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Bud dormancy

Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Uma Rani Sinniah, Nurashikin Kemat, Kumara Swamy Mallappa
BACKGROUND: Chlorophytum borivilianum is an industrially valued medicinal crop. Propagation through seeds is not feasible because of low germination percentage and long dormancy period. Therefore, callus culture and plant regeneration can be an alternative to improve this crop production. Also, callus can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different phytohormones on callus induction, subculture cycle, and regeneration studies of callus in C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jong Youn Kim, Dong Hwi Kim, Young Chang Kim, Kee Hong Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Yong Eui Choi
BACKGROUND: The low survival rate of in vitro regenerated Panax ginseng plantlets after transfer to soil is the main obstacle for their successful micropropagation and molecular breeding. In most cases, young plantlets converted from somatic embryos are transferred to soil. METHODS: In vitro thickened taproots, which were produced after prolonged culture of ginseng plantlets, were transferred to soil. RESULTS: Taproot thickening of plantlets occurred near hypocotyl and primary roots...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Päivi L H Rinne, Laju K Paul, Jorma Vahala, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Christiaan van der Schoot
Axillary buds (AXBs) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides) contain a developing dwarfed shoot that becomes para-dormant at the bud maturation point. Para-dormant AXBs can grow out after stem decapitation, while dormant AXBs pre-require long-term chilling to release them from dormancy. The latter is mediated by gibberellin (GA)-regulated 1,3-β-glucanases, but it is unknown if GA is also important in the development, activation, and outgrowth of para-dormant AXBs. The present data show that para-dormant AXBs up-regulate GA receptor genes during their maturation, but curtail GA biosynthesis by down-regulating the rate-limiting GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE2 (GA3ox2), which is characteristically expressed in the growing apex...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Boonyawat Sudawan, Chih-Sheng Chang, Hsiu-Fung Chao, Maurice S B Ku, Yung-Fu Yen
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and pruning (P) have frequently been used to break dormancy in grapevine floral buds. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aimed to address the early mode of action of these treatments on accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and expression of related genes in the dormancy breaking buds of grapevine in the summer. RESULTS: The budbreak rates induced by pruning (P), hydrogen cyanamide (HC), pruning plus hydrogen cyanamide (PHC) and water (control) after 8 days were 33, 53, 95, and 0 %, respectively...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Ravinder Kumar, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Most of the microbial cells on earth under natural conditions exist in a dormant condition, commonly known as quiescent state. Quiescent cells exhibit low rates of transcription and translation suggesting that cellular abundance of proteins may be similar in quiescent cells. Therefore, this study aim to compare the proteome of budding yeast cells from two quiescent states viz. stationary phase/G0 and tetrads. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based quantitative proteomics we identified 289 proteins, among which around 40 proteins exhibited ±1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Robrecht Dierck, Ellen De Keyser, Jan De Riek, Emmy Dhooghe, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Els Prinsen, Dominique Van Der Straeten
In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions...
2016: PloS One
Jill A Hamilton, Walid El Kayal, Ashley T Hart, Daniel E Runcie, Adriana Arango-Velez, Janice E K Cooke
Timely responses to environmental cues enable the synchronization of phenological life-history transitions essential for the health and survival of north-temperate and boreal tree species. While photoperiodic cues will remain persistent under climate change, temperature cues may vary, contributing to possible asynchrony in signals influencing developmental and physiological transitions essential to forest health. Understanding the relative contribution of photoperiod and temperature as determinants of the transition from active growth to dormancy is important for informing adaptive forest management decisions that consider future climates...
July 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
Jun-fang Zhao, Hui-kang Yu
Using daily climate variables gathered from 64 meteorological stations in South China from 1961 to 2012, recognized hazard indicators about disaster grades of cold damage for longan, and methods on agricultural meteorological disasters risk and simulation technology, the yield loss risks of longan caused by cold damage in South China during different developmental periods were assessed. The results showed that during the period of physiologic differentiation of flower bud, the disasters of longan affected by mild cold damage in South China were the most common, followed by severe cold damage and moderate cold damage...
February 2016: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Paul Copini, Jan den Ouden, Elisabeth M R Robert, Jacques C Tardif, Walter A Loesberg, Leo Goudzwaard, Ute Sass-Klaassen
Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of 'flood rings' that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuxi Zhang, Tingzhao Sun, Shaoqing Liu, Lei Dong, Chunying Liu, Wenwen Song, Jingjing Liu, Shupeng Gai
The MPT transports Pi to synthesize ATP. PsMPT, a chilling-induced gene, was previously reported to promote energy metabolism during bud dormancy release in tree peony. In this study, the regulatory elements of PsMPT promoter involved in chilling response were further analyzed. The PsMPT transcript was detected in different tree peony tissues and was highly expressed in the flower organs, including petal, stigma and stamen. An 1174 bp of the PsMPT promoter was isolated by TAIL-PCR, and the PsMPT promoter::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis was generated and analyzed...
