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Bud dormancy

Xia Ye, Mengmeng Fu, Yu Liu, Dongliang An, Xianbo Zheng, Bin Tan, Jidong Li, Jun Cheng, Wei Wang, Jiancan Feng
Ethylene plays an important role in the grape rachis, where its production can be 10 times higher than in the berry. VvACS1 is the only rachis-specific ACC synthase (ACS) gene, and its expression is coincident with ethylene production in the rachis of Vitis vinifera 'Thompson seedless'. VvACS1 was cloned and ectopically expressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker'). Lateral buds were increased in two- or four-week-old 35s∷VvACS1 transgenic tomato plants after transplanting. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the transgenic tomato plants showed higher expression of the VvACS1 gene in the flowers, leaves, rachis, and fruits...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Susanne Baldermann, Thomas Homann, Susanne Neugart, Frank-M Chmielewski, Klaus-Peter Götz, Kristin Gödeke, Gerd Huschek, Getrud E Morlock, Harshadrai M Rawel
Many biochemical processes are involved in regulating the consecutive transition of different phases of dormancy in sweet cherry buds. An evaluation based on a metabolic approach has, as yet, only been partly addressed. The aim of this work, therefore, was to determine which plant metabolites could serve as biomarkers for the different transitions in sweet cherry buds. The focus here was on those metabolites involved in oxidation-reduction processes during bud dormancy, as determined by targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry-based methods...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
C Vogiatzi, E Rosenqvist, B W W Grout
Low temperature studies with winter-dormant buds are severely limited by the lack of a rapid,non-destructive assay for their viability. Investigations involving the winter harvest of ecodormant buds of woody subjects, including cryopreservation, are restricted if viability cannot be assessed until dormancy is broken. If post-treatment grafting indicates low survival of the harvested population then further collection and study has to be delayed until the next winter season. This study trials the use of a portable gas exchange system able to discriminate between live and dead buds rapidly, with the assay confirmed as non-destructive by subsequent micropropagation...
May 6, 2018: Cryobiology
Qinsong Yang, Qingfeng Niu, Jianzhao Li, Xiaoyan Zheng, Yunjing Ma, Songling Bai, Yuanwen Teng
Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins, which form one of the largest and most diverse families, regulate many biological processes in plants, including differentiation, flowering, vascular development, and stress signaling. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proved to be one of the key regulators of bud dormancy and to influence several HD-Zip genes expression. However, the role of HD-Zip genes in regulating bud dormancy remains unclear. We identified 47 pear (P. pyrifolia White Pear Group) HD-Zip genes, which were classified into four subfamilies (HD-Zip I-IV)...
April 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yiwei Luo, Hongshun Li, Zhonghuai Xiang, Ningjia He
The MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators with various functions especially during floral development. A total of 54 putative Morus notabilis MADS-box genes (MnMADSs) were identified and phylogenetically classified as either type I (17 genes) or type II (37 genes). The detected genes included three FLOWERING LOCUS C-like (MnFLC-like) genes, MnMADS33, MnMADS50, and MnMADS7. MnFLC-like proteins could directly or indirectly repress promoter activity of the mulberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like (MnFT) gene...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hideyuki Takahashi, Sayaka Kikuchi-Fujisaki, Chiharu Yoshida, Hidetoshi Yamada, Tetsuro Yamashita, Naotake Konno, Takumi Takeda
Gentiobiose, a β-1,6-linked glycosyl disaccharide, accumulates abundantly in Gentianaceae and is involved in aspects of plant development, such as fruits ripening and release of bud dormancy. However, the mechanisms regulating the amount of gentio- oligosaccharide accumulation in plants remains obscure. This study aimed to identify an enzyme that modulates gentio-oligosaccharide amount in gentian ( Gentiana triflora ). A protein responsible for gentiobiose hydrolysis, GtGen3A, was identified by partial purification and its peptide sequence analysis...
March 26, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Zhiyong Zhang, XiaoKang Zhuo, Kai Zhao, Tangchun Zheng, Yu Han, Cunquan Yuan, Qixiang Zhang
Bud dormancy transition is a vital developmental process for perennial plant survival. The process is precisely regulated by diverse endogenous genetic factors and environmental cues, but the mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Prunus mume is an ideal crop for bud dormancy analysis because of its early spring-flowering characteristics and small sequenced genome. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles at the three endodormancy stages and natural flush stage using RNA sequencing combined with phytohormone and sugar content measurements...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Xue Yong, Xuehua Xie, Yu Han, Yushu Li, Lidan Sun, Qixiang Zhang
The survival in freezing temperature for woody plants is exclusively dependent on the perception of coldness and induction of dormancy. CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factors join cold-response conduits and the DAM genes, especially PmDAM6, are well-known regulators of dormancy. Despite the immense importance, little is documented on the association between CBF proteins and the complexity of the promoter region in PmDAM6 with the function of bud dormancy in P. mume. Therefore, this study was based on the cloning of PmDAM6 and six PmCBFs to evaluate their integral roles in the process of bud development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jihua Ding, Henrik Böhlenius, Mark Georg Rühl, Peng Chen, Shashank Sane, Jose A Zambrano, Bo Zheng, Maria E Eriksson, Ove Nilsson
Survival of trees growing in temperate zones requires cycling between active growth and dormancy. This involves growth cessation in the autumn triggered by a photoperiod shorter than the critical day length. Variations in GIGANTEA (GI)-like genes have been associated with phenology in a range of different tree species, but characterization of the functions of these genes in the process is still lacking. We describe the identification of the Populus orthologs of GI and their critical role in short-day-induced growth cessation...
