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Economic evaluation developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676618/cancer-risk-from-paediatric-computed-tomography-scanning-implications-for-radiation-protection-in-medicine
#1
A Kesminiene, E Cardis
The use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is clearly beneficial for millions of patients. However, the potential adverse health effects, particularly cancer, of ionising radiation exposure from CT early in life are an issue of growing concern in the radiological protection, medical, and public health communities. Although efforts to quantify these effects have been conducted, the precision and accuracy of reported risks needs confirmation. EPI-CT, a European collaborative epidemiological study, was set up to quantify risks from paediatric CT to optimise paediatric diagnostic protocol...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674798/switching-of-antihypertensive-drugs-at-tertiary-care-government-hospital-hyderabad-india-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-investigation
#2
Varsha Varakantham, Ashok Kumar Kurakula Sailoo, Venkaiah Kodali, Dinesh Kumar Bharatraj
OBJECTIVE: Switching of antihypertensive drugs is attributed to uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) which imposes a great burden on health economics. But again, switching leads to accomplishment of the goal BP, thereby improving the health status. Such studies are well documented in developed nations but rarely reported in developing countries, especially in India. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate various factors associated with switching of antihypertensive drugs. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective investigation was performed using a standardized schedule adapting the World Health Organization indicators for drug utilization in a tertiary care government hospital, Hyderabad, India...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642658/evaluation-of-the-exposure-to-environmental-pollutants-emanating-from-national-industrial-complexes
#3
Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Geunbae Kim, Sanghwan Song, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon
The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642612/ponseti-technique-for-the-management-of-congenital-talipes-equinovarus-in-a-rural-set-up-in-india-experience-of-356-patients
#4
Rohit Malhotra, Ashutosh Mohapatra, Geetika Arora, Priyam Choudhury, Hitesh Joshi, Pranav Patel
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also known as clubfoot, is a complex congenital deformity of the foot that, left untreated, can limit a person's mobility by making it difficult and painful to walk. Worldwide, 80% of children born with clubfoot are in low- and middle-income countries. The management of clubfoot has a long history. Non-operative management did not become popular, as an increasing number of orthopaedists started leaning towards surgical treatment. The late Dr. Ignacio Ponseti developed a method of clubfoot correction that successfully realigns clubfoot in infants without extensive and major surgery...
April 10, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642554/maritime-over-the-horizon-sensor-integration-high-frequency-surface-wave-radar-and-automatic-identification-system-data-integration-algorithm
#5
Dejan Nikolic, Nikola Stojkovic, Nikola Lekic
To obtain the complete operational picture of the maritime situation in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) which lies over the horizon (OTH) requires the integration of data obtained from various sensors. These sensors include: high frequency surface-wave-radar (HFSWR), satellite automatic identification system (SAIS) and land automatic identification system (LAIS). The algorithm proposed in this paper utilizes radar tracks obtained from the network of HFSWRs, which are already processed by a multi-target tracking algorithm and associates SAIS and LAIS data to the corresponding radar tracks, thus forming an integrated data pair...
April 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627535/environmental-and-sustainability-evaluation-of-livestock-waste-management-practices-in-cyprus
#6
Lucía Lijó, Nicola Frison, Francesco Fatone, Sara González-García, Gumersindo Feijoo, Maria Teresa Moreira
The aim of this study was to compare the environmental performance and sustainability of different management options for livestock waste in Cyprus. The two most common practices in the country, i.e. the use of anaerobic lagoons and conventional biogas plants, were compared with the innovative scheme developed in the LiveWaste project (LIFE12 ENV/CY/000544), which aims not only to produce bioenergy, but also to treat the digestate for nutrient recovery and water reuse. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the performance of these alternatives...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611869/contracting-out-to-improve-the-use-of-clinical-health-services-and-health-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
REVIEW
Willem A Odendaal, Kim Ward, Jesse Uneke, Henry Uro-Chukwu, Dereck Chitama, Yusentha Balakrishna, Tamara Kredo
BACKGROUND: Contracting out of governmental health services is a financing strategy that governs the way in which public sector funds are used to have services delivered by non-governmental health service providers (NGPs). It represents a contract between the government and an NGP, detailing the mechanisms and conditions by which the latter should provide health care on behalf of the government. Contracting out is intended to improve the delivery and use of healthcare services. This Review updates a Cochrane Review first published in 2009...
April 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605496/cost-effectiveness-of-posaconazole-in-private-and-public-brazilian-hospitals
#8
Felipe F B Tuon, Khaiany Lino Florencio, Clóvis Arns da Cunha, Jaime Luis Lopes Rocha
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is used for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Previous studies have shown it to be cost-effective compared to fluconazole/itraconazole. However, posaconazole has never been economically evaluated in developing countries. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of posaconazole compared to fluconazole in public (SUS) and private hospitals (PHS) in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness simulation was conducted on the basis of a pivotal study on the use of posaconazole in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, adjusting the costs to Brazilian data...
