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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810345/classical-hallucinogens-and-neuroimaging-a-systematic-review-of-human-studies-hallucinogens-and-neuroimaging
#1
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic hallucinogens produce alterations of perceptions, mood, and cognition, and have anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiaddictive properties. These drugs act as agonists of frontocortical 5-HT2A receptors, but the neural basis of their effects are not well understood. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of neuroimaging studies analyzing the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens in man. Studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases until 12 April 2016 were included using the following keywords: "ayahuasca", "DMT", "psilocybin", "LSD", "mescaline" crossed one by one with the terms "mri", "fmri", "pet", "spect", "imaging" and "neuroimaging"...
October 31, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785123/thought-insertion-as-a-self-disturbance-an-integration-of-predictive-coding-and-phenomenological-approaches
#2
Philipp Sterzer, Aaron L Mishara, Martin Voss, Andreas Heinz
Current theories in the framework of hierarchical predictive coding propose that positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, arise from an alteration in Bayesian inference, the term inference referring to a process by which learned predictions are used to infer probable causes of sensory data. However, for one particularly striking and frequent symptom of schizophrenia, thought insertion, no plausible account has been proposed in terms of the predictive-coding framework. Here we propose that thought insertion is due to an altered experience of thoughts as coming from "nowhere", as is already indicated by the early 20th century phenomenological accounts by the early Heidelberg School of psychiatry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405021/identification-and-individualization-of-lophophora-using-dna-analysis-of-the-trnl-trnf-region-and-rbcl-gene
#3
Adrienne E Ng, Ernesto Sandoval, Terence M Murphy
Lophophora williamsii (peyote) is a small, spineless, greenish-blue cactus found in Mexico and the southwestern United States. Ingestion of the cactus can result in hallucinations due to its content of mescaline. In the United States, L. williamsii is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. In this study, we use DNA analysis of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region and chloroplast rbcL gene to identify the individuals of Lophophora. Using the rbcL gene, Lophophora specimens could be distinguished from outgroups, but species within the genus could not be distinguished...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216487/receptor-interaction-profiles-of-novel-psychoactive-tryptamines-compared-with-classic-hallucinogens
#4
Anna Rickli, Olivier D Moning, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
The present study investigated interactions between the novel psychoactive tryptamines DiPT, 4-OH-DiPT, 4-OH-MET, 5-MeO-AMT, and 5-MeO-MiPT at monoamine receptors and transporters compared with the classic hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and mescaline. We investigated binding affinities at human monoamine receptors and determined functional serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Binding at and the inhibition of human monoamine uptake transporters and transporter-mediated monoamine release were also determined...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874330/naltrexone-but-not-ketanserin-antagonizes-the-subjective-cardiovascular-and-neuroendocrine-effects-of-salvinorin-a-in-humans
#5
Ana Elda Maqueda, Marta Valle, Peter H Addy, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Montserrat Puntes, Jimena Coimbra, Maria Rosa Ballester, Maite Garrido, Mireia González, Judit Claramunt, Steven Barker, Izabela Lomnicka, Marian Waguespack, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths, Jordi Riba
BACKGROUND: Salvinorin-A is a terpene found in the leaves of the plant Salvia divinorum. When administered to humans, salvinorin-A induces an intense but short-lasting modified state of awareness, sharing features with those induced by the classical serotonin-2A receptor agonist psychedelics. However, unlike substances such as psilocybin or mescaline, salvinorin-A shows agonist activity at the kappa-opioid receptor rather than at the serotonin-2A receptor. Here, we assessed the involvement of kappa-opioid receptor and serotonin-2A agonism in the subjective, cardiovascular, and neuroendocrine effects of salvinorin-A in humans...
July 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330142/de-novo-sequencing-and-analysis-of-lophophora-williamsii-transcriptome-and-searching-for-putative-genes-involved-in-mescaline-biosynthesis
#6
Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Flor Zamudio-Hernández, Claudia Anahí Pérez-Torres, Victor A Albert, Enrique Ramírez-Chávez, Jorge Molina-Torres, Araceli Fernández-Cortes, Carlos Calderón-Vázquez, José Luis Olivares-Romero, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis Herrera-Estrella
BACKGROUND: Lophophora williamsii (commonly named peyote) is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. Peyote utilizes crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), an alternative form of photosynthesis that exists in succulents such as cacti and other desert plants. Therefore, its transcriptome can be considered an important resource for future research focused on understanding how these plants make more efficient use of water in marginal environments and also for research focused on better understanding of the overall mechanisms leading to production of plant natural products and secondary metabolites...
