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Bud dormancy

Marvin Duvalsaint, Dennis E Kyle
Many organisms undergo dormancy as a stress response to survive under unfavorable conditions that might impede development. This is observed in seed and buds of plants and has been proposed as mechanism of drug evasion and resistance formation in Plasmodium falciparum We explored the effects of the phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), on dihydroartemisinin induced dormant erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum parasites. Dormant ring stages exposed to ABA and GA recovered from dormancy up to 48 hr earlier than parasites exposed to DHA alone...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marzenna Guzicka, Tomasz A Pawlowski, Aleksandra Staszak, Roman Rozkowski, Daniel J Chmura
The dormancy and the growth of trees in temperate climates are synchronized with seasons. Preparation for dormancy and its proper progression are key for survival and development in the next season. Using a unique approach that combined microscopy and proteomic methods, we investigated changes in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) embryonic shoots during four distinct stages of dormancy in natural weather conditions. We identified 13 proteins that varied among dormancy stages, and were linked to regulation of protein level; functioning of chloroplasts and other plastids; DNA and RNA regulation; and oxidative stress...
December 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
Xiaodong Hou, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Yanhua Liu, Ning Yan, Zhongfeng Zhang
Sprouting is a key factor affecting the quality of potato tubers. The present study aimed to compare the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the apical meristem during the dormancy release and sprouting stages by using lncRNA sequencing. Microscopic observations and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed the changes in the morphology and expression of lncRNAs in potato tubers during sprouting. Meristematic cells of potato tuber apical buds divided continuously and exhibited vegetative cone bulging and vascularisation...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jiaping Zhang, Danqing Li, Xiaohua Shi, Dong Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jianfen Wei, Jiao Zhang, Jianghua Zhou, Kaiyuan Zhu, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: The artificial enlargement of the planting area and ecological amplitude of ornamentals for horticultural and landscape applications are significant. Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a world-famous ornamental with attractive and fragrant flowers and is mainly planted in temperate and cool areas. Comparatively higher winter temperatures in the subtropical and tropical Northern Hemisphere result in a deficit of chilling accumulation for bud dormancy release, which severely hinders "The southward plantation of herbaceous peony"...
December 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Rongmei Wu, Tianchi Wang, Ben A W Warren, Susan J Thomson, Andrew C Allan, Richard C Macknight, Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Genome-wide targets of Actinidia chinensis SVP2 confirm roles in ABA- and dehydration-mediated growth repression and reveal a conservation in mechanism of action between SVP genes of taxonomically distant Arabidopsis and a woody perennial kiwifruit. The molecular mechanisms underlying growth and dormancy in woody perennials are largely unknown. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) plays a key role in the progression from vegetative to floral development, and in woody perennials SVP-like genes are also proposed to be involved in controlling dormancy...
December 8, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
Chuan Yue, Hongli Cao, Xinyuan Hao, Jianming Zeng, Wenjun Qian, Yuqiong Guo, Naixing Ye, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
Thirty genes involved in GA and ABA metabolism and signalling were identified, and the expression profiles indicated that they play crucial roles in the bud activity-dormancy transition in tea plants. Gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are fundamental phytohormones that extensively regulate plant growth and development, especially bud dormancy and sprouting transition in perennial plants. However, there is little information on GA- and ABA-related genes and their expression profiles during the activity-dormancy transition in tea plants...
December 6, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Ali M Missaoui, Dariusz P Malinowski, William E Pinchak, Jaime Kigel
Summer dormancy is an evolutionary response that some perennial cool-season grasses adopted as an avoidance strategy to escape summer drought and heat. It is correlated with superior survival after severe summer droughts in many perennial grass species originating from Mediterranean environments. Understanding the genetic mechanism and environmental determinants of summer dormancy is important for interpreting the evolutionary history of seasonal dormancy and for the development of genomic tools to improve the efficiency of genetic selection for this important trait...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco Taurino, Sara Costantini, Stefania De Domenico, Francesco Stefanelli, Guillermo Ruano, Maria Otilia Delgadillo, Jose J Sanchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Angelo Santino, Enrique Rojo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles in plant cells, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. To gain insight into the function of LDs in plants, we have characterized the Arabidopsis homologues of SEIPIN proteins, which are crucial factors for LD biogenesis in yeast and animals. SEIPIN1 is expressed almost exclusively in embryos, while SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 have broader expression profiles with maximal levels in embryos and pollen, where LDs accumulate most abundantly. Genetic analysis demonstrates that all three SEIPINs contribute to proper LD biogenesis in embryos, whereas in pollen, only SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 play a significant role...
December 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
Haicheng Zhang, Shuguang Liu, Pierre Regnier, Wenping Yuan
Constraints of temperature on spring plant phenology are closely related to plant growth, vegetation dynamics and ecosystem carbon cycle. However, the effects of temperature on leaf onset, especially for winter chilling, are still not well understood. Using long-term, widespread in situ phenology observations collected over China for multiple plant species, this study analyzes the quantitative response of leaf onset to temperature, and compares empirical findings with existing theories and modeling approaches, as implemented in eighteen phenology algorithms...
December 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
Aljoša Zavišic, Andrea Polle
To investigate how long-lived forest trees cope with low soil phosphorus (P) availabilities, we characterized P nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) in soils from P-rich and P-poor beech forests throughout an annual growth cycle. Young trees were excavated with intact soil cores in mono-specific beech forests, kept under common garden conditions, and used for 33P labeling, analyses of P uptake, P content and biomass during five phenological stages (dormancy in winter, bud swelling in early spring, mature leaves in early and late summer, and senescent leaves in fall)...