March 28, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603595/integrated-technological-and-management-solutions-for-wastewater-treatment-and-efficient-agricultural-reuse-in-egypt-morocco-and-tunisia
#9
REVIEW
Dario Frascari, Giulio Zanaroli, Mohamed Abdel Motaleb, Giorgio Annen, Khaoula Belguith, Sara Borin, Redouane Choukr-Allah, Catherine Gibert, Atef Jaouani, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Fawzi Karajeh, Philippe A Ker Rault, Roula Khadra, Stathis Kyriacou, Wen-Tao Li, Bruno Molle, Marijn Mulder, Emmanuel Oertlé, Consuelo Varela Ortega
Mediterranean African Countries (MACs) face a major water crisis. The annual renewable water resources are close to the 500 m3 /capita threshold of absolute water scarcity, and water withdrawals exceed total renewable water resources by 30%. Such a low water availability curbs economic development in particular in the field of agriculture, that accounts for 86% of freshwater consumption. The analysis of the current situation of wastewater treatment, irrigation and water management in MACs and of the research projects targeted to these countries indicates the need for i) an enhanced capacity to analyze water stress, ii) the development of water management strategies capable to include wastewater reuse, and iii) development of locally-adapted water treatment and irrigation technologies...
March 30, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601259/analysis-of-the-dose-sparing-effect-of-adjuvanted-sabin-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-sipv
#10
Zhuofan Li, Wenting Ding, Qi Guo, Liu Ze, Zhe Zhu, Song Shaohui, Weidong Li, Guoyang Liao
Sabin-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine(sIPV) is gradually replacing live-attenuated oral polio vaccine(OPV). Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine(sIPV) has played a vital role in reducing economic burden of poliomyelitis and maintaining appropriate antibody levels in the population. However, due to its high cost and limited manufacturing capacity, sIPV cannot reach its full potential for global poliovirus eradication in developing countries. Therefore, to address this situation, we designed this study to evaluate the dose-sparing effects of AS03, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) admixed with sIPV in rats...
March 30, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593426/clinical-and-economic-impact-of-the-21-gene-recurrence-score-assay-in-adjuvant-therapy-decision-making-in-patients-with-early-stage-breast-cancer-pooled-analysis-in-4-basque-country-university-hospitals
#11
Purificación Martínez Del Prado, Isabel Alvarez-López, Severina Domínguez-Fernández, Arrate Plazaola, Oliver Ibarrondo, Elena Galve-Calvo, Nerea Ancizar-Lizarraga, María Gutierrez-Toribio, Ainhara Lahuerta-Martínez, Javier Mar
Purpose: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) is a genomic test developed as a prognostic and predictive tool to improve the treatment decision making in cases of estrogen receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative early-stage breast cancer. This study examined the clinical and economic impact of its use in 4 Basque Country university hospitals. Methods: Taking into consideration the RS result, we recorded the recommended initial systemic adjuvant therapy (endocrine therapy with or without chemotherapy) according to standard clinicopathologic factors and the final decision about chemotherapy...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593106/ablation-of-the-stress-protease-oma1-protects-against-heart-failure-in-mice
#12
Rebeca Acin-Perez, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco, Maria Del Mar Muñoz, Rocío Nieto-Arellano, Carlos Torroja, Fátima Sánchez-Cabo, Concepción Jiménez, Andrés González-Guerra, Isabel Carrascoso, Cristiane Benincá, Pedro M Quiros, Carlos López-Otín, José María Castellano, Jesús Ruíz-Cabello, Luis Jesús Jiménez-Borreguero, José Antonio Enríquez
Heart failure (HF) is a major health and economic burden in developed countries. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis of HF may involve the action of mitochondria. We evaluate three different mouse models of HF: tachycardiomyopathy, HF with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), and LV myocardial ischemia and hypertrophy. Regardless of whether LVEF is preserved, our results indicate that the three models share common features: an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species followed by ultrastructural alterations in the mitochondrial cristae and loss of mitochondrial integrity that lead to cardiomyocyte death...
March 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565741/tuberculosis-and-cigarette-smoke-exposure-an-update-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#13
Y López-Hernández, C E Rivas-Santiago, J A López, G Mendoza-Almanza, R Hernandez-Pando
Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared the first cause of death by an infectious agent. Annually, 10.4 million people suffer active TB. Most infected individuals live in low-income countries, where social and economic conditions enhance the dissemination and progression of the disease. These countries have a high percentage of smokers. Thousands of studies have linked cigarette smoke (CS) with increased risk of many diseases, such as cancer and lung diseases. Numerous in vitro studies have been conducted to evaluate the general and specific toxic effects of CS in lung immune function...
