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Amotivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911015/depression-with-inflammation-longitudinal-analysis-of-a-proposed-depressive-subtype-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#1
Damien Gallagher, Alex Kiss, Krista Lanctot, Nathan Herrmann
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that inflammation may be causally related to depression. If this is the case, it may be possible to distinguish an inflammatory depressive subtype according to illness course, pattern of co-morbidity and symptom profile. METHODS: Eight hundred and eleven community dwelling older adults with depression (8 item Center for Epidemiologic Studies scale ≥ 4) from the English Longitudinal study of Ageing (ELSA) were followed for a median of 47 months...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910118/motivational-factors-associated-with-physical-activity-and-quality-of-life-in-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#2
Anders Farholm, Marit Sørensen, Hallgeir Halvari
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest for investigating the role of motivation in physical activity among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Autonomous motivation has been suggested to have a potentially important role in adoption and maintenance of physical activity. However, the knowledge about factors that facilitate autonomous motivation among people with SMI is scarce. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with motivation for physical activity as well as the relationships between motivation, physical activity and health-related quality of life in individuals with SMI that were currently physically active...
December 2, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869058/relationship-of-amotivation-to-neurocognition-self-efficacy-and-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#3
W C Chang, V W Y Kwong, C L M Hui, S K W Chan, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM). METHOD: Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26-55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802910/effects-of-the-indianapolis-vocational-intervention-program-ivip-on-defeatist-beliefs-work-motivation-and-work-outcomes-in-serious-mental-illness
#4
Joshua E Mervis, Joanna M Fiszdon, Paul H Lysaker, Tasha M Nienow, Laura Mathews, Patricia Wardwell, Tammy Petrik, Warren Thime, Jimmy Choi
Defeatist beliefs and amotivation are prominent obstacles in vocational rehabilitation for people with serious mental illnesses (SMI). The CBT-based Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program (IVIP) was specifically designed to reduce defeatist beliefs related to work functioning. In the current study, we examined the impact of IVIP on defeatist beliefs and motivation for work, hypothesizing that IVIP would be associated with a reduction in defeatist beliefs and greater motivation for work. We also examined the effects of IVIP on these variables as well as work outcomes during a 12-month follow-up...
October 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788457/understanding-and-treating-amotivation-in-people-with-psychosis-an-experimental-study-of-the-role-of-guided-imagery
#5
Charlotte Cox, Suzanne Jolley, Louise Johns
Psychological models propose that the amotivational negative symptoms (ANS) of psychosis are influenced by expectations of future events; both anticipatory success (believing one can achieve something, AS) and anticipatory pleasure (mentally pre-creating potential future experiences of enjoyment, AP). Mental imagery manipulations have been shown to change expectations across a range of settings, and may therefore enhance psychological interventions for ANS in people with psychosis. We set out to investigate the impact of a guided imagery manipulation on AS and AP in this group...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762186/future-achievements-passion-and-motivation-in-the-transition-from-junior-to-senior-sport-in-spanish-young-elite-soccer-players
#6
José L Chamorro, Miquel Torregrosa, David Sánchez Oliva, Tomás García Calvo, Benito León
Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group (N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group (N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group (N = 91) only interested in private life achievements...
October 20, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732031/attentional-processing-of-emotional-faces-in-schizophrenia-evidence-from-eye-tracking
#7
Seon-Kyeong Jang, Sujin Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Hyeon-Seung Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
Severe emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression have been closely related to aberrant attentional processing of emotional stimuli. However, this has been little studied in schizophrenia, which is also characterized by marked emotional impairments such as heightened negative affect and anhedonia. In the current study, we investigated temporal dynamics of motivated attention to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we tracked eye movements of 22 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ISZs) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional (i...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696337/the-psycho-neurology-of-cross-species-affective-social-neuroscience-understanding-animal-affective-states-as-a-guide-to-development-of-novel-psychiatric-treatments
#8
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693850/selective-amotivation-deficits-following-chronic-psychosocial-stress-in-mice
#9
Alejandro Tsai Cabal, Horea-Ioan Ioanas, Erich Seifritz, Bechara J Saab
Amotivation is a major symptom of several psychiatric disorders. However, which specific motivations are most affected in various illnesses is not well understood. In major depressive disorder (MDD), anecdotal evidence suggests the motivation to explore may be especially affected, but direct evidence from either patients or animal models is lacking. To investigate the potential for, and nature of, exploratory drive deficits in MDD, we subjected mice to a chronic social defeat (CSD) manipulation that gives rise to a MDD-like behavioural ensemble, and performed a behavioural battery to examine bodyweight homeostasis, ambulation, anxiety, exploratory behaviour motivated by either novelty or fear, and short-term memory...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605868/treatment-resistant-depression-or-dementia-a-case-report
#10
Zhongyong Shi, Shifu Xiao, Xia Li
The current case describes a 78-year-old female with two previous episodes of major depression who presented with both symptoms of depression (amotivation and flattened affect) and typical symptoms of dementia (impaired memory and executive functioning). Even after a detailed clinical exam and neuropsychiatric testing, it remained difficult to definitively classify the diagnosis as either treatment-resistant depression or old-age dementia. After 8 weeks of inpatient treatment, including changing her reserpine-based antihypertensive medication, adjusting her antidepressants, and providing psychotherapy, her depressive and anxiety symptoms improved, but most of her cognitive symptoms persisted...
