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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551777/large-scale-functional-neural-network-correlates-of-response-inhibition-an-fmri-meta-analysis
#1
Ruibin Zhang, Xiujuan Geng, Tatia M C Lee
An influential hypothesis from the last decade proposed that regions within the right inferior frontal cortex of the human brain were dedicated to supporting response inhibition. There is growing evidence, however, to support an alternative model, which proposes that neural areas associated with specific inhibitory control tasks co-exist as common network mechanisms, supporting diverse cognitive processes. This meta-analysis of 225 studies comprising 323 experiments examined the common and distinct neural correlates of cognitive processes for response inhibition, namely interference resolution, action withholding, and action cancellation...
May 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551759/seeing-a-brain-through-an-other-the-informant-s-share-in-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#2
Laurence Anne Tessier
This article takes up the neuroscientific assumption of our brains as "solitary" and contrasts this understanding with the description of actual clinical practices. Drawing on observations of clinical consultations and team meetings in a world famous US center for the diagnosis of dementia, I examine how the "informant", a member of the patient's family, participates in the diagnosis process. Based on specific situations in which the informant is judged to be a "bad" one, I inquire as to how clinicians use what they understand of the affective relationships between the patient and the bad informant in order to make a diagnosis...
May 27, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551752/behavioural-phenotypes-and-neural-circuit-dysfunctions-in-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Allain-Thibeault Ferhat, Sonja Halbedl, Michael J Schmeisser, Martien J Kas, Thomas Bourgeron, Elodie Ey
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition primarily characterised by alterations in social interaction and communication combined with the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviours. Mutations in several genes have been associated with ASD resulting in the generation of corresponding mouse models. Here, we focus on the behavioural (social and stereotyped behaviours), functional and structural traits of mice with mutations in genes encoding defined synaptic proteins including adhesion proteins, scaffolding proteins and subunits of channels and receptors...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551067/the-neural-correlates-of-reciprocity-are-sensitive-to-prior-experience-of-reciprocity
#4
Ricardo Cáceda, Stefania Prendes-Alvarez, Jung-Jiin Hsu, Shanti P Tripathi, Clint D Kilts, G Andrew James
Reciprocity is central to human relationships and is strongly influenced by multiple factors including the nature of social exchanges and their attendant emotional reactions. Despite recent advances in the field, the neural processes involved in this modulation of reciprocal behavior by ongoing social interaction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that activity within a discrete set of neural networks including a putative moral cognitive neural network is associated with reciprocity behavior. Nineteen healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while playing the trustee role in the Trust Game...
May 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550478/olfactory-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-a-consequence-of-central-nervous-system-decline
#5
Emilia Iannilli, Lars Stephan, Thomas Hummel, Heinz Reichmann, Antje Haehner
Early diagnosis and timely treatment of Parkinson's disease are essential factors to provide these patients with a longer period of a better quality of life. Olfactory loss is among the first non-motor symptoms of the disease; however, in light of the many causes of smell loss, it is a very unspecific biomarker and should only be used as part of a diagnostic test battery. In this study, we investigated the olfactory response in 71 subjects, consisting of Parkinson's disease patients, hyposmic and anosmic patients of other causes, and normosmic individuals searching for sensitive, distinct biomarkers for which we used scalp event-related 64-channel electroencephalography and psychophysical tests...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550285/scale-integrated-network-hubs-of-the-white-matter-structural-network
#6
Hunki Kwon, Yong-Ho Choi, Sang Won Seo, Jong-Min Lee
The 'human connectome' concept has been proposed to significantly increase our understanding of how functional brain states emerge from their underlying structural substrates. Especially, the network hub has been considered one of the most important topological properties to interpret a network as a complex system. However, previous structural brain connectome studies have reported network hub regions based on various nodal resolutions. We hypothesized that brain network hubs should be determined considering various nodal scales in a certain range...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550250/frequency-dependent-changes-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-mild-depression
#7
Yuxia Li, Bin Jing, Han Liu, Yifan Li, Xuan Gao, Yongqiu Li, Bin Mu, Haikuo Yu, Jinbo Cheng, Peter B Barker, Hongxing Wang, Ying Han
BACKGROUND: Depression is a potential marker of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the abnormal characteristics revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with depressive symptoms (MCI-d). OBJECTIVE: The study was to examine whether abnormalities in amplitudes of low-frequency oscillation occurred in MCI-d and tried to find the possible spectrum showed higher recognition ability to the diagnosis by utilizing functional MRI (fMRI)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550087/transcriptional-networks-in-rodent-models-support-a-role-for-gut-brain-communication-in-neurogenic-hypertension-a-review-of-the-evidence
#8
Jasenka Zubcevic, Ashley Baker, Christopher J Martyniuk
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent condition observed in primary health care. Hypertension shows complex etiology, and neuroinflammation, overactive sympathetic drive, and the microbiome are associated with the disease. To obtain mechanistic perspective into neurogenic HTN, we first constructed a framework for transcriptional regulators of the disease using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. This approach yielded a core group of 178 transcripts that are prevalent in HTN, including leptin and neuropeptide Y...
