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Africa congenital heart disease

Barakat Adeola Animasahun, Akpoembele D Madise-Wobo, Bode A Falase, Samuel I Omokhodion
BACKGROUND: There are only very few reports on Fallot's tetralogy in Africa especially from sub-Saharan Africa. At best tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is only mentioned as part of reports of surveys of other congenital heart diseases or as case reports in the region. There has been no report on cohorts of children with TOF in West Africa. This article describes the pattern and presentation of children diagnosed with TOF patients in a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa over a 9-year period...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
A M Van Niekerk, R M Cullis, L L Linley, L Zühlke
BACKGROUND: Early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) through newborn pulse oximetry (POx) screening is an effective strategy for reducing paediatric morbidity and mortality rates and has been adopted by much of the developed world. OBJECTIVES: To document the feasibility of implementing pre-discharge POx screening in well babies born at Mowbray Maternity Hospital, a busy government hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Parent and staff acceptance was assessed...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Friedrich Thienemann, Anastase Dzudie, Ana O Mocumbi, Lori Blauwet, Mahmoud U Sani, Kamilu M Karaye, Okechukwu S Ogah, Irina Mbanze, Amam Mbakwem, Patience Udo, Kemi Tibazarwa, Albertino Damasceno, Ashley K Keates, Simon Stewart, Karen Sliwa
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology, aetiology, management and outcome data for various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in Africa are scarce. METHODS: A prospective, multinational cohort registry of 220 consecutive patients (97% of African descent) from 9 specialist centres in 4 African countries. The antecedents, characteristics and management of newly diagnosed PH plus 6-month survival were studied. RESULTS: There were 209 adults (median age 48years [IQR 35, 64]) and 11 children (age range 1 to 17years)...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
H J Zar, S A Madhi, D A White, R Masekela, S Risenga, H Lewis, C Feldman, B Morrow, P Jeena
Management of acute viral bronchiolitis is largely supportive. There is currently no proven effective therapy other than oxygen for hypoxic children. The evidence indicates that there is no routine benefit from inhaled, rapid short-acting bronchodilators, adrenaline or ipratropium bromide for children with acute viral bronchiolitis. Likewise, there is no demonstrated benefit from routine use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled hypertonic saline nebulisation, montelukast or antibiotics. The last should be reserved for children with severe disease, when bacterial co-infection is suspected...
April 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
D A White, H J Zar, S A Madhi, P Jeena, B Morrow, R Masekela, S Risenga, R Green
Bronchiolitis may be diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. In a young child, the diagnosis can be made on the clinical pattern of wheezing and hyperinflation. Clinical symptoms and signs typically start with an upper respiratory prodrome, including rhinorrhoea, low-grade fever, cough and poor feeding, followed 1 - 2 days later by tachypnoea, hyperinflation and wheeze as a consequence of airway inflammation and air trapping.The illness is generally self limiting, but may become more severe and include signs such as grunting, nasal flaring, subcostal chest wall retractions and hypoxaemia...
April 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Gene F Kwan, Bongani M Mayosi, Ana O Mocumbi, J Jaime Miranda, Majid Ezzati, Yogesh Jain, Gisela Robles, Emelia J Benjamin, S V Subramanian, Gene Bukhman
The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others...
June 14, 2016: Circulation
Daynia E Ballot, Victor A Davies, Peter A Cooper, Tobias Chirwa, Andrew Argent, Mervyn Mer
OBJECTIVE: Report on survival to discharge of children in a combined paediatric/neonatal intensive care unit (PNICU). DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cross-sectional record review. PARTICIPANTS: All children (medical and surgical patients) admitted to PNICU between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2015. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome-survival to discharge. Secondary outcomes-disease profiles and predictors of mortality in different age categories...
2016: BMJ Open
R De Decker, Z Bruwer, L Hendricks, M Schoeman, G Schutte, J Lawrenson
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) has more than 180 associated phenotypic features, yet genotype-phenotype correlation remains obscure. Since many of the clinical characteristics are serious, yet treatable (including congenital heart disease), clinicians must maintain a high index of clinical suspicion to recognise a suite of co-occurring phenotypic features that suggest a diagnosis of 22qDS. Óskarsdottir's scoring schedule (the 'O score') is generally used to suggest the need for confirmatory fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) testing, using the TUPLE 1 probe...
June 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Liesl Zühlke, Letitia Acquah
The World Health Organisation (WHO) supports pre-conception care (PCC) towards improving health and pregnancy outcomes. PPC entails a continuum of promotive, preventative and curative health and social interventions. PPC identifies current and potential medical problems of women of childbearing age towards strategising optimal pregnancy outcomes, whereas antenatal care constitutes the care provided during pregnancy. Optimised PPC and antenatal care would improve civil society and maternal, child and public health...
March 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
David Chelo, Félicitée Nguefack, Alain P Menanga, Suzanne Ngo Um, Jean C Gody, Sandra A Tatah, Paul O Koki Ndombo
BACKGROUND: Children's health programs in Sub-Saharan Africa have always been oriented primarily to infectious diseases and malnutrition. We are witnessing in the early 21(st) century an epidemiological transition marked by the decline of old diseases and the identification of new diseases including heart disease. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the spectrum of these diseases in order to better prepare health workers to these new challenges. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study focused on heart disease diagnosed by echocardiography in children seen from January 2006 to December 2014 in a pediatric hospital of Yaounde...