2015: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26318099/receptor-interaction-profiles-of-novel-n-2-methoxybenzyl-nbome-derivatives-of-2-5-dimethoxy-substituted-phenethylamines-2c-drugs
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anna Rickli, Dino Luethi, Julian Reinisch, Danièle Buchy, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: N-2-methoxybenzyl-phenethylamines (NBOMe drugs) are newly used psychoactive substances with poorly defined pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to characterize the receptor binding profiles of a series of NBOMe drugs compared with their 2,5-dimethoxy-phenethylamine analogs (2C drugs) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in vitro. METHODS: We investigated the binding affinities of 2C drugs (2C-B, 2C-C, 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-N, 2C-P, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, 2C-T-7, and mescaline), their NBOMe analogs, and LSD at monoamine receptors and determined functional 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT2B receptor activation...
December 2015: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26084799/pereskia-aculeata-a-plant-food-with-antinociceptive-activity
#8
Nícolas de Castro Campos Pinto, Ana Paula do Nascimento Duque, Natália Ramos Pacheco, Renata de Freitas Mendes, Erick Vicente da Silva Motta, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Antônia Ribeiro, Marcos José Salvador, Elita Scio
CONTEXT: Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) is a cactus distributed from south to northeast of Brazil, where its leaves are commonly used as a vegetable, in skin wound healing, and to treat inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform the chemical characterization and to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the hydromethanolic fraction obtained from the methanol extract of P. aculeata leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical characterization was performed by UPLC-MS analysis...
2015: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25992796/urine-mescaline-screening-with-a-biochip-array-immunoassay-and-quantification-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#9
Dilek Battal, Allan J Barnes, Marisol S Castaneto, Thomas M Martin, Kevin L Klette, Marilyn A Huestis
Mescaline, the primary psychoactive chemical in peyote cactus, has been consumed for thousands of years in ancient religious ceremonies. The US military wanted to determine if mescaline intake was a problem for personnel readiness. Twenty thousand seventeen urine specimens negative for cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and amphetamines were tested for mescaline with the Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) biochip array immunoassay at the manufacturer's recommended cutoff of 6 mcg/L. A sensitive and specific method for mescaline quantification in urine was developed and fully validated...
December 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25965305/rapid-detection-of-nbome-s-and-other-nps-on-blotter-papers-by-direct-atr-ftir-spectrometry
#10
José Coelho Neto
Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation...
July 2015: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25744618/psychedelics-not-linked-to-mental-health-problems-or-suicidal-behavior-a-population-study
#11
Pål-Ørjan Johansen, Teri Suzanne Krebs
A recent large population study of 130,000 adults in the United States failed to find evidence for a link between psychedelic use (lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin or mescaline) and mental health problems. Using a new data set consisting of 135,095 randomly selected United States adults, including 19,299 psychedelic users, we examine the associations between psychedelic use and mental health. After adjusting for sociodemographics, other drug use and childhood depression, we found no significant associations between lifetime use of psychedelics and increased likelihood of past year serious psychological distress, mental health treatment, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans and suicide attempt, depression and anxiety...
March 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25171488/ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-determination-of-hallucinogenic-drugs-in-hair-of-psychedelic-plants-and-mushrooms-consumers
#12
Simona Pichini, Emilia Marchei, Oscar García-Algar, Arelis Gomez, Rita Di Giovannandrea, Roberta Pacifici
A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C...
November 2014: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25036425/recent-advances-in-the-neuropsychopharmacology-of-serotonergic-hallucinogens
#13
REVIEW
Adam L Halberstadt
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, and mescaline, are somewhat enigmatic substances. Although these drugs are derived from multiple chemical families, they all produce remarkably similar effects in animals and humans, and they show cross-tolerance. This article reviews the evidence demonstrating the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is the primary site of hallucinogen action. The 5-HT2A receptor is responsible for mediating the effects of hallucinogens in human subjects, as well as in animal behavioral paradigms such as drug discrimination, head twitch response, prepulse inhibition of startle, exploratory behavior, and interval timing...