June 2018: New Phytologist
Humberto Mitio Horikoshi, Yoshihiko Sekozawa, Makoto Kobayashi, Kazuki Saito, Miyako Kusano, Sumiko Sugaya
Dormancy is a complex phenomenon that allows plants to survive the winter season. Studies of dormancy have recently attracted more attention due to the expansion of temperate fruit production in areas under mild winters and due to climate changes. This study aimed to identify and characterize the metabolic changes induced by chilling temperatures, as well as during thermal fluctuation conditions that simulate mild winter and/or climate change scenarios. To do this, we compared the metabolic profile of Japanese pear flower buds exposed to constant chilling at 6 °C and thermal fluctuations of 6 °C/18 °C (150 h/150 h) during endodormancy...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Erica Fadón, María Herrero, Javier Rodrigo
Temperate woody perennials survive to low temperatures in winter entering a dormant stage. Dormancy is not just a survival strategy, since chilling accumulation is required for proper flowering and arbitrates species adaptation to different latitudes. In spite of the fact that chilling requirements have been known for two centuries, the biological basis behind remain elusive. Since chilling accumulation is required for the normal growth of flower buds, it is tempting to hypothesize that something might be going on at this particular stage during winter dormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kai Zhao, Yuzhen Zhou, Sagheer Ahmad, Zongda Xu, Yushu Li, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume , PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6 . The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lin Lv, Ximei Huo, Luhua Wen, Zhihong Gao, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman
Bud dormancy release is regulated by gibberellins (GAs). DELLA proteins are highly conserved and act as negative regulators in GA signaling pathway. The present study established a relationship between PmRGL2 in Japanese apricot and GA4 levels during dormancy release of floral buds. Overexpression of PmRGL2 in poplar delayed the onset of bud dormancy and resulted in dwarf plants, relative to wild-type trees. PmRGL2 exhibited higher expression during ecodormancy and relatively lower expression during endodormancy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chuanlin Zheng, Atiako Kwame Acheampong, Zhaowan Shi, Tamar Halaly, Yuji Kamiya, Ron Ophir, David W Galbraith, Etti Or
The molecular mechanism regulating dormancy release in grapevine buds is as yet unclear. It has been hypothesized that (i) abscisic acid (ABA) represses bud-meristem activity; (ii) perturbation of respiration induces an interplay between ethylene and ABA metabolism, which leads to removal of repression; and (iii) gibberellin (GA)-mediated growth is resumed. The first two hypothesis have been formally supported. The current study examines the third hypothesis regarding the potential involvement of GA in dormancy release...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Diogo Denardi Porto, Yohanna Evelyn Miotto, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo Dias de Oliveira, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro, Giancarlo Pasquali, Luís Fernando Revers
Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which play roles in carbon storage, signal transduction, and osmoprotection. The present work assessed the evolutionary history of GolS genes across the Rosaceae using several bioinformatic tools. Apple (Malus × domestica) GolS genes were transcriptionally characterized during bud dormancy, in parallel with galactinol and raffinose measurements. Additionally, MdGolS2, a candidate to regulate seasonal galactinol and RFO content during apple bud dormancy, was functionally characterized in Arabidopsis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jianzhao Li, Ying Xu, Qingfeng Niu, Lufang He, Yuanwen Teng, Songling Bai
Dormancy is an adaptive mechanism that allows temperate deciduous plants to survive unfavorable winter conditions. In the present work, we investigated the possible function of abscisic acid (ABA) on the endodormancy process in pear. The ABA content increased during pear flower bud endodormancy establishment and decreased towards endodormancy release. In total, 39 putative genes related to ABA metabolism and signal transductions were identified from pear genome. During the para- to endodormancy transition, PpNCED-2 and PpNCED-3 had high expression levels, while PpCYP707A s expression levels were low...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marvin Duvalsaint, Dennis E Kyle
Many organisms undergo dormancy as a stress response to survive under unfavorable conditions that might impede development. This is observed in seeds and buds of plants and has been proposed as a mechanism of drug evasion and resistance formation in Plasmodium falciparum We explored the effects of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) on dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormant erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum parasites. Dormant ring stages exposed to ABA and GA recovered from dormancy up to 48 h earlier than parasites exposed to DHA alone...
March 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marzenna Guzicka, Tomasz A Pawlowski, Aleksandra Staszak, Roman Rozkowski, Daniel J Chmura
The dormancy and the growth of trees in temperate climates are synchronized with seasons. Preparation for dormancy and its proper progression are key for survival and development in the next season. Using a unique approach that combined microscopy and proteomic methods, we investigated changes in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) embryonic shoots during four distinct stages of dormancy in natural weather conditions. We identified 13 proteins that varied among dormancy stages, and were linked to regulation of protein level; functioning of chloroplasts and other plastids; DNA and RNA regulation; and oxidative stress...
December 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
Xiaodong Hou, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Yanhua Liu, Ning Yan, Zhongfeng Zhang
Sprouting is a key factor affecting the quality of potato tubers. The present study aimed to compare the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the apical meristem during the dormancy release and sprouting stages by using lncRNA sequencing. Microscopic observations and Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed the changes in the morphology and expression of lncRNAs in potato tubers during sprouting. Meristematic cells of potato tuber apical buds divided continuously and exhibited vegetative cone bulging and vascularisation...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jiaping Zhang, Danqing Li, Xiaohua Shi, Dong Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jianfen Wei, Jiao Zhang, Jianghua Zhou, Kaiyuan Zhu, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: The artificial enlargement of the planting area and ecological amplitude of ornamentals for horticultural and landscape applications are significant. Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a world-famous ornamental with attractive and fragrant flowers and is mainly planted in temperate and cool areas. Comparatively higher winter temperatures in the subtropical and tropical Northern Hemisphere result in a deficit of chilling accumulation for bud dormancy release, which severely hinders "The southward plantation of herbaceous peony"...
December 22, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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