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Economic evaluation developing countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432979/the-reality-of-economics-for-oncologists
#1
REVIEW
David Taylor
This article outlines the historical development of health economics and its present role in oncology related health technology assessments (HTAs). Despite concerns about the prices and immediate costs of new anticancer medicines for indications such as breast cancer overall spending on such treatments is affordable and offers long term value for money in countries such as the US, Canada and those of Western Europe. Oncologists wishing to protect the interests of current and future patients with both advanced and earlier stage cancers may be regarded as having a responsibility to understand the nature of health economic evaluations, and to be actively involved in decisions affecting access to current treatments and future levels of investment in incrementally improving therapies...
April 19, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430419/prediction-of-hydrolysis-products-of-organic-chemicals-under-environmental-ph-conditions
#2
Caroline Tebes-Stevens, Jay M Patel, W Jack Jones, Eric J Weber
Cheminformatics-based software tools can predict the molecular structure of transformation products using a library of transformation reaction schemes. This paper presents the development of such a library for abiotic hydrolysis of organic chemicals under environmentally relevant conditions. The hydrolysis reaction schemes in the library encode the process science gathered from peer-reviewed literature and regulatory reports. Each scheme has been ranked on a scale of one to six based on the median half-life in a data set compiled from literature-reported hydrolysis rates...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424062/health-system-factors-influencing-management-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-four-european-union-countries-learning-from-country-experiences
#3
Gerard de Vries, Svetla Tsolova, Laura F Anderson, Agnes C Gebhard, Einar Heldal, Vahur Hollo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero Cejudo, Daniela Schmid, Bert Schreuder, Tonka Varleva, Marieke J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421518/empirical-research-on-coordination-evaluation-and-sustainable-development-mechanism-of-regional-logistics-and-new-type-urbanization-a-panel-data-analysis-from-2000-to-2015-for-liaoning-province-in-china
#4
Qiang Sun
As the largest developing country in the world, China has witnessed fast-paced urbanization over the past three decades with rapid economic growth. In fact, urbanization has been not only shown to promote economic growth and improve the livelihood of people but also can increase demands of regional logistics. Therefore, a better understanding of the relationship between urbanization and regional logistics is important for China's future sustainable development. The development of urban residential area and heterogeneous, modern society as well regional logistics are running two abreast...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421127/using-agent-based-models-to-develop-public-policy-about-food-behaviours-future-directions-and-recommendations
#5
REVIEW
Philippe J Giabbanelli, Rik Crutzen
Most adults are overweight or obese in many western countries. Several population-level interventions on the physical, economical, political, or sociocultural environment have thus attempted to achieve a healthier weight. These interventions have involved different weight-related behaviours, such as food behaviours. Agent-based models (ABMs) have the potential to help policymakers evaluate food behaviour interventions from a systems perspective. However, fully realizing this potential involves a complex procedure starting with obtaining and analyzing data to populate the model and eventually identifying more efficient cross-sectoral policies...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420539/hta-and-decision-making-processes-in-central-eastern-and-south-eastern-europe-results-from-a-survey
#6
Leticia García-Mochón, Jaime Espín Balbino, Antonio Olry de Labry Lima, Araceli Caro Martinez, Eva Martin Ruiz, Román Pérez Velasco
OBJECTIVE: To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges...