January 15, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24823967/recreational-drug-discovery-natural-products-as-lead-structures-for-the-synthesis-of-smart-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Appendino, Alberto Minassi, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Covering: up to December 2013. Over the past decade, there has been a growing transition in recreational drugs from natural materials (marijuana, hashish, opium), natural products (morphine, cocaine), or their simple derivatives (heroin), to synthetic agents more potent than their natural prototypes, which are sometimes less harmful in the short term, or that combine properties from different classes of recreational prototypes. These agents have been named smart drugs, and have become popular both for personal consumption and for collective intoxication at rave parties...
July 2014: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24658216/humphry-fortescue-osmond-1917-2004-a-radical-and-conventional-psychiatrist-the-transcendent-years
#15
Robert M Kaplan
This article describes the life and work of the psychiatrist Humphry Osmond who pursued a radical path as a psychiatrist while he remained within the establishment. To the public mind however, he is best known as the man who introduced Aldous Huxley to mescaline and coined the iconic word psychedelic. From an early stage of his career, Henry Osmond embraced new ideas to break the nexus in psychiatry at a time when neither biological nor psychoanalytic treatments were shown to have much benefit. To do this, he joined the radical social experiment in health in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan where he initiated a range of innovations that attracted international attention, as well as controversy over his espousal of the use of hallucinogens better to understand the experiences of psychotic patients...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24637012/quantitative-phosphoproteomics-unravels-biased-phosphorylation-of-serotonin-2a-receptor-at-ser280-by-hallucinogenic-versus-nonhallucinogenic-agonists
#16
Samah Karaki, Carine Becamel, Samy Murat, Clotilde Mannoury la Cour, Mark J Millan, Laurent Prézeau, Joël Bockaert, Philippe Marin, Franck Vandermoere
The serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT(2A) receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonist lisuride...
May 2014: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24627778/over-30-million-psychedelic-users-in-the-united-states
#17
Teri S Krebs, Pål-Ørjan Johansen
We estimated lifetime prevalence of psychedelic use (lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline, and peyote) by age category using data from a 2010 US population survey of 57,873 individuals aged 12 years and older. There were approximately 32 million lifetime psychedelic users in the US in 2010; including 17% of people aged 21 to 64 years (22% of males and 12% of females). Rate of lifetime psychedelic use was greatest among people aged 30 to 34 (total 20%, including 26% of males and 15% of females)...
2013: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24470121/new-psychoactive-substances-as-adulterants-of-controlled-drugs-a-worrying-phenomenon
#18
Claudio Vidal Giné, Iván Fornís Espinosa, Mireia Ventura Vilamala
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, results from Energy Control's drug checking service documenting the use of NPS as adulterants of controlled drugs are presented, and some reflections about possible explanations for this new phenomenon, potential risks for users, and challenges that it poses are discussed. From 2009 to 2012, 24 NPS belonging to several chemical classes such as phenethylamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and methoxetamine were identified in 173 samples believed to be MDMA, amphetamine, ketamine, cocaine, mescaline, or methamphetamine...
July 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24431106/how-mdma-s-pharmacology-and-pharmacokinetics-drive-desired-effects-and-harms
#19
REVIEW
C Michael White
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an agent of abuse that has been used by over 16 million Americans. Increased energy, elevated mood, bonding with others, and psychedelic effects are desired effects while liver damage, extended depressed mood, sexual assault, rhabdomyolysis, serotonin syndrome, multiorgan failure, cardiovascular events, arrhythmias, and death are possible adverse effects. These desirable and adverse effects of MDMA are extensions of its fascinating pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic profile...
March 2014: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24406363/-emergent-drugs-iii-hallucinogenic-plants-and-mushrooms
#20
REVIEW
G Burillo-Putze, E López Briz, B Climent Díaz, P Munné Mas, S Nogue Xarau, M A Pinillos, R S Hoffman
An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses...
September 2013: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
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