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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926795/dissociable-intrinsic-functional-networks-support-noun-object-and-verb-action-processing
#2
Huichao Yang, Qixiang Lin, Zaizhu Han, Hongyu Li, Luping Song, Lingjuan Chen, Yong He, Yanchao Bi
The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules...
September 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926781/a-leukomyeloencephalopathy-of-unknown-origin-in-an-azawakh-dog
#3
Maria Teresa Mandara, Alice Reginato, Federica Balducci, Marco Bernardini
A diffuse bilaterally symmetrical leukomyeloencephalopathy was observed in a 6-year-old male Azawakh dog showing a slowly progressive ataxia of six months duration associated with sensory disorders. Severe bilaterally symmetrical demyelination and vacuolisation were confined to the dorsal columns along the entire spinal cord with a minor axonal degeneration. The main changes of myelin sheaths consisted in splitting and intramyelin vacuolization. Naked axons were scattered in a network of astrocytic processes and collagen fibres...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926290/social-networking-sites-use-and-the-morphology-of-a-social-semantic-brain-network
#4
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Social lives have shifted, at least in part, for large portions of the population to social networking sites. How such lifestyle changes may be associated with brain structures is still largely unknown. In this manuscript, we describe two preliminary studies aimed at exploring this issue. The first study (n=276) showed that Facebook users reported on increased social-semantic and mentalizing demands, and that such increases were positively associated with people's level of Facebook use. The second study (n=33) theorized on and examined likely anatomical correlates of such changes in demands on the brain...
September 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926154/brain-functional-connectome-abnormalities-in-als-are-associated-with-disability-and-cortical-hyperexcitability
#5
Nimeshan Geevasinga, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Parvathi Menon, Mehdi Van den Bos, Lavier Gomes, Sheryl Foster, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized a multimodality approach encompassing connectome network combined with brain volume analysis, and assessment of cortical excitability to provide novel insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla GE Signa HDx scanner, using an 8-channel head coil. MR images for the resting state scan were acquired using echo planar imaging MR sequence, acquiring 40 contiguous axial/oblique slices...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926001/ketamine-differential-neurophysiological-dynamics-in-functional-networks-in-the-rat-brain
#6
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925823/deep-learning-mr-imaging-based-attenuation-correction-for-pet-mr-imaging
#7
Fang Liu, Hyungseok Jang, Richard Kijowski, Tyler Bradshaw, Alan B McMillan
Purpose To develop and evaluate the feasibility of deep learning approaches for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based attenuation correction (AC) (termed deep MRAC) in brain positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. Materials and Methods A PET/MR imaging AC pipeline was built by using a deep learning approach to generate pseudo computed tomographic (CT) scans from MR images. A deep convolutional auto-encoder network was trained to identify air, bone, and soft tissue in volumetric head MR images coregistered to CT data for training...
September 19, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925810/ube3a-mediated-regulation-of-imprinted-genes-and-epigenome-wide-marks-in-human-neurons
#8
S Jesse Lopez, Keith Dunaway, M Saharul Islam, Charles Mordaunt, Annie Vogel Ciernia, Makiko Meguro-Horike, Shin-Ichi Horike, David J Segal, Janine LaSalle
The dysregulation of genes in neurodevelopmental disorders that lead to social and cognitive phenotypes is a complex, multilayered process involving both genetics and epigenetics. Parent-of-origin effects of deletion and duplication of the 15q11-q13 locus leading to Angelman, Prader-Willi, and Dup15q syndromes are due to imprinted genes, including UBE3A, which is maternally expressed exclusively in neurons. UBE3A encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase protein with multiple downstream targets, including RING1B, which in turn monoubiquitinates histone variant H2A...
September 19, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924878/differences-between-schizophrenic-and-normal-subjects-using-network-properties-from-fmri
#9
Youngoh Bae, Kunaraj Kumarasamy, Issa M Ali, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Bradley J Erickson
Schizophrenia has been proposed to result from impairment of functional connectivity. We aimed to use machine learning to distinguish schizophrenic subjects from normal controls using a publicly available functional MRI (fMRI) data set. Global and local parameters of functional connectivity were extracted for classification. We found decreased global and local network connectivity in subjects with schizophrenia, particularly in the anterior right cingulate cortex, the superior right temporal region, and the inferior left parietal region as compared to healthy subjects...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924621/an-altered-scaffold-for-information-processing-cognitive-control-development-in-adolescents-with-autism
#10
Marjorie Solomon, Jeremy Hogeveen, Lauren Libero, Christine Nordahl
We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control that have been conducted since 2007 in individuals with ASD and typical development (TYP) ages 10 to 30 years that examined how these regions and networks support behavioral and task-based fMRI performance on tasks assessing cognitive control during this period...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924568/convolutional-neural-network-for-high-accuracy-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-a-brain-computer-interface-three-class-classification-of-rest-right-and-left-hand-motor-execution
#11
Thanawin Trakoolwilaiwan, Bahareh Behboodi, Jaeseok Lee, Kyungsoo Kim, Ji-Woong Choi
The aim of this work is to develop an effective brain-computer interface (BCI) method based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In order to improve the performance of the BCI system in terms of accuracy, the ability to discriminate features from input signals and proper classification are desired. Previous studies have mainly extracted features from the signal manually, but proper features need to be selected carefully. To avoid performance degradation caused by manual feature selection, we applied convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as the automatic feature extractor and classifier for fNIRS-based BCI...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924215/bilingual-cortical-control-of-between-and-within-language-competition
#12
Viorica Marian, James Bartolotti, Sirada Rochanavibhata, Kailyn Bradley, Arturo E Hernandez