April 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594592/is-autonomous-motivation-the-key-to-maintaining-an-active-lifestyle-in-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Davy Vancampfort, Marc De Hert, Julie Broderick, Oscar Lederman, Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Michel Probst
AIM: Physical activity has the potential to improve the health of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), yet many patients with FEP remain inactive. Exploring the theoretical basis of the motivational processes linked to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity behaviours in FEP patients can assist with the design and delivery of physical activity interventions. Within the self-determination theory and the transtheoretical model (stages of change) frameworks, we investigated motives for physical activity adoption and maintenance in FEP...
September 4, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585792/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-cannabinoids-on-effort-related-decision-making-and-reward-learning-an-evaluation-of-the-cannabis-amotivational-hypotheses
#12
Will Lawn, Tom P Freeman, Rebecca A Pope, Alyssa Joye, Lisa Harvey, Chandni Hindocha, Claire Mokrysz, Abigail Moss, Matthew B Wall, Michael Ap Bloomfield, Ravi K Das, Celia Ja Morgan, David J Nutt, H Valerie Curran
RATIONALE: Anecdotally, both acute and chronic cannabis use have been associated with apathy, amotivation, and other reward processing deficits. To date, empirical support for these effects is limited, and no previous studies have assessed both acute effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as associations with cannabis dependence. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (1) to examine acute effects of cannabis with CBD (Cann + CBD) and without CBD (Cann-CBD) on effort-related decision-making and (2) to examine associations between cannabis dependence, effort-related decision-making and reward learning...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557949/lack-of-association-between-dopaminergic-antagonism-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-positron-emission-tomography-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-occupancy-study
#13
Gagan Fervaha, Fernando Caravaggio, David C Mamo, Benoit H Mulsant, Bruce G Pollock, Shinichiro Nakajima, Philip Gerretsen, Tarek K Rajji, Wanna Mar, Yusuke Iwata, Eric Plitman, Jun Ku Chung, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
RATIONALE: Several pre-clinical studies suggest that antipsychotic medications cause secondary negative symptoms. However, direct evidence for a relationship among antipsychotic medications, their direct effects on neurotransmitter systems, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antipsychotic-related dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479101/predictors-of-improved-functioning-in-patients-with-psychosis-the-role-of-amotivation-and-defeatist-performance-beliefs
#14
Matthias Pillny, Tania M Lincoln
Defeatist performance beliefs (DPBs) are associated with the severe impairments in functioning of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This association has been found to be mediated by amotivation, a core aspect of negative symptoms. Although causality is assumed, longitudinal evidence for this is lacking. The current study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between DPBs, motivational impairments and functioning in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders (N=58)...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473462/overcoming-barriers-adolescents-experiences-using-a-mobile-phone-dietary-assessment-app
#15
Åsa Svensson, Maria Magnusson, Christel Larsson
BACKGROUND: The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants' experiences and perceptions are needed. OBJECTIVE: To explore adolescents' experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385730/a-teacher-focused-intervention-to-decrease-pe-students-amotivation-by-increasing-need-satisfaction-and-decreasing-need-frustration
#16
Sung Hyeon Cheon, Johnmarshall Reeve, Yong-Gwan Song
Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students' amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students' PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322868/left-nucleus-accumbens-atrophy-in-deficit-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study
#17
Pietro De Rossi, Claudia Dacquino, Fabrizio Piras, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta
A question that remains to be answered is whether schizophrenia can be characterized by a single etiopathophysiology or whether separate sub-syndromes should be differentiated to define specific mechanisms for each sub-type. Individuals affected by the deficit subtype of schizophrenia (DSZ) display avolitional/amotivational features that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Characterizing DSZ from a neuroanatomical point of view may help clarify this issue and develop new treatment strategies. To determine if DSZ is associated with structural alterations in specific deep grey matter structures linked to its key clinical features, 22 DSZ patients, 22 non-deficit schizophrenia (NDSZ) patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for a case-control cross-sectional study...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294799/slow-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-symptoms-are-associated-with-poorer-academic-performance-in-children-with-adhd
#18
Leanne Tamm, Annie A Garner, Richard E A Loren, Jeffery N Epstein, Aaron J Vaughn, Heather A Ciesielski, Stephen P Becker
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274667/does-body-mass-index-influence-behavioral-regulations-dispositional-flow-and-social-physique-anxiety-in-exercise-setting
#19
Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F Hülya Aşçı
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246138/changes-in-enjoyment-self-efficacy-and-motivation-during-a-randomized-trial-to-promote-habitual-physical-activity-adoption-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#20
Dale S Bond, J Graham Thomas, Sivamainthan Vithiananthan, Jennifer Webster, Jessica Unick, Beth A Ryder, Dieter Pohl
BACKGROUND: The Bari-Active trial found that a physical activity (PA) intervention (PAI), versus standard presurgical care control (SC), produced significant increases in daily bout-related moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA, in≥10-min bouts) preoperatively. The present study examined whether PAI also produces superior improvements in psychological and/or motivational processes that may be important for PA adoption. OBJECTIVES: Compare PAI and SC on baseline to postintervention changes in PA-related enjoyment, self-efficacy, and motivations, and examine whether greater bout-related MVPA changes are associated with greater improvements in these variables...
June 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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