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brain network

Denize Atan
The retina shares its embryological origin with the central nervous system (CNS), so the neural circuitry of the retina has long been considered to be a relatively simple model of the neural networks in the brain, sharing similar morphologies, neurotransmitters, and receptors. Amacrine cells are, by far, the largest group of inhibitory neurons in the retina that also have the most diverse range of phenotypes of any retinal neuron. Here, I describe an approach, using immunolabeling of cryosections, to identify different subclasses of amacrine cell in the mouse retina...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mark H Myers, Robert Kozma
Simulations of EEG data provide the understanding of how the limbic system exhibits normal and abnormal states of the electrical activity of the brain. While brain activity exhibits a type of homeostasis of excitatory and inhibitory mesoscopic neuron behavior, abnormal neural firings found in the seizure state exhibits brain instability due to runaway oscillatory entrained neural behavior. We utilize a model of mesoscopic brain activity, the KIV model, where each network represents the areas of the limbic system, i...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ummuhan Isoglu-Alkac, M Numan Ermutlu, Gökçer Eskikurt, İlker Yücesir, Sernaz Demirel Temel, Tan Temel
Physical exercise and the training effects of repeated practice of skills over an extended period of time may have additive effects on brain networks and functions. Various motor skills and attentional styles can be developed by athletes engaged in different sports. In this study, the effects of fast ball sports and dance training on attention were investigated by event related potentials (ERP). ERP were recorded in auditory and visual tasks in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Chaoyang Zhou, Ping Wei, Lihua Chen, Xuntao Yin, Jiuquan Zhang, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects a vast population and is closely associated with cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients have not been unraveled. Research on the basic units (nodes or hubs and edges) of the brain functional network on the basis of neuroimaging may advance our understanding of the network change pattern in T2DM patients. This study investigated the change patterns of brain functional hubs using degree centrality (DC) analysis and the connectivity among these hubs using functional connectivity and Granger causality analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Oliver Edenharter, Stephan Schneuwly, Juan A Navarro
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most important recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. It is caused by a deficit of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Despite its pivotal effect on biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and mitochondrial energy production, little is known about the influence of frataxin depletion on homeostasis of the cellular mitochondrial network. We have carried out a forward genetic screen to analyze genetic interactions between genes controlling mitochondrial homeostasis and Drosophila frataxin...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Bing Hu, Yu Guo, Feng Shi, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jing Dong, Long Pan, Min Yu, Chaowei Zhou, Zhang Cheng, Wanyue Tang, Haochen Sun, Luonan Chen
In this paper, we use a model modified from classic corticothalamic network(CT) to explore the mechanism of absence seizures appearing on specific relay nuclei (SRN) of the thalamus. It is found that typical seizure states appear on SRN through tuning several critical connection strengths in the model. In view of previous experimental and theoretical works which were mainly on epilepsy seizure phenomena appearing on excitatory pyramidal neurons (EPN) of the cortex, this is a novel model to consider the seizure observed on thalamus...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lyle Muller, Frédéric Chavane, John Reynolds, Terrence J Sejnowski
Multichannel recording technologies have revealed travelling waves of neural activity in multiple sensory, motor and cognitive systems. These waves can be spontaneously generated by recurrent circuits or evoked by external stimuli. They travel along brain networks at multiple scales, transiently modulating spiking and excitability as they pass. Here, we review recent experimental findings that have found evidence for travelling waves at single-area (mesoscopic) and whole-brain (macroscopic) scales. We place these findings in the context of the current theoretical understanding of wave generation and propagation in recurrent networks...
