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Bud dormancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626038/phenology-of-perennial-native-grass-belowground-axillary-buds-in-the-northern-mixed-grass-prairie
#1
Morgan L Russell, Lance T Vermeire, Amy C Ganguli, John R Hendrickson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of bud banks, the timing of recruitment and the crucial link between formation and maintenance is unknown. METHODS: We assessed patterns of belowground bud development, dormancy, and mortality associated with three perennial native grasses in the northern Great Plains. Temperature and soil moisture were measured below the soil surface to determine relationships with belowground bud development...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600566/comparative-morphology-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-distinct-functions-of-the-primary-and-secondary-laticifer-cells-in-the-rubber-tree
#2
Deguan Tan, Xiaowen Hu, Lili Fu, Anuwat Kumpeangkeaw, Zehong Ding, Xuepiao Sun, Jiaming Zhang
Laticifers are highly specialized cells that synthesize and store natural rubber. Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) contain both primary and secondary laticifers. Morphological and functional differences between the two types of laticifers are largely unknown, but such information is important for breeding and cultivation practices. Morphological comparison using paraffin sections revealed only distribution differences: the primary laticifers were distributed randomly, while the secondary laticifers were distributed in concentric rings...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588590/a-conserved-carbon-starvation-response-underlies-bud-dormancy-in-woody-and-herbaceous-species
#3
Carlos Tarancón, Eduardo González-Grandío, Juan C Oliveros, Michael Nicolas, Pilar Cubas
Plant shoot systems give rise to characteristic above-ground plant architectures. Shoots are formed from axillary meristems and buds, whose growth and development is modulated by systemic and local signals. These cues convey information about nutrient and water availability, light quality, sink/source organ activity and other variables that determine the timeliness and competence to maintain development of new shoots. This information is translated into a local response, in meristems and buds, of growth or quiescence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586469/dormancy-associated-mads-box-dam-and-abscisic-acid-pathway-regulate-pear-endodormancy-through-a-feedback-mechanism
#4
Pham Anh Tuan, Songling Bai, Takanori Saito, Akiko Ito, Takaya Moriguchi
In the pear 'Kosui' (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpDAM1 = PpMADS13-1) gene has been reported to play an essential role in bud endodormancy. Here, we found that PpDAM1 upregulated expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (PpNCED3), which is a rate-limiting gene for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Transient assays with dual luciferase reporter system (LUC assay) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PpDAM1 activated PpNCED3 expression by binding to the CArG motif in the PpNCED3 promoter...
June 6, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579998/aba-represses-the-expression-of-cell-cycle-genes-and-may-modulate-the-development-of-endodormancy-in-grapevine-buds
#5
Ricardo Vergara, Ximena Noriega, Karla Aravena, Humberto Prieto, Francisco J Pérez
Recently, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated as a key player in the regulation of endodormancy (ED) in grapevine buds (Vitis vinifera L). In this study, we show that in the vine, the expression of genes related to the biosynthesis of ABA (VvNCED1; VvNCED2) and the content of ABA are significantly higher in the latent bud than at the shoot apex, while the expression of an ABA catabolic gene (VvA8H3) showed no significant difference between either organ. A negative correlation between the content of ABA and transcript levels of cell cycle genes (CCG) was found in both tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579996/cyanogenic-glucosides-and-derivatives-in-almond-and-sweet-cherry-flower-buds-from-dormancy-to-flowering
#6
Jorge Del Cueto, Irina A Ionescu, Martina Pičmanová, Oliver Gericke, Mohammed S Motawia, Carl E Olsen, José A Campoy, Federico Dicenta, Birger L Møller, Raquel Sánchez-Pérez
Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars - differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time - and in one sweet early cherry cultivar...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551285/insights-into-the-unique-torpor-of-botrylloides-leachi-a-colonial-urochordate
#7
Yosef Hyams, Guy Paz, Claudette Rabinowitz, Baruch Rinkevich