February 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Barakat Adeola Animasahun, Akpoembele Deborah Madise-Wobo, Samuel I Omokhodion, Olisamedua Fidelis Njokanma
INTRODUCTION: There is a dearth of literature on tetralogy of fallot (TOF) in children in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study up aims to describe the prevalence, clinical profile and associated cardiac anomaly of children diagnosed with TOF documented over an eight year period in a tertiary hospital in South Western Nigeria. METHODS: A prospective review of all consecutive cases of TOF diagnosed with echocardiography at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) between January 2007 and December 2014...
2015: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Ernest Spitzer, Jorge Mercado, Fabian Islas, Martina Rothenbühler, Reto Kurmann, Fabian Zürcher, Peter Krähenmann, Nassip Llerena, Peter Jüni, Pedro Torres, Thomas Pilgrim
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to evaluate the implications of different classifications of rheumatic heart disease on estimated prevalence, and to systematically assess the importance of incidental findings from echocardiographic screening among schoolchildren in Peru. METHODS: We performed a cluster randomized observational survey using portable echocardiography among schoolchildren aged 5 to 16 years from randomly selected public and private schools in Arequipa, Peru...
2015: PloS One
Tamirat Moges, Etsegenet Gedlu, Petros Isaakidis, Ajay Kumar, Rafael Van Den Berge, Mohammed Khogali, Amha Mekasha, Sven Gudmund Hinderaker
INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis is an infection of the endocardial lining of the heart mainly associated with congenital and rheumatic heart disease. Although it is a rare disease in children, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality; death due to infective endocarditis has been reported to be as high as 26% in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of routinely collected data from patient records. RESULTS: A total of 40 children (71% female) with 41 episodes of infective endocarditis admitted to a general paediatric ward in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between 2008 and 2013...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
Bertin Dibi Kouame, Isabelle Ama N'guetta-Brou, Guy Serge Yapo Kouame, Moufidath Sounkere, Maxime Koffi, Jean Baptiste Yaokreh, Thierry Odehouri-Koudou, Samba Tembely, Gaudens Atafi Dieth, Ossenou Ouattara, Ruffin Dick
BACKGROUND: Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d'Ivoire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated...
January 2015: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Clovis Nkoke, Alain Lekoubou, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Anastase Dzudie, Andre Pascal Kengne
Shone's anomaly is a rare congenital cardiac malformation consisting of four obstructive lesions of the left heart and the aortic arch: a supramitral membrane; parachute mitral valve; subaortic stenosis; and coarctation of the aorta which occurs most commonly in its incomplete form. We report on a 17-year-old male Cameroonian with a variant of shone anomaly consisting of sub-valvular aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta and parachute mitral valve. He was referred for the investigation of a cardiac murmur after he presented with shortness of breath preceded by flu like syndrome...
December 2014: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Anastasia S Mihailidou
The International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology was held in San Antonio (TX, USA) on 14-16 April 2014. This was the fourth meeting and had the theme 'Novel Perspectives on Clinical Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery' with sessions in heart disease, congenital heart disease, cardiac therapeutic agents, biophysics and systems biology, current research, and interventional cardiology, providing an interactive forum for discussion of science and clinical practices. Presentations by delegates from Africa, Saudi Arabia, India, China, Japan, Australia, Europe, South America, in addition to Canada and the USA, provided an opportunity for collaboration but also an appreciation of the challenges for treatment in remote locations as well as distance between health facilities...
November 2014: Future Cardiology
Peter McKavanagh, Karen Booth, Laura Blair, Graham McNeilly, Bharathi Varadarajan, Onyekwelu Nzewi
The worldwide incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing, reflecting a combination of ongoing infective diseases and a rapid rise in traditional 'western' risk factors. It is estimated that in the next 20 years that CVD be the leading cause of death in developing nations. There are high incidences of rheumatic heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, uncorrected congenital heart disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated disease in many low-income countries. Such high levels combined with a lack of diagnostic tests and therapeutic options means mortality and morbidity rates are high...
December 20, 2014: International Journal of Cardiology
B E Otaigbe, P N Tabansi
INTRODUCTION: Echocardiographic evaluation remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of structural cardiac disease. No previous prospective studies have been done on the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in the Niger Delta area. This study was done to determine the frequency and pattern of congenital heart disease, using echocardiography as a diagnostic tool. METHODS: All patients presenting to the Paediatric Cardiology clinics of two centres, the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital and the Paediatric Care Hospital between April 2009 and March 2013, were recruited and all had echocardiography performed...
November 2014: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Hideki Higashi, Jan J Barendregt, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Thomas G Weiser, Stephen W Bickler, Theo Vos
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of selected congenital anomalies in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) that could be reduced should surgical programmes cover the entire population with access to quality care. DESIGN: Burden of disease and epidemiological modelling. SETTING: LMICs from all global regions. POPULATION: All prevalent cases of selected congenital anomalies at birth in 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)...
March 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Karen Sliwa, Elena Libhaber, Catherine Elliott, Zoe Momberg, Ayesha Osman, Liesl Zühlke, Tony Lachmann, Lauren Nicholson, Friedrich Thienemann, Jolien Roos-Hesselink, John Anthony
BACKGROUND: Lack of evidence-based data on the spectrum of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, as well as on maternal and fetal outcome, provides challenges for treating physicians, particularly in areas of low resources. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spectrum of disease, mode of presentation and maternal and fetal outcome of patients referred to a dedicated Cardiac Disease and Maternity Clinic (CDM). METHODS: The prospective cohort study was conducted at a single tertiary care centre in South Africa...
December 2014: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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