March 31, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419265/validation-of-the-sepsis-metascore-for-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis
#7
Timothy E Sweeney, James L Wynn, María Cernada, Eva Serna, Hector R Wong, Henry V Baker, Máximo Vento, Purvesh Khatri
What’s Known on This Subject.: Neonates are at increased risk for developing sepsis, but this population often exhibits ambiguous clinical signs that complicate the diagnosis of infection. No biomarker has yet shown enough diagnostic accuracy to rule out sepsis at the time of clinical suspicion. What This Study Adds.: We show that a gene-expression-based signature is an accurate objective measure of the risk of sepsis in a neonate or preterm infant, and it substantially improves diagnostic accuracy over that of commonly used laboratory-based testing...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400858/multi-product-biorefineries-from-lignocelluloses-a-pathway-to-revitalisation-of-the-sugar-industry
#8
Somayeh Farzad, Mohsen Ali Mandegari, Miao Guo, Kathleen F Haigh, Nilay Shah, Johann F Görgens
BACKGROUND: Driven by a range of sustainability challenges, e.g. climate change, resource depletion and expanding populations, a circular bioeconomy is emerging and expected to evolve progressively in the coming decades. South Africa along with other BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) represents the emerging bioeconomy and contributes significantly to global sugar market. In our research, South Africa is used as a case study to demonstrate the sustainable design for the future biorefineries annexed to existing sugar industry...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400605/an-evaluation-of-the-ecological-and-environmental-security-on-china-s-terrestrial-ecosystems
#9
Hongqi Zhang, Erqi Xu
With rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, various ecological and environmental problems occur, which threaten and undermine the sustainable development and domestic survival of China. On the national scale, our progress remains in a state of qualitative or semi-quantitative evaluation, lacking a quantitative evaluation and a spatial visualization of ecological and environmental security. This study collected 14 indictors of water, land, air, and biodiversity securities to compile a spatial evaluation of ecological and environmental security in terrestrial ecosystems of China...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400128/hta-programme-response-to-the-challenges-of-dealing-with-orphan-medicinal-products-process-evaluation-in-selected-european-countries
#10
Elena Nicod, Lieven Annemans, Anna Bucsics, Anne Lee, Sheela Upadhyaya, Karen Facey
BACKGROUND: Challenges commonly encountered in HTA of orphan medicinal products (OMPs) were identified in Advance-HTA. Since then, new initiatives have been developed to specifically address issues related to HTA of OMPs. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This study aimed to understand why these new HTA initiatives in England, Scotland and at European-level were established and whether they resolve the challenges of OMPs. The work of Advance-HTA was updated with a literature review and a conceptual framework of clinical, regulatory and economic challenges for OMPs was developed...
March 28, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399772/nurse-led-ranibizumab-intravitreal-injections-in-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-literature-review
#11
Emma Gregg
Aim The aim of this literature review was to explore the development of the role of specialist ophthalmic nurses in delivering ranibizumab intravitreal injections to patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to evaluate their contribution to reducing capacity pressures in medical retina services, while maintaining safe and effective standards of care. Method A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify relevant articles published between January 2000 and June 2015. A search of electronic databases was undertaken, and selected relevant journals were searched manually...
April 12, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395145/socio-economic-costs-of-indoor-air-pollution-a-tentative-estimation-for-some-pollutants-of-health-interest-in-france
#12
Guillaume Boulanger, Thomas Bayeux, Corinne Mandin, Séverine Kirchner, Benoit Vergriette, Valérie Pernelet-Joly, Pierre Kopp
An evaluation of the socio-economic costs of indoor air pollution can facilitate the development of appropriate public policies. For the first time in France, such an evaluation was conducted for six selected pollutants: benzene, trichloroethylene, radon, carbon monoxide, particles (PM2.5 fraction), and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The health impacts of indoor exposure were either already available in published works or were calculated. For these calculations, two approaches were followed depending on the available data: the first followed the principles of quantitative health risk assessment, and the second was based on concepts and methods related to the health impact assessment...
April 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391894/cost-effectiveness-of-a-cascade-screening-program-for-the-early-detection-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#13
Pablo Lázaro, Leopoldo Pérez de Isla, Gerald F Watts, Rodrigo Alonso, Richard Norman, Ovidio Muñiz, Francisco Fuentes, Nelva Mata, José López-Miranda, José Ramón González-Juanatey, José Luis Díaz-Díaz, Antonio Javier Blasco, Pedro Mata
BACKGROUND: Although familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) confers a high risk of coronary artery disease, most patients are undiagnosed, and little is known about the efficiency of genetic cascade screening programs at national level. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a national genetic cascade screening program in Spain. METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed using a decision tree analysis. The choice in the decision tree was between implementation of the national program for FH (NPFH) or keeping the usual clinical care...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384580/inventory-analysis-and-carbon-footprint-of-coastland-hotel-services-a-spanish-case-study
#14
Rita Puig, Eylem Kiliç, Alejandra Navarro, Jaume Albertí, Lorenzo Chacón, Pere Fullana-I-Palmer
Tourism is a key industry in the Spanish economy. Spain was in the World top three ranking by international tourist arrivals and by income in 2015. The development of the tourism industry is essential to maintain the established economic system. However, if the environmental requirements were not taken into account, the country would face a negative effect on depletion of local environmental resources from which tourism depends. This case study evaluates, through a life cycle perspective, the average carbon footprint of an overnight stay in a Spanish coastland hotel by analyzing 14 two-to-five-stars hotels...