The human capacity to master multiple languages is remarkable and leads to structural and functional changes in the brain. Understanding how the brain accommodates multiple languages simultaneously is crucial to developing a complete picture of our species' linguistic capabilities. To examine the neural mechanisms involved in processing two languages, we looked at cortical activation in Spanish-English bilinguals in response to phonological competition either between two languages or within a language. Participants recognized spoken words in a visual world task while their brains were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924005/nigral-glutamatergic-neurons-control-the-speed-of-locomotion
#13
Dimitri Ryczko, Swantje Grätsch, Laura Schläger, Avo Keuyalian, Zakaria Boukhatem, Claudia Garcia, François Auclair, Ansgar Büschges, Réjean Dubuc
The Mesencephalic Locomotor Region (MLR) plays a crucial role in locomotor control. In vertebrates, stimulation of the MLR at increasing intensities elicits locomotion of growing speed. This effect has been presumed to result from higher brain inputs activating the MLR like a dimmer switch. Here, we show in lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) of either sex that incremental stimulation of a region homologous to the mammalian substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) evokes increasing activation of MLR cells with a graded increase in the frequency of locomotor movements...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923971/prolactin-action-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-is-necessary-for-postpartum-maternal-nursing-behavior
#14
Rosemary S E Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R Ladyman, Hollian R Phillipps, Amanda Wyatt, Ulrich Boehm, David R Grattan
Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of prolactin action in the MPOA using complementary genetic strategies in mice. We characterized prolactin-responsive neurons within the MPOA at different hormonal stages and delineated their projections in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923596/chemically-activated-luminopsins-allow-optogenetic-inhibition-of-distributed-nodes-in-an-epileptic-network-for-non-invasive-and-multi-site-suppression-of-seizure-activity
#15
Jack K Tung, Fu Hung Shiu, Kevin Ding, Robert E Gross
Although optogenetic techniques have proven to be invaluable for manipulating and understanding complex neural dynamics over the past decade, they still face practical and translational challenges in targeting networks involving multiple, large, or difficult-to-illuminate areas of the brain. We utilized inhibitory luminopsins to simultaneously inhibit multiple limbic structures of the rat brain in a hardware-independent and cell-type specific manner to suppress seizure activity in a rat model of epilepsy. In addition to elucidating mechanisms of seizure suppression never directly demonstrated before, this work also illustrates how precise multi-focal control of pathological circuits can be advantageous for the treatment of epilepsy, which may also be applicable to the treatment and understanding of other neurological disorders involving broad neural circuits...
September 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923553/a-systematic-integrated-analysis-of-brain-expression-profiles-reveals-yap1-and-other-prioritized-hub-genes-as-important-upstream-regulators-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Min Xu, Deng-Feng Zhang, Rongcan Luo, Yong Wu, Hejiang Zhou, Li-Li Kong, Rui Bi, Yong-Gang Yao
INTRODUCTION: Profiling the spatial-temporal expression pattern and characterizing the regulatory networks of brain tissues are vital for understanding the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We performed a systematic integrated analysis of expression profiles of AD-affected brain tissues (684 AD and 562 controls). A network-based convergent functional genomic approach was used to prioritize possible regulator genes during AD development, followed by functional characterization...
September 15, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923533/subjective-memory-complaints-are-associated-with-brain-activation-supporting-successful-memory-encoding
#17
Jessica M Hayes, Lingfei Tang, Raymond P Viviano, Sanneke van Rooden, Noa Ofen, Jessica S Damoiseaux
Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923408/altered-functional-connectivity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Hana Burianová, Nahla L Faizo, Marcus Gray, Julia Hocking, Graham Galloway, David Reutens
Growing evidence of altered functional connectivity suggests that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) alters not only hippocampal networks, but also a number of resting state networks. These highly coherent, yet functionally distinct brain circuits interact dynamically with each other in order to mediate consciousness, memory, and attention. However, little is currently known about the modulation of these networks by epileptiform activity, such as interictal spikes and seizures. The objective of the study was to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate functional connectivity in three resting state networks: default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and dorsal attentional network (DAN) in patients with mTLE compared to a healthy cohort, and in relation to the onset of interictal spikes and the period immediately prior to the spikes...
September 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923313/functional-brain-networks-for-learning-predictive-statistics
#19
Joseph Giorgio, Vasilis M Karlaftis, Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
Making predictions about future events relies on interpreting streams of information that may initially appear incomprehensible. This skill relies on extracting regular patterns in space and time by mere exposure to the environment (i.e., without explicit feedback). Yet, we know little about the functional brain networks that mediate this type of statistical learning. Here, we test whether changes in the processing and connectivity of functional brain networks due to training relate to our ability to learn temporal regularities...
August 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923276/rapid-whole-brain-resting-state-fmri-at-3%C3%A2-tesla-efficiency-optimized-three-dimensional-epi-versus-repetition-time-matched-simultaneous-multi-slice-epi
#20
Rüdiger Stirnberg, Willem Huijbers, Daniel Brenner, Benedikt A Poser, Monique Breteler, Tony Stöcker
State-of-the-art simultaneous-multi-slice (SMS-)EPI and 3D-EPI share several properties that benefit functional MRI acquisition. Both sequences employ equivalent parallel imaging undersampling with controlled aliasing to achieve high temporal sampling rates. As a volumetric imaging sequence, 3D-EPI offers additional means of acceleration complementary to 2D-CAIPIRINHA sampling, such as fast water excitation and elliptical sampling. We performed an application-oriented comparison between a tailored, six-fold CAIPIRINHA-accelerated 3D-EPI protocol at 530 ms temporal and 2...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
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