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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749476/the-wide-genetic-landscape-of-clinical-frontotemporal-dementia-systematic-combined-sequencing-of-121-consecutive-subjects
#1
Cornelis Blauwendraat, Carlo Wilke, Javier Simón-Sánchez, Iris E Jansen, Anika Reifschneider, Anja Capell, Christian Haass, Melissa Castillo-Lizardo, Saskia Biskup, Walter Maetzler, Patrizia Rizzu, Peter Heutink, Matthis Synofzik
PurposeTo define the genetic spectrum and relative gene frequencies underlying clinical frontotemporal dementia (FTD).MethodsWe investigated the frequencies and mutations in neurodegenerative disease genes in 121 consecutive FTD subjects using an unbiased, combined sequencing approach, complemented by cerebrospinal fluid Aβ1-42 and serum progranulin measurements. Subjects were screened for C9orf72 repeat expansions, GRN and MAPT mutations, and, if negative, mutations in other neurodegenerative disease genes, by whole-exome sequencing (WES) (n = 108), including WES-based copy-number variant (CNV) analysis...
July 27, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748930/neuromorphic-computing-with-nanoscale-spintronic-oscillators
#2
Jacob Torrejon, Mathieu Riou, Flavio Abreu Araujo, Sumito Tsunegi, Guru Khalsa, Damien Querlioz, Paolo Bortolotti, Vincent Cros, Kay Yakushiji, Akio Fukushima, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Mark D Stiles, Julie Grollier
Neurons in the brain behave as nonlinear oscillators, which develop rhythmic activity and interact to process information. Taking inspiration from this behaviour to realize high-density, low-power neuromorphic computing will require very large numbers of nanoscale nonlinear oscillators. A simple estimation indicates that to fit 10(8) oscillators organized in a two-dimensional array inside a chip the size of a thumb, the lateral dimension of each oscillator must be smaller than one micrometre. However, nanoscale devices tend to be noisy and to lack the stability that is required to process data in a reliable way...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748572/let-s-chat-developmental-neural-bases-of-social-motivation-during-real-time-peer-interaction
#3
Katherine Rice Warnell, Eleonora Sadikova, Elizabeth Redcay
Humans are motivated to interact with each other, but the neural bases of social motivation have been predominantly examined in non-interactive contexts. Understanding real-world social motivation is of special importance during middle childhood (ages 8-12), a period when social skills improve, social networks grow, and social brain networks specialize. To assess interactive social motivation, the current study used a novel fMRI paradigm in which children believed they were chatting with a peer. The design targeted two phases of interaction: (1) Initiation, in which children engaged in a social bid via sharing a like or hobby, and (2) Reply, in which children received either an engaged ("Me too") or non-engaged ("I'm away") reply from the peer...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748303/a-mean-field-model-for-movement-induced-changes-in-the-beta-rhythm
#4
Áine Byrne, Matthew J Brookes, Stephen Coombes
In electrophysiological recordings of the brain, the transition from high amplitude to low amplitude signals are most likely caused by a change in the synchrony of underlying neuronal population firing patterns. Classic examples of such modulations are the strong stimulus-related oscillatory phenomena known as the movement related beta decrease (MRBD) and post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). A sharp decrease in neural oscillatory power is observed during movement (MRBD) followed by an increase above baseline on movement cessation (PMBR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748202/the-repeated-flurothyl-seizure-model-in-mice
#5
Russell J Ferland
Development of spontaneous seizures is the hallmark of human epilepsy. There is a critical need for new epilepsy models in order to elucidate mechanisms responsible for leading to the development of spontaneous seizures and for testing new anti-epileptic compounds. Moreover, rodent models of epilepsy have clearly demonstrated that there are two independent seizure systems in the brain: 1) the forebrain seizure network required for the expression of clonic seizures mediated by forebrain neurocircuitry, and 2) the brainstem seizure network necessary for the expression of brainstem or tonic seizures mediated by brainstem neurocircuitry...