April 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382322/telemedicine-for-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-the-endoscopic-club-e-conference-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#15
Shiaw-Hooi Ho, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Kuriko Kudo, Shunta Tomimatsu, Mohamad Zahir Ahmad, Akira Aso, Dong Wan Seo, Khean-Lee Goh, Shuji Shimizu
Background and study aims An Endoscopic Club E-conference (ECE) was set up in May 2014 to cater to increased demand for gastrointestinal endoscopy-related teleconferences in the Asia-Pacific region which were traditionally organized by the medical working group (MWG) of Asia-Pacific Advanced Network. This study describes how the ECE meeting was run, examines the group dynamics, outlines feedback and analyzes factors affecting the enthusiasm of participants. It is hoped that the findings here can serve as guidance for future development of other teleconference groups...
April 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380060/cost-effectiveness-of-dengue-vaccination-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico-using-a-dynamic-dengue-transmission-model
#16
Eunha Shim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of dengue fever (DF) is steadily increasing in Mexico, burdening health systems with consequent morbidities and mortalities. On December 9th, 2015, Mexico became the first country for which the dengue vaccine was approved for use. In anticipation of a vaccine rollout, analysis of the cost-effectiveness of the dengue vaccination program that quantifies the dynamics of disease transmission is essential. METHODS: We developed a dynamic transmission model of dengue in Yucatán, Mexico and its proposed vaccination program to incorporate herd immunity into our analysis of cost-effectiveness analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373758/typhoid-intestinal-perforation-in-developing-countries-still-unavoidable-deaths
#17
EDITORIAL
Sandro Contini
Typhoid fever is a public health challenge mostly concentrated in impoverished, overcrowded areas of the developing world, with lack of safe drinking and sanitation. The most serious complication is typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP), observed in 0.8% to 39%, with a striking rate difference between high-income and low-middle-income countries. Although the mortality rate consequent to TIP in resource-poor countries is improved in the last decades, it is still fluctuating from 5% to 80%, due to surgical- and not surgical-related constraints...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370783/coal-mine-dust-lung-disease-in-the-modern-era
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer L Perret, Brian Plush, Philippe Lachapelle, Timothy S C Hinks, Clare Walter, Philip Clarke, Louis Irving, Pat Brady, Shyamali C Dharmage, Alastair Stewart
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), as part of the spectrum of coal mine dust lung disease (CMDLD), is a preventable but incurable lung disease that can be complicated by respiratory failure and death. Recent increases in coal production from the financial incentive of economic growth lead to higher respirable coal and quartz dust levels, often associated with mechanization of longwall coal mining. In Australia, the observed increase in the number of new CWP diagnoses since the year 2000 has necessitated a review of recommended respirable dust exposure limits, where exposure limits and monitoring protocols should ideally be standardized...
May 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365820/spatialization-of-brazilian-pig-production-relationship-between-productive-physical-environmental-and-socio-economic-variables
#19
Isabel C M da Silva, Bárbara Bremm, Jennifer L Teixeira, Nathalia S Costa, Júlio O J Barcellos, José Braccini, Robson J Cesconeto, Concepta McManus
Brazilian pig production spans over a large territory encompassing regions of different climatic and socio-economic realities. Production, physical, socio-economic, and environmental data were used to characterize pig production in the country. Multivariate analysis evaluated indices including number productivity, production levels, and income from pigs, together with the average area of pig farm and socio-economic variables such as municipal human development index, technical guidance received from agricultural cooperatives and industrial companies, number of family farms, and offtake; and finally, environmental variables: latitude, longitude, annual temperature range, solar radiation index, as well as temperature and humidity index...
April 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361817/epilepsy-is-there-hope
#20
REVIEW
Carlos A M Guerreiro
Epilepsy is a highly prevalent chronic neurologic disorder and leads to social, behavioural, health and economic consequences. 'Treatment gap' varies from 10 per cent in developed countries to 75 per cent in low-income countries. Stigma and discrimination related to epilepsy are prevalent worldwide. Electroencephalography (EEG) is considered the most important tool for evaluating the patient with epilepsy. Video-EEG monitoring is an important tool for confirming the seizure type and estimating the epileptogenic zone in the brain...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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