Rough environmental conditions make the survival of many multi-cellular organisms almost impossible, enforcing behavioral, morphological, physiological and reproductive rejoinders that can cope with harsh times and hostile environments, frequently through down-regulation of metabolism into basal states of dormancy, or torpor. This study examines one of the most unique torpor strategies seen within the phylum Chordata, exhibited by the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi, which enters a state of hibernation or aestivation in response to thermal stress, during which all of its functional colonial units (zooids) are entirely absorbed and the colony survives as small remnants of the vasculature, lacking both feeding and reproduction organs...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541567/dna-methylation-and-small-interference-rnas-participate-in-the-regulation-of-mads-box-genes-involved-in-dormancy-in-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-l
#8
Karin Rothkegel, Evelyn Sánchez, Christian Montes, Macarena Greve, Sebastián Tapia, Soraya Bravo, Humberto Prieto, Andréa Miyasaka Almeida
Epigenetic modifications can yield information about connections between genotype, phenotype variation and environmental conditions. Bud dormancy release in temperate perennial fruit trees depends on internal and environmental signals such as cold accumulation and photoperiod. Previous investigations have noted the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the control of this physiological process. We examined whether epigenetic modifications were modulated in MADS-box genes, potential candidates for the regulation of bud dormancy and flowering in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458678/comprehensive-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-differential-gene-expression-profiles-of-camellia-sinensis-axillary-buds-at-para-endo-ecodormancy-and-bud-flush-stages
#9
Xinyuan Hao, Yajun Yang, Chuan Yue, Lu Wang, David P Horvath, Xinchao Wang
Winter dormancy is an important biological feature for tea plant to survive cold winters, and it also affects the economic output of tea plant, one of the few woody plants in the world whose leaves are harvested and one of the few non-conifer evergreen species with characterized dormancies. To discover the bud dormancy regulation mechanism of tea plant in winter, we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of axillary buds at the paradormancy, endodormancy, ecodormancy, and bud flush stages by RNA-Seq analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421103/svp-like-mads-box-genes-control-dormancy-and-budbreak-in-apple
#10
Rongmei Wu, Sumathi Tomes, Sakuntala Karunairetnam, Stuart D Tustin, Roger P Hellens, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
The annual growth cycle of trees is the result of seasonal cues. The onset of winter triggers an endodormant state preventing bud growth and, once a chilling requirement is satisfied, these buds enter an ecodormant state and resume growing. MADS-box genes with similarity to Arabidopsis SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) [the SVP-like and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM) genes] have been implicated in regulating flowering and growth-dormancy cycles in perennials. Here, we identified and characterized three DAM-like (MdDAMs) and two SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE-like (MdSVPs) genes from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala')...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369532/three-ft-and-multiple-cen-and-bft-genes-regulate-maturity-flowering-and-vegetative-phenology-in-kiwifruit
#11
Charlotte Voogd, Lara A Brian, Tianchi Wang, Andrew C Allan, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Kiwifruit is a woody perennial horticultural crop, characterized by excessive vegetative vigor, prolonged juvenility, and low productivity. To understand the molecular factors controlling flowering and winter dormancy, here we identify and characterize the kiwifruit PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) gene family. Five CEN-like and three BFT-like genes are differentially expressed and act as functionally conserved floral repressors, while two MFT-like genes have no impact on flowering time. FT-like genes are differentially expressed, with AcFT1 confined to shoot tip and AcFT2 to mature leaves...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365837/comparison-of-phytohormone-levels-and-transcript-profiles-during-seasonal-dormancy-transitions-in-underground-adventitious-buds-of-leafy-spurge
#12
Wun S Chao, Münevver Doğramacı, David P Horvath, James V Anderson, Michael E Foley
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and ecodormancy in summer, fall, and winter, respectively. These dormancy phases can also be induced in growth chambers by manipulating photoperiod and temperature. In this study, UABs induced into the three phases of dormancy under controlled conditions were used to compare changes in phytohormone and transcriptome profiles...