June 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747892/how-useful-is-electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-the-delineation-of-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Oana Gurau, William J Bosl, Charles R Newton
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to be associated with abnormal neural connectivity. Presently, neural connectivity is a theoretical construct that cannot be easily measured. Research in network science and time series analysis suggests that neural network structure, a marker of neural activity, can be measured with electroencephalography (EEG). EEG can be quantified by different methods of analysis to potentially detect brain abnormalities. The aim of this review is to examine evidence for the utility of three methods of EEG signal analysis in the ASD diagnosis and subtype delineation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747880/strong-functional-connectivity-among-homotopic-brain-areas-is-vital-for-motor-control-in-unilateral-limb-movement
#7
Pengxu Wei, Zuting Zhang, Zeping Lv, Bin Jing
The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747876/structural-correlates-of-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Wataru Sato, Shota Uono, Takanori Kochiyama, Sayaka Yoshimura, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Morimitsu Sakihama, Motomi Toichi
Behavioral studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired ability to read the mind in the eyes. Although this impairment is central to their social malfunctioning, its structural neural correlates remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we assessed Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version (Eyes Test) and acquired structural magnetic resonance images in adults with high-functioning ASD (n = 19) and age-, sex- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing (TD) controls (n = 19)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747782/hybrid-high-order-functional-connectivity-networks-using-resting-state-functional-mri-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-diagnosis
#9
Yu Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Conventional functional connectivity (FC), referred to as low-order FC, estimates temporal correlation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) time series between any pair of brain regions, simply ignoring the potentially high-level relationship among these brain regions. A high-order FC based on "correlation's correlation" has emerged as a new approach for abnormality detection of brain disease. However, separate construction of the low- and high-order FC networks overlooks information exchange between the two FC levels...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747760/early-functional-network-alterations-in-asymptomatic-elders-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Akinori Nakamura, Pablo Cuesta, Takashi Kato, Yutaka Arahata, Kaori Iwata, Misako Yamagishi, Izumi Kuratsubo, Kimiko Kato, Masahiko Bundo, Kersten Diers, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Kengo Ito
Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition is known to starts decades before the onset of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the detailed pathophysiological processes underlying this preclinical period are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate functional network alterations in cognitively intact elderly individuals at risk for AD, and assessed the association between these network alterations and changes in Aβ deposition, glucose metabolism, and brain structure. Forty-five cognitively normal elderly subjects, who were classified into Aβ-positive (CN+) and Aβ-negative (CN-) groups using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B PET, underwent resting state magnetoencephalography measurements, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) and structural MRI...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747717/contextual-connectivity-a-framework-for-understanding-the-intrinsic-dynamic-architecture-of-large-scale-functional-brain-networks
#11
Rastko Ciric, Jason S Nomi, Lucina Q Uddin, Ajay B Satpute
Investigations of the human brain's connectomic architecture have produced two alternative models: one describes the brain's spatial structure in terms of static localized networks, and the other describes the brain's temporal structure in terms of dynamic whole-brain states. Here, we used tools from connectivity dynamics to develop a synthesis that bridges these models. Using resting fMRI data, we investigated the assumptions undergirding current models of the human connectome. Consistent with state-based models, our results suggest that static localized networks are superordinate approximations of underlying dynamic states...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747660/4-dimensional-functional-profiling-in-the-convulsant-treated-larval-zebrafish-brain
#12
Matthew J Winter, Dylan Windell, Jeremy Metz, Peter Matthews, Joe Pinion, Jonathan T Brown, Malcolm J Hetheridge, Jonathan S Ball, Stewart F Owen, Will S Redfern, Julian Moger, Andrew D Randall, Charles R Tyler
Functional neuroimaging, using genetically-encoded Ca(2+) sensors in larval zebrafish, offers a powerful combination of high spatiotemporal resolution and higher vertebrate relevance for quantitative neuropharmacological profiling. Here we use zebrafish larvae with pan-neuronal expression of GCaMP6s, combined with light sheet microscopy and a novel image processing pipeline, for the 4D profiling of chemoconvulsant action in multiple brain regions. In untreated larvae, regions associated with autonomic functionality, sensory processing and stress-responsiveness, consistently exhibited elevated spontaneous activity...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747648/resting-state-brain-connectivity-changes-in-obese-women-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Gaia Olivo, Wei Zhou, Magnus Sundbom, Christina Zhukovsky, Pleunie Hogenkamp, Lamia Nikontovic, Julia Stark, Lyle Wiemerslage, Elna-Marie Larsson, Christian Benedict, Helgi B Schiöth
