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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#1
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150619/reduced-orbitofrontal-thalamic-functional-connectivity-related-to-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Kiwon Kim, Sung-Woo Kim, Woojae Myung, Cheol E Han, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, George I Papakostas, Sang Won Seo, Hana Cho, Joon-Kyung Seong, Hong Jin Jeon
Despite recent developments in neuroimaging, alterations of brain functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with suicidal ideation are poorly understood. This study investigated specific changes of suicidal ideation in functional connectivity of MDD patients. Whole brain functional connectivity in 46 patients with MDD (23 with suicidal ideation and 23 without) and 36 age- and gender- matched healthy controls were compared using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) analyzed with network-based statistics (NBS) and graph-theoretical methods...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150402/network-science-of-biological-systems-at-different-scales-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Marko Gosak, Rene Markovič, Jurij Dolenšek, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Marko Marhl, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc
Network science is today established as a backbone for description of structure and function of various physical, chemical, biological, technological, and social systems. Here we review recent advances in the study of complex biological systems that were inspired and enabled by methods of network science. First, we present research highlights ranging from determination of the molecular interaction network within a cell to studies of architectural and functional properties of brain networks and biological transportation networks...
November 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150311/functional-connectivity-of-the-vigilant-attention-network-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Florian D Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Richard M Stewart, Julia K Moore, Caroline S Biskup, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Robert Langner
The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9-14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#5
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149617/decoding-early-and-late-cortical-contributions-to-individuation-of-attended-and-unattended-objects
#6
Claire K Naughtin, Jason B Mattingley, Angela D Bender, Paul E Dux
To isolate a visual stimulus as a unique object with a specific spatial location and time of occurrence, it is necessary to first register (individuate) the stimulus as a distinct perceptual entity. Recent investigations into the neural substrates of object individuation have suggested it is subserved by a distributed neural network, but previous manipulations of individuation load have introduced extraneous visual confounds, which might have yielded ambiguous findings, particularly in early cortical areas...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149201/the-influence-of-filtering-and-downsampling-on-the-estimation-of-transfer-entropy
#7
Immo Weber, Esther Florin, Michael von Papen, Lars Timmermann
Transfer entropy (TE) provides a generalized and model-free framework to study Wiener-Granger causality between brain regions. Because of its nonparametric character, TE can infer directed information flow also from nonlinear systems. Despite its increasing number of applications in neuroscience, not much is known regarding the influence of common electrophysiological preprocessing on its estimation. We test the influence of filtering and downsampling on a recently proposed nearest neighborhood based TE estimator...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149191/resting-state-fmri-in-sleeping-infants-more-closely-resembles-adult-sleep-than-adult-wakefulness
#8
Anish Mitra, Abraham Z Snyder, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Helmut Laufs, Jed Elison, Robert W Emerson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan Evans, Guido Gerig, Heather C Hazlett, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Bradley L Schlaggar, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett, Marcus Raichle
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in infants enables important studies of functional brain organization early in human development. However, rs-fMRI in infants has universally been obtained during sleep to reduce participant motion artifact, raising the question of whether differences in functional organization between awake adults and sleeping infants that are commonly attributed to development may instead derive, at least in part, from sleep. This question is especially important as rs-fMRI differences in adult wake vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148114/on-the-character-and-production-of-active-participation-in-neuro-rehabilitation-an-actor-network-perspective
#9
Simon Horton, Kathryn Mares, Neil Coull, Fiona Poland
The importance of patients' active involvement in neuro-rehabilitation after acquired brain injury has been consistently emphasised in recent years. However, most approaches fail to show how 'active participation' is practically enacted, focusing on individualised explanations of patient choice and behaviours, or notions of inherent patient traits. Using actor-network theory (ANT) as a sensitising concept, we investigated neuro-rehabilitation practices, asking how participation is shaped through biological and socio-material specificities, how rights to knowledge and expertise are constructed, and how a body acclimatises and adjusts within an order of participation and transformation...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147586/corticospinal-plasticity-in-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-to-the-dominant-hemisphere-does-not-differ-between-young-and-older-adults
#10
Daina S E Dickins, Marc R Kamke, Martin V Sale
Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147142/analysis-of-functional-brain-connections-for-positive-negative-emotions-using-phase-locking-value
#11
Yasar Dasdemir, Esen Yildirim, Serdar Yildirim
