcome of the economy. However, this outcome is contributed by the total population which differs over time and between countries...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151398/disaster-risk-reduction-in-myanmar-a-need-for-focus-on-community-preparedness-and-improved-evaluation-of-initiatives
#4
Andrew D Smith, Emily Y Y Chan
Myanmar is a country in political and economic transition. Facing a wide-variety of natural hazards and ongoing conflict, the country's under-developed infrastructure has resulted in high disaster risk. Following the devastation of Cyclone Nargis in 2008 and increased global focus on disaster management and risk reduction, Myanmar has begun development of national disaster policies. Myanmar's Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction addressed multiple stages of disaster development and has made progress towards national projects, however, has struggled to implement community-based preparedness and response initiatives...
November 20, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143675/economic-evaluations-of-hbv-testing-and-treatment-strategies-and-applicability-to-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
REVIEW
Shevanthi Nayagam, Elisa Sicuri, Maud Lemoine, Philippa Easterbrook, Lesong Conteh, Timothy B Hallett, Mark Thursz
BACKGROUND: Many people living with chronic HBV infection remain undiagnosed until later stages of disease. Increasing testing and treatment rates form part of the strategy to respond to the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, achieving these ambitious targets is dependent on finding effective and cost-effective methods of scale up strategies. The aim of this study was to undertake a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of testing and treatment for HBV infection, to help inform the development of the 2017 WHO Hepatitis Testing Guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143498/rationale-and-opportunities-in-estimating-the-economic-burden-of-seasonal-influenza-across-countries-using-a-standardized-who-tool-and-manual
#6
Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Surachai Kotirum, Anthony T Newall, Philipp Lambach, Raymond C W Hutubessy
Influenza disease burden is recognized as one of the major public health problems globally. Much less is known about the economic burden of influenza especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A recent systematic review on the economic burden of influenza in LMICs suggests that information is scarce and/or incomplete and that there is a lack of standardized approaches for cost evaluations in LMICs. WHO commissioned and publicized a Manual for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza to support the standardization of estimates of the economic burden of seasonal influenza across countries...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134520/benchmarking-the-scientific-research-on-wastewater-energy-nexus-by-using-bibliometric-analysis
#7
Tianlong Zheng, Pengyu Li, Zhining Shi, Jianguo Liu
With an exponential increase in urbanization and industrialization, water pollution is an inevitable consequence of relatively lagging wastewater treatment facilities. The conventional activated sludge process for wastewater treatment primarily emphasizes the removal of harmful substances to maintain increasingly stringent effluent discharged standards, which is considered an energy-intensive technique. Therefore, innovative and sustainable wastewater treatment should pay more attention to energy and resource recovery in dealing with fossil fuel depletion, global-scale energy security, and climate change...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133283/open-source-electronic-health-record-systems-for-low-resource-settings-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Assel Syzdykova, André Malta, Maria Zolfo, Ermias Diro, José Luis Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services...
November 13, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129947/microcredit-and-willingness-to-pay-for-environmental-quality-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-finance-for-sanitation-in-rural-cambodia
#9
Ariel Ben Yishay, Andrew Fraker, Raymond Guiteras, Giordano Palloni, Neil Buddy Shah, Stuart Shirrell, Paul Wang
Low willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental quality in developing countries is a key research question in environmental economics. One explanation is that missing credit markets may suppress WTP for environmental improvements that require large up-front investments. We test the impact of microloans on WTP for hygienic latrines via a randomized controlled trial in 30 villages in rural Cambodia. We find that microcredit dramatically raises WTP for improved latrines, with 60% of households in the Financing arm willing to purchase at an unsubsidized price, relative to 25% in the Non-financing arm...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127641/technical-hygiene-economic-and-life-cycle-assessment-of-full-scale-moving-bed-biofilm-reactors-for-wastewater-treatment-in-india
#10
Anju Singh, Sheetal Jaisingh Kamble, Megha Sawant, Yogita Chakravarthy, Absar Kazmi, Enrique Aymerich, Markus Starkl, Makarand Ghangrekar, Ligy Philip
Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a highly effective biological treatment process applied to treat both urban and industrial wastewaters in developing countries. The present study investigated the technical performance of ten full-scale MBBR systems located across India. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, pathogens, and nutrient removal efficiencies were low as compared to the values claimed in literature. Plant 1 was considered for evaluation of environmental impacts using life cycle assessment approach...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126109/do-prospective-payment-systems-ppss-lead-to-desirable-providers-incentives-and-patients-outcomes-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-developing-countries
#11
Si Ying Tan, G J Melendez-Torres
The reform of provider payment systems, from retrospective to prospective payment, has been heralded as the right move to contain costs in the light of rising health expenditures in many countries. However, there are concerns on quality trade-off. The heightened attention given to prospective payment system (PPS) reforms and the rise of empirical evidence regarding PPS interventions among developing countries suggest that a systematic review is necessary to understand the effects of PPS reforms in developing countries...