April 1, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336950/dual-regulation-of-water-retention-and-cell-growth-by-a-stress-associated-protein-sap-gene-in-prunus
#13
Alba Lloret, Ana Conejero, Carmen Leida, César Petri, Francisco Gil-Muñoz, Lorenzo Burgos, María Luisa Badenes, Gabino Ríos
We have identified a gene (PpSAP1) of Prunus persica coding for a stress-associated protein (SAP) containing Zn-finger domains A20 and AN1. SAPs have been described as regulators of the abiotic stress response in plant species, emerging as potential candidates for improvement of stress tolerance in plants. PpSAP1 was highly expressed in leaves and dormant buds, being down-regulated before bud dormancy release. PpSAP1 expression was moderately induced by water stresses and heat in buds. In addition, it was found that PpSAP1 strongly interacts with polyubiquitin proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207822/identification-classification-and-transcription-profiles-of-the-b-type-response-regulator-family-in-pear
#14
Junbei Ni, Songling Bai, Ling Gao, Minjie Qian, Linbing Zhong, Yuanwen Teng
Type-B response regulators (B-RRs) are transcription factors that function in the final step of two-component signaling systems. In model plants, B-RRs have been shown to play important roles in cytokinin signal transduction. However, the functions of B-RRs in pear have not been well studied. In this report, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 11 putative genes encoding B-PpRR proteins based on the published genome sequence of Pyrus bretschneideri. A phylogenetic tree of the B-PpRR family was constructed, and the motif distribution, chromosome localization, and gene structure of B-PpRR family genes were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198417/chilling-affects-phytohormone-and-post-embryonic-development-pathways-during-bud-break-and-fruit-set-in-apple-malus-domestica-borkh
#15
Gulshan Kumar, Khushboo Gupta, Shivalika Pathania, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Usha Kumari Rattan, Gagandeep Singh, Ram Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Singh
The availability of sufficient chilling during bud dormancy plays an important role in the subsequent yield and quality of apple fruit, whereas, insufficient chilling availability negatively impacts the apple production. The transcriptome profiling during bud dormancy release and initial fruit set under low and high chill conditions was performed using RNA-seq. The comparative high number of differentially expressed genes during bud break and fruit set under high chill condition indicates that chilling availability was associated with transcriptional reorganization...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103799/comparative-rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bud-dormancy-in-grape
#16
Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Long Sun, Chun-Xia Li, Muhammad Faheem, Wu Wang, Jian-Min Tao
BACKGROUND: Bud dormancy is an important biological phenomenon of perennial plants that enables them to survive under harsh environmental circumstances. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most grown fruit crop worldwide; however, underlying mechanisms involved in grape bud dormancy are not yet clear. This work was aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism regulating bud dormancy in grape. RESULTS: We have performed transcriptome and differential transcript expression analyses of "Shine Muscat" grape buds using the Illumina RNA-seq system...
January 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064193/time-indices-of-multiphasic-development-in-genotypes-of-sweet-cherry-are-similar-from-dormancy-to-cessation-of-pit-growth
#17
David M Gibeaut, Matthew D Whiting, Todd Einhorn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909827/remediation-of-blowouts-by-clonal-plants-in-maqu-degraded-alpine-grasslands-of-northwest-china
#18
JianJun Kang, WenZhi Zhao, Ming Zhao
The sand-fixation of plants is considered to be the most effective and fundamental measure in desertification control in many arid and semi-arid regions. Carex brunnescens (Carex spp) and Leymus secalinus (Leymus), two perennial clonal herbs native to the Maqu degraded alpine areas of northwest China, are dominant and constructive species in active sand dunes that have excellent adaptability to fix sand dunes found to date. In order to study the ability and mechanism of sandland blowout remediation by two clone plants C...
March 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901272/photoperiod-and-temperature-mediated-control-of-phenology-in-trees-a-molecular-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Rajesh Kumar Singh, Tetiana Svystun, Badr AlDahmash, Anna Maria Jönsson, Rishikesh P Bhalerao
Contents 511 I. 511 II. 512 III. 513 IV. 513 V. 517 VI. 517 VII. 521 VIII. 521 Acknowledgements 521 References 521 SUMMARY: Trees growing in boreal and temperate regions synchronize their growth with seasonal climatic changes in adaptive responses that are essential for their survival. These trees cease growth before the winter and establish a dormant state during which growth cessation is maintained by repression of responses to growth-promotive signals. Reactivation of growth in the spring follows the release from dormancy promoted by prolonged exposure to low temperature during the winter...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#20
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
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