In this study, we investigate the brain networks during positive and negative emotions for different types of stimulus (audio only, video only and audio + video) in [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] bands in terms of phase locking value, a nonlinear method to study functional connectivity. Results show notable hemispheric lateralization as phase synchronization values between channels are significant and high in right hemisphere for all emotions. Left frontal electrodes are also found to have control over emotion in terms of functional connectivity...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146466/causal-mapping-of-emotion-networks-in-the-human-brain-framework-and-initial-findings
#12
Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs
Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from fMRI data (causal discovery). We outline a research program for investigating human emotion with these new tools, and provide initial findings from two large resting-state datasets as well as case studies in neurosurgical patients with electrical stimulation of the amygdala...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146299/functional-connectivity-during-affective-mentalizing-in-criminal-offenders-with-psychotic-disorders-associations-with-clinical-symptoms
#13
Carla L Harenski, Vince D Calhoun, Juan R Bustillo, Brian W Haas, Jean Decety, Keith A Harenski, Michael F Caldwell, Gregory J Van Rybroek, Michael Koenigs, David M Thornton, Kent A Kiehl
Psychotic disorders are associated with neurobehavioral impairments in mental state attribution (mentalizing). These impairments are most severe in psychotic patients with elevated symptom levels, particularly negative and cognitive symptoms. There have been few studies of functional connectivity related to mentalizing in psychotic disorders and associations with symptoms. We conducted a functional MRI study of affective mentalizing in individuals with psychotic disorders and varying symptom levels (positive, negative, cognitive)...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146290/sustained-opioid-antagonism-modulates-striatal-sensitivity-to-baby-schema-in-opioid-use-disorder
#14
An-Li Wang, Steven B Lowen, Igor Elman, Zhenhao Shi, Victoria P Fairchild, Alexander Bouril, Ruben C Gur, Daniel D Langleben
BACKGROUND: Chronic opioid misuse is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural rewards and social motivation deficits that include impaired caregiving. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits and their response to treatment are not well understood. Baby schema (Kindchenschema) is a set of juvenile physical features, which is perceived as "cute" and triggers motivation for caregiving. Recent studies suggest that the "baby schema effect" is mediated by the brain "reward" network...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145185/hypersexuality-in-neurological-disorders-from-disinhibition-to-impulsivity
#15
M Béreau
Little is known about the neurological control of human sexual behavior. Investigating and measuring this behavior by using quantitative and objective methods is difficult. Insights from lesion studies contribute to analyze the effects of neurological disorders on human sexual behavior. In this chapter, we focus on frontal lobe lesions, brain injuries, epilepsia, dementia, and Parkinson disease to describe human sexual behavior disorders, in order to highlight cortical and subcortical brain regions and neural networks involved in human sexual behavior...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145184/addictive-non-drug-and-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-after-focal-brain-lesions
#16
René M Müri, Dario Cazzoli
This chapter presents an overview of different addictive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and their constellations due to focal brain lesions. In general, such symptoms are not systematically reported in the literature, and the knowledge about the networks involved is sometimes sparse. Finally, we present an original case with an unusual combination of kleptomania and hyper-religiosity.
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#17
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143911/decreased-interhemispheric-coordination-in-the-posterior-default-mode-network-and-visual-regions-as-trait-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Wenbin Guo, Xilong Cui, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Guangrong Xie, Renrong Wu, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Xiangyang Zhang, Jingping Zhao
Decreased homotopic connectivity has been implicated in the neurophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) with inconsistent findings. A combination of clinical and methodological variabilities may account for the inconsistency, and thus limiting the reproducibility of the findings. The present study aims to examine voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) alterations in two independent samples of patients with first-episode, drug-naive MDD. The samples included 59 patients and 31 controls from Sample 1 and 29 patients and 24 controls from Sample 2...
November 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143409/chronnectome-fingerprinting-identifying-individuals-and-predicting-higher-cognitive-functions-using-dynamic-brain-connectivity-patterns
#19
Jin Liu, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143307/considerations-in-performing-and-analyzing-the-responses-of-cortico-cortical-evoked-potentials-in-stereo-eeg
#20
REVIEW
David Prime, David Rowlands, Steven O'Keefe, Sasha Dionisio
This review aims to highlight key considerations when performing cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) for network mapping and show its clinical applicability to presurgical evaluations. The parameters for performing stimulation and safety aspects have been investigated in electrocorticography (ECoG) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), but not as extensively in SEEG. A review of current literature was performed, with an attempt made to emphasize practical insights from all modalities of intracranial stimulation...
November 16, 2017: Epilepsia
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