November 6, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124058/implementation-of-a-regional-training-program-on-african-swine-fever-as-part-of-the-cooperative-biological-engagement-program-across-the-caucasus-region
#12
Marco De Nardi, Anaïs Léger, Tatul Stepanyan, Bagrat Khachatryan, Talgat Karibayev, Igor Sytnik, Samat Tyulegenov, Assel Akhmetova, Serhiy Nychyk, Mykola Sytiuk, Oleg Nevolko, Roman Datsenko, Tengiz Chaligava, Lasha Avaliani, Otar Parkadze, Lena Ninidze, Natia Kartskhia, Tsira Napetvaridze, Zviad Asanishvili, Demna Khelaia, Ioseb Menteshashvili, Meruzhan Zadayan, Lyudmila Niazyan, Nataliya Mykhaylovska, Bradford Raymond Brooks, Gulnara Zhumabayeva, Saltanat Satabayeva, Magda Metreveli, Theresa Gallagher, Richard Obiso
A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF) was implemented by Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland). Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122043/physical-activity-promotion-by-health-practitioners-a-distance-learning-training-component-to-improve-knowledge-and-counseling
#13
Alex A Florindo, Douglas R Andrade, Paulo H Guerra, Jorge Mota, Diane Crone, Ana C C N Mafra, Mario M Bracco
Aim To report an evaluation of health professionals' participation in a distance-learning physical activity training course developed in a low socio-economic region of São Paulo city, Brazil. BACKGROUND: In countries with public universal health systems, physical activity promotion in primary health care settings can reap results, particularly given that such interventions have the potential to reach a large percentage of the population. However, few studies proposed physical activity training for health professionals in low- and middle-income countries...
November 10, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120309/comparing-insider-and-outsider-news-coverage-of-the-2014-ebola-outbreak
#14
Brittany Humphries, Martha Radice, Sophie Lauzier
OBJECTIVES: Information provided by news media during an infectious disease outbreak can affect the actions taken to safeguard public health. There has been little evaluation of how the content of news published during an outbreak varies by location of the news outlet. This study analyzes coverage of the 2014 Ebola outbreak by one news outlet operating within a country affected by the outbreak and one country not directly affected. METHODS: A qualitative content analysis was conducted of articles published in two national news outlets, The Globe and Mail (Canada) and the Vanguard (Nigeria), between January 1 and December 31, 2014...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118777/capparis-spinosa-l-in-a-systematic-review-a-xerophilous-species-of-multi-values-and-promising-potentialities-for-agrosystems-under-the-threat-of-global-warming
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie Chedraoui, Alain Abi-Rizk, Marc El-Beyrouthy, Lamis Chalak, Naim Ouaini, Loïc Rajjou
Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103696/identification-of-a-new-genetic-marker-in-mycoplasma-synoviae-vaccine-strain-ms-h-and-development-of-a-strategy-using-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-high-resolution-melting-curve-analysis-for-differentiating-ms-h-from-field-strains
#16
Ling Zhu, Barbara M Konsak, Olusola M Olaogun, Rebecca Agnew-Crumptona, Anna Kanci, Marc S Marenda, Glenn F Browning, Amir H Noormohammadi
Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an economically important avian pathogen worldwide, causing subclinical respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. A temperature-sensitive (ts(+)) live attenuated vaccine MS-H, derived from the Australian field strain 86079/7NS, is now widely used in many countries to control the disease induced by MS. Differentiation of MS-H vaccine from field strains is crucial for monitoring vaccination programs in commercial poultry. Comparison of genomic sequences of MS-H and its parent strain revealed an adenine deletion at nucleotide position 468 of the MS-H oppF-1 gene...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100898/effectiveness-of-national-and-subnational-infection-prevention-and-control-interventions-in-high-income-and-upper-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Lesley Price, Jennifer MacDonald, Lynn Melone, Tracey Howe, Paul Flowers, Kay Currie, Evonne Curran, Valerie Ness, Debbie Waddell, Sarkis Manoukian, Agi McFarland, Claire Kilpatrick, Julie Storr, Anthony Twyman, Benedetta Allegranzi, Jacqui Reilly
Evidence-based guidance for national infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is needed to support national and global capacity building to reduce health-care-associated infection and antimicrobial resistance. In this systematic review we investigate evidence on the effectiveness of IPC interventions implemented at national or subnational levels to inform the development of WHO guidelines on the core components of national IPC programmes. We searched CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and WHO IRIS databases for publications between Jan 1, 2000, and April 19, 2017...
October 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089861/disease-control-programme-support-costs-an-update-of-who-choice-methodology-price-databases-and-quantity-assumptions
#18
Melanie Y Bertram, Karin Stenberg, Callum Brindley, Jina Li, Juliana Serje, Rory Watts, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer
BACKGROUND: Estimating health care costs, either in the context of understanding resource utilization in the implementation of a health plan, or in the context of economic evaluation, has become a common activity of health planners, health technology assessment agencies and academic groups. However, data sources for costs outside of direct service delivery are often scarce. WHO-CHOICE produces global price databases and guidance on quantity assumptions to support country level costing exercises...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078815/study-protocol-incentives-for-increased-access-to-comprehensive-family-planning-for-urban-youth-using-a-benefits-card-in-uganda-a-quasi-experimental-study
#19
Afra Nuwasiima, Elly Nuwamanya, Patricia Navvuga, Janet U Babigumira, Francis T Asiimwe, Solomon J Lubinga, Joseph B Babigumira
BACKGROUND: The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding...
October 27, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078642/three-dimensional-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-for-pulmonary-resections-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Duilio Divisi, Mirko Barone, Roberto Crisci
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) allows to treat pulmonary and mediastinal diseases although two-dimensional (2D) imaging can make difficult to estimate the morphological and topographical characteristics of a lesion. Some technical aspects have certainly been corrected with the introduction of robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS), although not widespread in less economically developed countries. As an emerging imaging system and technique, 3D VATS is an interesting resource for thoracic surgeons and it may be a proper and valid aid in minimally-invasive surgery, but not an alternative or a compromise to the most expensive robotic technology...
2017: J Vis Surg
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