Bariatric surgery is an effective method to rapidly induce weight loss in severely obese people, however its impact on brain functional connectivity after longer periods of follow-up is yet to be assessed. We investigated changes in connectivity in 16 severely obese women one month before, one month after and one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). 12 lean controls were also enrolled. Resting-state fMRI was acquired for all participants following an overnight fast and after a 260 kcal load...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747466/network-activity-influences-the-subthreshold-and-spiking-visual-responses-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-three-layer-turtle-cortex
#14
Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Ralf Wessel
A primary goal of systems neuroscience is to understand cortical function, which typically involves studying spontaneous and stimulus-modulated cortical activity. Mounting evidence suggests a strong and complex relationship exists between the ongoing and stimulus-modulated cortical state. To date, most work in this area has been based on spiking in populations of neurons. While advantageous in many respects, this approach is limited in scope; it records the activity of a minority of neurons, and gives no direct indication of the underlying subthreshold dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746902/remembering-verbally-presented-items-as-pictures-brain-activity-underlying-visual-mental-images-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#15
Christian Stephan-Otto, Sara Siddi, Carl Senior, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Maria Rosa Cambra-Martí, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia consist of mental images mistaken for percepts due to failure of the reality-monitoring processes. However, the neural substrates that underpin such dysfunction are currently unknown. We conducted a brain imaging study to investigate the role of visual mental imagery in visual hallucinations. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy participants were administered a reality-monitoring task whilst undergoing an fMRI protocol...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746815/higher-order-areas-of-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#16
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Recent anatomical and physiological studies of the mouse visual cortex have revealed a similarly complex network of specialized higher-order areas...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744955/cortical-connectivity-modulation-during-sleep-onset-a-study-via-graph-theory-on-eeg-data
#17
Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Maurizio Gorgoni, Michele Ferrara, Francesco Iberite, Placido Bramanti, Luigi De Gennaro, Paolo Maria Rossini
Sleep onset is characterized by a specific and orchestrated pattern of frequency and topographical EEG changes. Conventional power analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) and computational assessments of network dynamics have described an earlier synchronization of the centrofrontal areas rhythms and a spread of synchronizing signals from associative prefrontal to posterior areas. Here, we assess how "small world" characteristics of the brain networks, as reflected in the EEG rhythms, are modified in the wakefulness-sleep transition comparing the pre- and post-sleep onset epochs...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743894/creb-regulates-distinct-adaptive-transcriptional-programs-in-astrocytes-and-neurons
#18
Luis Pardo, Luis Miguel Valor, Abel Eraso-Pichot, Angel Barco, Arantxa Golbano, Giles E Hardingham, Roser Masgrau, Elena Galea
The cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a primary hub of activity-driven genetic programs in neurons controlling plasticity, neurogenesis and survival. By contrast, the gene networks coordinated by CREB in astrocytes are unknown despite the fact that the astrocytic CREB is also activity-driven and neuroprotective. Herein we identified the transcriptional programs regulated by CREB in astrocytes as compared to neurons using, as study materials, transcriptome databases of astrocyte exposed to well-known activators of CREB-dependent transcription as well as publicly available transcriptomes of neuronal cultures...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743886/the-minimum-resting-state-fnirs-imaging-duration-for-accurate-and-stable-mapping-of-brain-connectivity-network-in-children
#19
Jingyu Wang, Qi Dong, Haijing Niu
Resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a potential technique for the study of brain functional connectivity (FC) and networks in children. However, the necessary fNIRS scanning duration required to map accurate and stable functional brain connectivity and graph theory metrics in the resting-state brain activity remains largely unknown. Here, we acquired resting-state fNIRS imaging data from 53 healthy children to provide the first empirical evidence for the minimum imaging time required to obtain accurate and stable FC and graph theory metrics of brain network activity (e...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743861/multimodal-fingerprints-of-resting-state-networks-as-assessed-by-simultaneous-trimodal-mr-pet-eeg-imaging
#20
N J Shah, J Arrubla, R Rajkumar, E Farrher, J Mauler, E Rota Kops, L Tellmann, J Scheins, F Boers, J Dammers, P Sripad, C Lerche, K J Langen, H Herzog, I Neuner
Simultaneous MR-PET-EEG (magnetic resonance imaging - positron emission tomography - electroencephalography), a new tool for the investigation of neuronal networks in the human brain, is presented here for the first time. It enables the assessment of molecular metabolic information with high spatial and temporal resolution in a given brain simultaneously. Here, we characterize the brain's default mode network (DMN) in healthy male subjects using multimodal fingerprinting by quantifying energy metabolism via 2- [(18)F]fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET), the inhibition - excitation balance of neuronal activation via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), its functional connectivity via fMRI and its electrophysiological signature via EEG...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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