November 22, 2017: Tree Physiology
Tesfamichael H Kebrom
Three theories of apical dominance, direct, diversion, and indirect, were proposed in the 1930s to explain how auxin synthesized in the shoot apex might inhibit axillary bud outgrowth, and thus shoot branching. The direct and diversion theories of apical dominance have been investigated in detail, and they are replaced with the current auxin transport canalization and second messenger theories, respectively. These two current theories still cannot entirely explain the phenomenon of apical dominance. Although there is ample evidence that the inhibition of bud outgrowth by auxin from the shoot apex is linked to stem elongation and highly branched auxin biosynthesis or signaling mutants are dwarf, the third theory proposed in the 1930s, the indirect theory, that explains apical dominance as auxin-induced stem growth indirectly inhibits bud outgrowth has been overlooked...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elena Sánchez Martín-Fontecha, Carlos Tarancón, Pilar Cubas
Plant shoot branching patterns determine leaf, flower and fruit production, and thus reproductive success and yield. Branch primordia, or axillary buds, arise in the axils of leaves and their decision to either grow or enter dormancy is coordinated at the whole plant level. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles of axillary buds entering dormancy have identified a shared set of responses that closely resemble a Low Energy Syndrome. This syndrome is aimed at saving carbon use to support essential maintenance functions, rather than additional growth, and involves growth arrest (thus dormancy), metabolic reprogramming and hormone signalling...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Li-Qin Li, Xue Zou, Meng-Sheng Deng, Jie Peng, Xue-Li Huang, Xue Lu, Chen-Cheng Fang, Xi-Yao Wang
Sprouting regulation in potato tubers is important for improving commercial value and producing new plants. Camphor shows flexible inhibition of tuber sprouting and prolongs the storage period of potato, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The results of the present study suggest that camphor inhibition caused bud growth deformities and necrosis, but after moving to more ventilated conditions, new sprouts grew from the bud eye of the tuber. Subsequently, the sucrose and fructose contents as well as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were assessed after camphor inhibition...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Majken Pagter, Christian Clement Yde, Katrine Heinsvig Kjær
Global warming may modify the timing of dormancy release and spring growth of buds of temperate fruit crops. Environmental regulation of the activity-dormancy cycle in perennial plants remains poorly understood at the metabolic level. Especially, the fine-scale metabolic dynamics in the meristematic zone within buds has received little attention. In this work we performed metabolic profiling of intact floral primordia of Ribes nigrum isolated from buds differing in dormancy status using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alba Lloret, Amparo Martínez-Fuentes, Manuel Agustí, María Luisa Badenes, Gabino Ríos
PpeS6PDH gene is postulated to mediate sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach concomitantly with specific chromatin modifications. Perennial plants have evolved an adaptive mechanism involving protection of meristems within specialized structures named buds in order to survive low temperatures and water deprivation during winter. A seasonal period of dormancy further improves tolerance of buds to environmental stresses through specific mechanisms poorly known at the molecular level. We have shown that peach PpeS6PDH gene is down-regulated in flower buds after dormancy release, concomitantly with changes in the methylation level at specific lysine residues of histone H3 (H3K27 and H3K4) in the chromatin around the translation start site of the gene...
November 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Yazhini Velappan, Santiago Signorelli, Michael J Considine
Background: Quiescence is a fundamental feature of plant life, which enables plasticity, renewal and fidelity of the somatic cell line. Cellular quiescence is defined by arrest in a particular phase of the cell cycle, typically G1 or G2; however, the regulation of quiescence and proliferation can also be considered across wider scales in space and time. As such, quiescence is a defining feature of plant development and phenology, from meristematic stem cell progenitors to terminally differentiated cells, as well as dormant or suppressed seeds and buds...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Botany
Yang Zhao, Jinghui Gao, Jeong Im Kim, Kong Chen, Ray A Bressan, Jian-Kang Zhu
Drought stress is a condition that in specific climate contexts results in insufficient water availability and often limits plant productivity through perturbing development and reducing plant growth and survival. Plants use senescence of old leaves and dormancy of buds and seeds to survive extreme environmental conditions. The plant hormone ABA accumulates after drought stress, and increases plant survival by inducing quick responses such as stomatal closure, and long-term responses such as extended growth inhibition, osmotic regulation, accumulation of cuticular wax, senescence, abscission and dormancy...
August 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Li-Jie Zhou, Ke Mao, Yu Qiao, Han Jiang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Yu-Jin Hao
Light plays a central role in regulating both apple plant yield and fruit quality formation; however, the Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), which are the main components of Phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in apple, have rarely been characterized. Here, we isolated and identified a PIF-like protein(MdPIF1) in apple, which is similar to AtPIF1. MdPIF1 was constitutively expressed at different levels in various apple tissues, and the transcription level of MdPIF1 was significantly induced during seed germination...
August 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Franziska Fichtner, Francois F Barbier, Regina Feil, Mutsumi Watanabe, Maria Grazia Annunziata, Tinashe G Chabikwa, Rainer Höfgen, Mark Stitt, Christine A Beveridge, John E Lunn
Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a signal of sucrose availability in plants, and has been implicated in the regulation of shoot branching by the abnormal branching phenotypes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays) mutants with altered Tre6P metabolism. Decapitation of garden pea (Pisum sativum) plants has been proposed to release the dormancy of axillary buds lower down the stem due to changes in sucrose supply, and we hypothesized that this response is mediated by Tre6P. Decapitation led to a rapid and sustained rise in Tre6P levels in axillary buds, coinciding with the onset of bud outgrowth...
September 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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