March 22, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562499/potential-biomarkers-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-transcripto-mic-analysis-of-four-clinical-stages
#14
Grażyna Janikowska, Tomasz Janikowski, Alina Pyka-Paj K, Urszula Mazurek, Marcin Janikowski, Maciej Gonciarz, Zbigniew Lorenc
BACKGROUNDS: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in economically developed countries. Molecular studies and, in particular, gene expression have contributed to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers. Genes can be molecular and therapeutic markers, but because of the large molecular diversity in colorectal cancer the knowledge is not yet fully established. Probably one of the most crucial processes during early cancer development is inflammation. The inflammatory response in the tumor is an important indicator of molecular etiology and later of cancer progression...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554751/quantifying-and-evaluating-the-impacts-of-cooperation-in-transboundary-river-basins-on-the-water-energy-food-nexus-the-blue-nile-basin
#15
Mohammed Basheer, Kevin G Wheeler, Lars Ribbe, Mohammad Majdalawi, Gamal Abdo, Edith A Zagona
Efficient utilization of the limited Water, Energy, and Food (WEF) resources in stressed transboundary river basins requires understanding their interlinkages in different transboundary cooperation conditions. The Blue Nile Basin, a transboundary river basin between Ethiopia and Sudan, is used to illustrate the impacts of cooperation between riparian countries on the Water-Energy-Food nexus (WEF nexus). These impacts are quantified and evaluated using a daily model that simulates hydrological processes, irrigation water requirements, and water allocation to hydro-energy generation and irrigation water supply...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533824/biomass-to-levulinic-acid-a-techno-economic-analysis-and-sustainability-of-biorefinery-processes-in-southeast-asia
#16
V Isoni, D Kumbang, P N Sharratt, H H Khoo
Aligned with Singapore's commitment to sustainable development and investment in renewable resources, cleaner energy and technology (Sustainable Singapore Blueprint), we report a techno-economic analysis of the biorefinery process in Southeast Asia. The considerations in this study provide an overview of the current and future challenges in the biomass-to-chemical processes with life-cycle thinking, linking the land used for agriculture and biomass to the levulinic acid production. 7-8 kg of lignocellulosic feedstock (glucan content 30-35 wt%) from agriculture residues empty fruit bunches (EFB) or rice straw (RS) can be processed to yield 1 kg of levulinic acid...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510946/assessment-of-copper-and-zinc-recovery-from-mswi-fly-ash-in-guangzhou-based-on-a-hydrometallurgical-process
#17
Jinfeng Tang, Minhua Su, Hongguo Zhang, Tangfu Xiao, Yu Liu, Yifan Liu, Lezhang Wei, Christian Ekberg, Britt-Marie Steenari
Fly ash commonly accumulates a significant amount of heavy metals and most of these heavy metals are toxic and easily leached out to the environment, posing risks to human health. Thus, fly ash has been classified as a type of hazardous waste and requires proper treatment before disposal in specific landfill sites for hazardous waste. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process developed to recover copper and zinc performed in pilot scale close to industrial scale followed by a landfill compliance leaching test of the ash residue is evaluated...
March 3, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507808/health-surveillance-for-former-asbestos-exposed-worker-a-specific-programme-developed-in-an-italian-region
#18
Elisabetta Chellini, Francesca Battisti, Alfonso Cristaudo, Pietro Sartorelli, Piergiuseppe Calà
Asbestos-related diseases usually have a long latency since first exposure and this legitimates a health surveillance programme addressed to asbestos workers after the cessation of their occupational exposure. After a brief history of health surveillance initiatives performed in Italy as well as in other countries, we describe a regional programme for former asbestos-exposed workers, focusing on organizational features. A regional group of experts defined its operational and economical aspects. The Regional Council supported the whole programme, making it free of charge for all subjects who fulfil the predefined enrolment criteria (being resident in the region, being younger than 80 years old with cessation of occupational asbestos exposure within the last 30 years)...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496734/let-s-stop-trying-to-quantify-household-vulnerability-the-problem-with-simple-scales-for-targeting-and-evaluating-economic-strengthening-programs
#19
Whitney M Moret
INTRODUCTION: Economic strengthening practitioners are increasingly seeking data collection tools that will help them target households vulnerable to HIV and poor child well-being outcomes, match households to appropriate interventions, monitor their status, and determine readiness for graduation from project support. This article discusses efforts in 3 countries to develop simple, valid tools to quantify and classify economic vulnerability status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Côte d'Ivoire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 3,749 households to develop a scale based on the definition of HIV-related economic vulnerability from the U...
March 1, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495495/an-affordable-insole-sensor-based-trans-femoral-prosthesis-for-normal-gait
#20
Srinivas Pandit, Anoop Kant Godiyal, Amit Kumar Vimal, Upinderpal Singh, Deepak Joshi, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
This paper proposes a novel and an affordable lower limb prosthesis to enable normal gait kinematics for trans-femoral amputees. The paper details the design of a passive prosthesis with magneto-rheological (MR) damping system and electronic control. A new control approach based on plantar insole feedback was employed here. Strategically placed sensors on the plantar insole provide required information about gait cycle to a finite state controller for suitable action. A proportional integral (PI) based current controller controls the required current for necessary damping during gait...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
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