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Bud dormancy

Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Xue Yong, Xuehua Xie, Yu Han, Yushu Li, Lidan Sun, Qixiang Zhang
The survival in freezing temperature for woody plants is exclusively dependent on the perception of coldness and induction of dormancy. CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factors join cold-response conduits and the DAM genes, especially PmDAM6, are well-known regulators of dormancy. Despite the immense importance, little is documented on the association between CBF proteins and the complexity of the promoter region in PmDAM6 with the function of bud dormancy in P. mume. Therefore, this study was based on the cloning of PmDAM6 and six PmCBFs to evaluate their integral roles in the process of bud development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jihua Ding, Henrik Böhlenius, Mark Georg Rühl, Peng Chen, Shashank Sane, Jose A Zambrano, Bo Zheng, Maria E Eriksson, Ove Nilsson
Survival of trees growing in temperate zones requires cycling between active growth and dormancy. This involves growth cessation in the autumn triggered by a photoperiod shorter than the critical day length. Variations in GIGANTEA (GI)-like genes have been associated with phenology in a range of different tree species, but characterization of the functions of these genes in the process is still lacking. We describe the identification of the Populus orthologs of GI and their critical role in short-day-induced growth cessation...
March 13, 2018: New Phytologist
Humberto Mitio Horikoshi, Yoshihiko Sekozawa, Makoto Kobayashi, Kazuki Saito, Miyako Kusano, Sumiko Sugaya
Dormancy is a complex phenomenon that allows plants to survive the winter season. Studies of dormancy have recently attracted more attention due to the expansion of temperate fruit production in areas under mild winters and due to climate changes. This study aimed to identify and characterize the metabolic changes induced by chilling temperatures, as well as during thermal fluctuation conditions that simulate mild winter and/or climate change scenarios. To do this, we compared the metabolic profile of Japanese pear flower buds exposed to constant chilling at 6 °C and thermal fluctuations of 6 °C/18 °C (150 h/150 h) during endodormancy...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Erica Fadón, María Herrero, Javier Rodrigo
Temperate woody perennials survive to low temperatures in winter entering a dormant stage. Dormancy is not just a survival strategy, since chilling accumulation is required for proper flowering and arbitrates species adaptation to different latitudes. In spite of the fact that chilling requirements have been known for two centuries, the biological basis behind remain elusive. Since chilling accumulation is required for the normal growth of flower buds, it is tempting to hypothesize that something might be going on at this particular stage during winter dormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Zongda Xu, Yushu Li, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume , PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6 . The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lin Lv, Ximei Huo, Luhua Wen, Zhihong Gao, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman
Bud dormancy release is regulated by gibberellins (GAs). DELLA proteins are highly conserved and act as negative regulators in GA signaling pathway. The present study established a relationship between PmRGL2 in Japanese apricot and GA4 levels during dormancy release of floral buds. Overexpression of PmRGL2 in poplar delayed the onset of bud dormancy and resulted in dwarf plants, relative to wild-type trees. PmRGL2 exhibited higher expression during ecodormancy and relatively lower expression during endodormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chuanlin Zheng, Atiako Kwame Acheampong, Zhaowan Shi, Tamar Halaly, Yuji Kamiya, Ron Ophir, David W Galbraith, Etti Or
The molecular mechanism regulating dormancy release in grapevine buds is as yet unclear. It has been proposed that (1) Abscisic acid (ABA) represses bud-meristem activity; (2) Perturbation of respiration induces an interplay between ethylene and ABA metabolism, which leads to repression removal; (3) Gibberellin (GA)-mediated growth is resumed. The first two propositions have been formally supported. The current study examines the third proposition regarding the potential involvement of GA in dormancy release...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Diogo Denardi Porto, Yohanna Evelyn Miotto, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo Dias de Oliveira, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro, Giancarlo Pasquali, Luís Fernando Revers
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which play roles in carbon storage, signal transduction, and osmoprotection. The present work assessed the evolutionary history of GolS genes across the Rosaceae using several bioinformatic tools. Apple (Malus × domestica) GolS genes were transcriptionally characterized during bud dormancy, in parallel with galactinol and raffinose measurements. Additionally, MdGolS2, a candidate to regulate seasonal galactinol and RFO content during apple bud dormancy, was functionally characterized in Arabidopsis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jianzhao Li, Ying Xu, Qingfeng Niu, Lufang He, Yuanwen Teng, Songling Bai
Dormancy is an adaptive mechanism that allows temperate deciduous plants to survive unfavorable winter conditions. In the present work, we investigated the possible function of abscisic acid (ABA) on the endodormancy process in pear. The ABA content increased during pear flower bud endodormancy establishment and decreased towards endodormancy release. In total, 39 putative genes related to ABA metabolism and signal transductions were identified from pear genome. During the para- to endodormancy transition, PpNCED-2 and PpNCED-3 had high expression levels, while PpCYP707As expression levels were low...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marvin Duvalsaint, Dennis E Kyle
Many organisms undergo dormancy as a stress response to survive under unfavorable conditions that might impede development. This is observed in seed and buds of plants and has been proposed as mechanism of drug evasion and resistance formation in Plasmodium falciparum We explored the effects of the phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), on dihydroartemisinin induced dormant erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum parasites. Dormant ring stages exposed to ABA and GA recovered from dormancy up to 48 hr earlier than parasites exposed to DHA alone...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marzenna Guzicka, Tomasz A Pawlowski, Aleksandra Staszak, Roman Rozkowski, Daniel J Chmura
The dormancy and the growth of trees in temperate climates are synchronized with seasons. Preparation for dormancy and its proper progression are key for survival and development in the next season. Using a unique approach that combined microscopy and proteomic methods, we investigated changes in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) embryonic shoots during four distinct stages of dormancy in natural weather conditions. We identified 13 proteins that varied among dormancy stages, and were linked to regulation of protein level; functioning of chloroplasts and other plastids; DNA and RNA regulation; and oxidative stress...