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
D Allan Butterfield, Debra Boyd-Kimball
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its earlier stage, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). One source of oxidative stress in AD and aMCI brains is that associated with amyloid-β peptide, Aβ1-42 oligomers. Our laboratory first showed in AD elevated oxidative stress occurred in brain regions rich in Aβ1-42, but not in Aβ1-42-poor regions, and was among the first to demonstrate Aβ peptides led to lipid peroxidation (indexed by HNE) in AD and aMCI brains...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Will Penny, Jorge Iglesias-Fuster, Yakeel T Quiroz, Francisco Javier Lopera, Maria A Bobes
Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) is a framework for making inferences about changes in brain connectivity using neuroimaging data. We fitted DCMs to high-density EEG data from subjects performing a semantic picture matching task. The subjects are carriers of the PSEN1 mutation, which leads to early onset Alzheimer's disease, but at the time of EEG acquisition in 1999, these subjects were cognitively unimpaired. We asked 1) what is the optimal model architecture for explaining the event-related potentials in this population, 2) which connections are different between this Presymptomatic Carrier (PreC) group and a Non-Carrier (NonC) group performing the same task, and 3) which network connections are predictive of subsequent Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) trajectories...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Adina S Fischer, M Catalina Camacho, Tiffany C Ho, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Ian H Gotlib
Importance: Adolescence is a neurodevelopmental period during which experience-dependent plasticity in brain circuitry may confer vulnerability to depression as well as resilience to disorder. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms that underlie resilience during this critical period of brain development. Objective: To examine neural functional connectivity correlates of resilience in adolescent females at high and low familial risk for depression who did and did not develop the disorder...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Ignacio Rebollo, Anne-Dominique Devauchelle, Benoît Béranger, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
Resting-state networks offer a unique window into the brain's functional architecture, but their characterization remains limited to instantaneous connectivity thus far. Here, we describe a novel resting-state network based on the delayed connectivity between the brain and the slow electrical rhythm (0.05 Hz) generated in the stomach. The gastric network cuts across classical resting-state networks with partial overlap with autonomic regulation areas. This network is composed of regions with convergent functional properties involved in mapping bodily space through touch, action or vision, as well as mapping external space in bodily coordinates...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Andrew D Engell, Na Yeon Kim, Gregory McCarthy
Perception of faces has been shown to engage a domain-specific set of brain regions, including the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is commonly held that the OFA is responsible for the detection of faces in the environment, whereas the FFA is responsible for processing the identity of the face. However, an alternative model posits that the FFA is responsible for face detection and subsequently recruits the OFA to analyze the face parts in the service of identification. An essential prediction of the former model is that the OFA is not sensitive to the arrangement of internal face parts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alexander V Lebedev, Jonna Nilsson, Martin Lövdén
Researchers have proposed that solving complex reasoning problems, a key indicator of fluid intelligence, involves the same cognitive processes as solving working memory tasks. This proposal is supported by an overlap of the functional brain activations associated with the two types of tasks and by high correlations between interindividual differences in performance. We replicated these findings in 53 older participants but also showed that solving reasoning and working memory problems benefits from different configurations of the functional connectome and that this dissimilarity increases with a higher difficulty load...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
David T Chau, Phoebe Fogelman, Pia Nordanskog, Wayne C Drevets, J Paul Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates of treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). Low sample size and methodological heterogeneity, however, undermine the generalizability of findings from individual studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify reliable neural changes resulting from different modes of treatment for MDD and compared them with each other and with reliable neural functional abnormalities observed in depressed versus control samples...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Claire O'Callaghan, Julie M Hall, Alessandro Tomassini, Alana J Muller, Ishan C Walpola, Ahmed A Moustafa, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
BACKGROUND: Models of hallucinations emphasize imbalance between sensory input and top-down influences over perception, as false perceptual inference can arise when top-down predictions are afforded too much precision (certainty) relative to sensory evidence. Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with lower-level visual and attentional impairments, accompanied by overactivity in higher-order association brain networks. PD therefore provides an attractive framework to explore contributions of bottom-up versus top-down disturbances in hallucinations...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Meghan R Swanson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Jed T Elison, Robert W Emerson, Martin A Styner, Heather C Hazlett, Kinh Truong, Linda R Watson, Sarah Paterson, Natasha Marrus, Kelly N Botteron, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz, Stephen R Dager, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Annette M Estes, Joseph Piven
BACKGROUND: Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sing-Han Huang, Yu-Shu Lo, Yong-Chun Luo, Yu-Yao Tseng, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: One of the crucial steps toward understanding the associations among molecular interactions, pathways, and diseases in a cell is to investigate detailed atomic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the structural interactome. Despite the availability of large-scale methods for analyzing PPI networks, these methods often focused on PPI networks using genome-scale data and/or known experimental PPIs. However, these methods are unable to provide structurally resolved interaction residues and their conservations in PPI networks...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Andrea E Toth, Piotr Siupka, Thomas J P Augustine, Susanne T Venø, Louiza B Thomsen, Torben Moos, Hannes T Lohi, Peder Madsen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Morten S Nielsen
Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaoxiao Lin, Christy A Itoga, Sharif Taha, Ming H Li, Ryan Chen, Kirolos Sami, Fulvia Berton, Walter Francesconi, Xiangmin Xu
Real-world stressors are complex and multimodal, involving physical, psychological, and social dimensions. However, the brain networks that mediate stress responses to these stimuli need to be further studied. We used c-Fos mapping in mice to characterize brain circuits activated by exposure to a single episode of multimodal stress (MMS), and compared these to circuits activated by electric foot shocks (EFS). We focused on characterizing c-Fos activity in stress-relevant brain regions including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
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