May 26, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549937/is-learning-episodic-memory-distinct-cognitive-and-neuroanatomic-correlates-of-immediate-recall-during-learning-trials-in-neurologically-normal-aging-and-neurodegenerative-cohorts
#9
K B Casaletto, G Marx, S Dutt, J Neuhaus, R Saloner, L Kritikos, B Miller, J H Kramer
Although commonly interpreted as a marker of episodic memory during neuropsychological exams, relatively little is known regarding the neurobehavior of "total learning" immediate recall scores. Medial temporal lobes are clearly associated with delayed recall performances, yet immediate recall may necessitate networks beyond traditional episodic memory. We aimed to operationalize cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of total immediate recall in several aging syndromes. Demographically-matched neurologically normal adults (n=91), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=566), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n=34), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n=97), semantic variant PPA (n=71), or nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (n=39) completed a neurocognitive battery, including the CVLT-Short Form trials 1-4 Total Immediate Recall; a majority subset also completed a brain MRI...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549798/whole-brain-connectivity-dynamics-reflect-both-task-specific-and-individual-specific-modulation-a-multitask-study
#11
REVIEW
Hua Xie, Vince Calhoun, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Eswar Damaraju, Robyn Miller, Peter Bandettini, Sunanda Mitra
Functional connectivity (FC) has been widely used to study the functional organization of temporally correlated and spatially distributed brain regions. Recent studies of FC dynamics, quantified by windowed correlations, provide new insights to analyze dynamic, context-dependent reconfiguration of brain networks. A set of reoccurring whole-brain connectivity patterns at rest, referred to as FC states, have been identified, hypothetically reflecting underlying cognitive processes or mental states. We posit that the mean FC information for a given subject represents a significant contribution to the group-level FC dynamics...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#12
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549795/brain-grey-and-white-matter-predictors-of-verbal-ability-traits-in-older-age-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#13
Paul Hoffman, Simon R Cox, Dominika Dykiert, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Cerebral grey and white matter MRI parameters are related to general intelligence and some specific cognitive abilities. Less is known about how structural brain measures relate specifically to verbal processing abilities. We used multi-modal structural MRI to investigate the grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) correlates of verbal ability in 556 healthy older adults (mean age = 72.68 years, s.d. = 0.72 years). Structural equation modelling was used to decompose verbal performance into two latent factors: a storage factor that indexed participants' ability to store representations of verbal knowledge and an executive factor that measured their ability to regulate their access to this information in a flexible and task-appropriate manner...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549481/late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-genetics-implicates-microglial-pathways-in-disease-risk
#14
REVIEW
Anastasia G Efthymiou, Alison M Goate
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly heritable complex disease with no current effective prevention or treatment. The majority of drugs developed for AD focus on the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which implicates Aß plaques as a causal factor in the disease. However, it is possible that other underexplored disease-associated pathways may be more fruitful targets for drug development. Findings from gene network analyses implicate immune networks as being enriched in AD; many of the genes in these networks fall within genomic regions that contain common and rare variants that are associated with increased risk of developing AD...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549410/large-scale-tissue-histopathology-image-classification-segmentation-and-visualization-via-deep-convolutional-activation-features
#15
Yan Xu, Zhipeng Jia, Liang-Bo Wang, Yuqing Ai, Fang Zhang, Maode Lai, Eric I-Chao Chang
BACKGROUND: Histopathology image analysis is a gold standard for cancer recognition and diagnosis. Automatic analysis of histopathology images can help pathologists diagnose tumor and cancer subtypes, alleviating the workload of pathologists. There are two basic types of tasks in digital histopathology image analysis: image classification and image segmentation. Typical problems with histopathology images that hamper automatic analysis include complex clinical representations, limited quantities of training images in a dataset, and the extremely large size of singular images (usually up to gigapixels)...
May 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549329/abnormal-small-world-brain-functional-networks-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-with-poor-insight
#16
Hui Lei, Yan Cui, Jie Fan, Xiaocui Zhang, Mingtian Zhong, Jinyao Yi, Lin Cai, Dezhong Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on neurobiological correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether specific changes occur in small-world network (SWN) properties in the brain functional network of OCD patients with poor insight. METHOD: Resting-state electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 12 medication-free OCD patients with poor insight, 50 medication-free OCD patients with good insight, and 36 healthy controls...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549234/lesion-characteristics-driving-right-hemispheric-language-reorganization-in-congenital-left-hemispheric-brain-damage
#17
Karen Lidzba, Bianca de Haan, Marko Wilke, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Martin Staudt
Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI...
May 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549077/clinical-criteria-for-subtyping-parkinson-s-disease-biomarkers-and-longitudinal-progression
#18
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease varies widely in clinical manifestations, course of progression and biomarker profiles from person to person. Identification of distinct Parkinson's disease subtypes is of great priority to illuminate underlying pathophysiology, predict progression and develop more efficient personalized care approaches. There is currently no clear way to define and divide subtypes in Parkinson's disease. Using data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, we aimed to identify distinct subgroups via cluster analysis of a comprehensive dataset at baseline (i...
May 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#19
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547768/avian-brains-insights-from-development-behaviors-and-evolution
#20
REVIEW
Tadashi Nomura, Ei-Ichi Izawa
Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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