December 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
Xiaodong Hou, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Yanhua Liu, Ning Yan, Zhongfeng Zhang
Sprouting is a key factor affecting the quality of potato tubers. The present study aimed to compare the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the apical meristem during the dormancy release and sprouting stages by using lncRNA sequencing. Microscopic observations and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed the changes in the morphology and expression of lncRNAs in potato tubers during sprouting. Meristematic cells of potato tuber apical buds divided continuously and exhibited vegetative cone bulging and vascularisation...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jiaping Zhang, Danqing Li, Xiaohua Shi, Dong Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jianfen Wei, Jiao Zhang, Jianghua Zhou, Kaiyuan Zhu, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: The artificial enlargement of the planting area and ecological amplitude of ornamentals for horticultural and landscape applications are significant. Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a world-famous ornamental with attractive and fragrant flowers and is mainly planted in temperate and cool areas. Comparatively higher winter temperatures in the subtropical and tropical Northern Hemisphere result in a deficit of chilling accumulation for bud dormancy release, which severely hinders "The southward plantation of herbaceous peony"...
December 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Rongmei Wu, Tianchi Wang, Ben A W Warren, Susan J Thomson, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Genome-wide targets of Actinidia chinensis SVP2 confirm roles in ABA- and dehydration-mediated growth repression and reveal a conservation in mechanism of action between SVP genes of taxonomically distant Arabidopsis and a woody perennial kiwifruit. The molecular mechanisms underlying growth and dormancy in woody perennials are largely unknown. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) plays a key role in the progression from vegetative to floral development, and in woody perennials SVP-like genes are also proposed to be involved in controlling dormancy...
February 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Chuan Yue, Hongli Cao, Xinyuan Hao, Jianming Zeng, Wenjun Qian, Yuqiong Guo, Naixing Ye, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
Thirty genes involved in GA and ABA metabolism and signalling were identified, and the expression profiles indicated that they play crucial roles in the bud activity-dormancy transition in tea plants. Gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are fundamental phytohormones that extensively regulate plant growth and development, especially bud dormancy and sprouting transition in perennial plants. However, there is little information on GA- and ABA-related genes and their expression profiles during the activity-dormancy transition in tea plants...
March 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ali M Missaoui, Dariusz P Malinowski, William E Pinchak, Jaime Kigel
Summer dormancy is an evolutionary response that some perennial cool-season grasses adopted as an avoidance strategy to escape summer drought and heat. It is correlated with superior survival after severe summer droughts in many perennial grass species originating from Mediterranean environments. Understanding the genetic mechanism and environmental determinants of summer dormancy is important for interpreting the evolutionary history of seasonal dormancy and for the development of genomic tools to improve the efficiency of genetic selection for this important trait...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco Taurino, Sara Costantini, Stefania De Domenico, Francesco Stefanelli, Guillermo Ruano, María Otilia Delgadillo, José Juan Sánchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Angelo Santino, Enrique Rojo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles in plant cells, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. To gain insight into the function of LDs in plants, we have characterized the Arabidopsis homologs of SEIPIN proteins, which are crucial factors for LD biogenesis in yeast and animals. SEIPIN1 is expressed almost exclusively in embryos, while SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 have broader expression profiles with maximal levels in embryos and pollen, where LDs accumulate most abundantly. Genetic analysis demonstrates that all three SEIPINs contribute to proper LD biogenesis in embryos, whereas in pollen, only SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 play a significant role...
February 2018: Plant Physiology
Haicheng Zhang, Shuguang Liu, Pierre Regnier, Wenping Yuan
Constraints of temperature on spring plant phenology are closely related to plant growth, vegetation dynamics, and ecosystem carbon cycle. However, the effects of temperature on leaf onset, especially for winter chilling, are still not well understood. Using long-term, widespread in situ phenology observations collected over China for multiple plant species, this study analyzes the quantitative response of leaf onset to temperature, and compares empirical findings with existing theories and modeling approaches, as implemented in 18 phenology algorithms...
December 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
Aljoša Zavišic, Andrea Polle
To investigate how long-lived forest trees cope with low soil phosphorus (P) availabilities, we characterized P nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) in soils from P-rich and P-poor beech forests throughout an annual growth cycle. Young trees were excavated with intact soil cores in mono-specific beech forests, kept under common garden conditions, and used for 33P labeling, analyses of P uptake, P content and biomass during five phenological stages (dormancy in winter, bud swelling in early spring, mature leaves in early and late summer, and senescent leaves in fall)...
January 1, 2018: Tree Physiology
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