2016: PloS One
Noriko Yamagishi, Kohei Kume, Takashi Hikage, Yui Takahashi, Haniyeh Bidadi, Keisuke Wakameda, Yasushi Saitoh, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa, Ken-Ichi Tsutsumi
Information concerning to regulation of vegetative phase and floral initiation in herbaceous perennial plants has been limited to a few plant species. To know and compare flowering regulation in a wider range of plant species, we identified and characterized SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)-like genes (GtSVP-L1 and GtSVP-L2) from herbaceous perennial gentian (Gentiana triflora). Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV)-mediated silencing of the GtSVP-L1 in G. triflora seedlings resulted in early flowering and shortened vegetative phase by about one-third period of time, without vernalization...
July 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ling-shan Song, Xiao-ming Zhang, Qiao-sheng Guo, Lu Chen, Chang-lin Wang
In order to explore reasonable artificial cultivation pattern of Thesium chinense, the biological characteristics and nutrients change in the process of winter dormancy of T. chinense was studied. The phenological period of T. chinense was observed by using fixed-point notation and the starch grains changes were determined dynamically by PAS-vanadium iron hematoxylin staixjing method. Soluble sugar and starch content were measured by anthrone-sulfuric acid method and amylase activity was determined by DN'S method...
December 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hai-bo Wang, Xiao-di Wang, Xiang-bin Shi, Bao-liang Wang, Xiao-cui Zheng, Feng-zhi Liu
High chilling requirement grape (Vitis vinifera-V. labrusca cv. Summer Black) was used to evaluate its dormancy under short sunlight day (SD), long sunlight day (LD) and natural condition (CK). The results indicated that grape bud dormancy could be induced by natural low temperature and short sunlight alone or together. Short sunlight was the main contributor to the dormancy of grape bud, followed by natural low temperature. SD had more effect on dormancy induction under the same temperature when compared with LD...
December 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ming-Yue Sun, Xi-Ling Fu, Qiu-Ping Tan, Li Liu, Min Chen, Cui-Ying Zhu, Ling Li, Xiu-De Chen, Dong-Sheng Gao
Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme...
July 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Adnane El Yaacoubi, Gustavo Malagi, Ahmed Oukabli, Idemir Citadin, Majida Hafidi, Marc Bonhomme, Jean-Michel Legave
Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil...
April 21, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Michael J Considine, John A Considine
The language of dormancy is rich and poetic, as researchers spanning disciplines and decades have attempted to understand the spell that entranced 'Sleeping Beauty', and how she was gently awoken. The misleading use of 'dormancy', applied to annual axillary buds, for example, has confounded progress. Language is increasingly important as genetic and genomic approaches become more accessible to species of agricultural and ecological importance. Here we examine how terminology has been applied to different eco-physiological states in plants, and with pertinent reference to quiescent states described in other domains of life, in order to place plant quiescence and dormancy in a more complete context than previously described...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Samuel Elias Wuest, Matthias Anton Philipp, Daniela Guthörl, Bernhard Schmid, Ueli Grossniklaus
Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds...
May 2016: Plant Physiology
Songling Bai, Takanori Saito, Akiko Ito, Pham Anh Tuan, Ying Xu, Yuanwen Teng, Takaya Moriguchi
BACKGROUND: In woody perennial plants, including deciduous fruit trees, such as pear, endodormancy is a strategy for surviving the cold winter. A better understanding of the mechanism underlying the endodormancy phase transition is necessary for developing countermeasures against the effects of global warming. In this study, we analyzed the sRNAome of Japanese pear flower buds in endodormant and ecodormant stages over two seasons by implementing of RNA-seq and degradome-sequencing. RESULTS: We identified 137 conserved or less conserved miRNAs and 50 pear-specific miRNAs...
2016: BMC Genomics
Annelies Christiaens, Ellen De Keyser, Els Pauwels, Jan De Riek, Bruno Gobin, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min Chen, Qiuping Tan, Mingyue Sun, Dongmei Li, Xiling Fu, Xiude Chen, Wei Xiao, Ling Li, Dongsheng Gao
Bud dormancy in deciduous fruit trees is an important adaptive mechanism for their survival in cold climates. The WRKY genes participate in several developmental and physiological processes, including dormancy. However, the dormancy mechanisms of WRKY genes have not been studied in detail. We conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 58 WRKY genes in peach. These putative genes were located on all eight chromosomes. In bioinformatics analyses, we compared the sequences of WRKY genes from peach, rice, and Arabidopsis...
June 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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