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Ayahuasca

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740355/assessment-of-alcohol-and-tobacco-use-disorders-among-religious-users-of-ayahuasca
#1
Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa, Luís F Tófoli, Michael P Bogenschutz, Robert Hoy, Lais F Berro, Eduardo A V Marinho, Kelsy N Areco, Michael J Winkelman
The aims of this study were to assess the impact of ceremonial use of ayahuasca -a psychedelic brew containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline -and attendance at União do Vegetal (UDV) meetings on substance abuse; here we report the findings related to alcohol and tobacco use disorder. A total of 1,947 members of UDV 18+ years old were evaluated in terms of years of membership and ceremonial attendance during the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited from 10 states from all major regions of Brazil...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682363/acute-intoxication-following-dimethyltryptamine-ingestion
#2
Matthew H Bilhimer, Rachel F Schult, Kristan V Higgs, Timothy J Wiegand, Rachel M Gorodetsky, Nicole M Acquisto
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis . This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage...
2018: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#3
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674223/psychological-variables-implied-in-the-therapeutic-effect-of-ayahuasca-a-contextual-approach
#4
Alba Franquesa, Alberto Sainz-Cort, Sam Gandy, Joaquim Soler, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, José Carlos Bouso
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic decoction originating from Amazonia. The ayahuasca-induced introspective experience has been shown to have potential benefits in the treatment of several pathologies, to protect mental health and to improve neuropsychological functions and creativity, and boost mindfulness. The underlying psychological processes related to the use of ayahuasca in a psychotherapeutic context are not yet well described in the scientific literature, but there is some evidence to suggest that psychological variables described in psychotherapies could be useful in explaining the therapeutic effects of the brew...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664276/effects-of-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt-on-rat-behaviors-relevant-to-anxiety-and-depression
#5
Lindsay P Cameron, Charlie J Benson, Lee E Dunlap, David E Olson
Depression and anxiety disorders are debilitating diseases resulting in substantial economic costs to society. Traditional antidepressants often take weeks to months to positively affect mood and are ineffective for about 30% of the population. Alternatives, such as ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic capable of producing hallucinations, and the psychoactive tisane ayahuasca have shown great promise due to their fast-acting nature and effectiveness in treatment-resistant populations. Here, we investigate the effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), the principle hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, in rodent behavioral assays relevant to anxiety and depression using adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615905/four-weekly-ayahuasca-sessions-lead-to-increases-in-acceptance-capacities-a-comparison-study-with-a-standard-8-week-mindfulness-training-program
#6
Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Elisabeth Dominguez-Clavé, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Mayte Navarro-Gil, Javier García-Campayo, Jordi Riba
Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608428/is-ayahuasca-an-option-for-the-treatment-of-crack-cocaine-dependence
#7
Joselaine Ida Cruz, Solange Aparecida Nappo
The low efficacy of crack cocaine addiction treatment available in Brazil has led Brazilian users to find alternatives to reduce drug consumption or even to reach abstinence. One of them is the use of entheogenic substances, like ayahuasca, an infusion obtained from two native plant species from the Amazon. The present report aimed to understand how crack cocaine users recover from drug addiction by consuming ayahuasca tea in a religious context. This is a qualitative study with a purposeful sample of 40 crack cocaine users, based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522798/maternal-and-developmental-toxicity-of-the-hallucinogenic-plant-based-beverage-ayahuasca-in-rats
#8
Luciana Gueiros da Motta, Juliana Alves de Morais, Ana Carolina A M Tavares, Leonora Maciel Sousa Vianna, Marcia Renata Mortari, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista Amorim, Rosângela R Carvalho, Francisco José R Paumgartten, Aline Pic-Taylor, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. Rats treated with 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury. Rats surviving the 8X dose showed neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei, and those from the 2X dose neuronal loss in CA1. Delayed intrauterine growth, induced embryo deaths and increased occurrence of foetal anomalies were observed at the 8X dose...
April 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497055/author-correction-well-being-problematic-alcohol-consumption-and-acute-subjective-drug-effects-in-past-year-ayahuasca-users-a-large-international-self-selecting-online-survey
#9
Will Lawn, Jaime E Hallak, Jose A Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock, Celia J A Morgan
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452127/serotonergic-psychedelics-and-personality-a-systematic-review-of-contemporary-research
#10
REVIEW
José Carlos Bouso, Rafael G Dos Santos, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic psychedelics act as agonists at cortical 5-HT2A receptors and seem to induce personality changes. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the effects of these drugs on personality. Papers published from 1985-2016 were included from PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Three hundred and sixty-nine studies were identified, and 18 were included. Specific personality traits, such as Absorption and Self-Transcendence, seem to influence the effects of psychedelics, and psychedelic drug users and nonusers appear to differ in some personality traits...
April 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366418/ayahuasca-psychological-and-physiologic-effects-pharmacology-and-potential-uses-in-addiction-and-mental-illness
#11
Jonathan Hamill, Jaime Hallak, Serdar M Dursun, Glen Baker
Ayahuasca, a traditional Amazonian decoction with psychoactive properties, is made from bark of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine (contains beta-carboline alkaloids) and leaves of the Psychotria viridis bush (supply the hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)). Originally used by indigenous shamans for the purposes of spirit communication, magical experiences, healing, and religious rituals, across several South American countries ayahuasca has been incorporated into folk medicine and spiritual healing, and several Brazilian churches use it routinely to foster spiritual experience...
January 24, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123145/well-being-problematic-alcohol-consumption-and-acute-subjective-drug-effects-in-past-year-ayahuasca-users-a-large-international-self-selecting-online-survey
#12
Will Lawn, Jaime E Hallak, Jose A Crippa, Rafael Dos Santos, Lilla Porffy, Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock, Celia J A Morgan
Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and magic mushrooms; demographics, current well-being and past-year problematic alcohol use of past-year ayahuasca users and comparison drug users; and subjective effects of ayahuasca and comparison drugs...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895501/nourishing-the-spirit-exploratory-research-on-ayahuasca-experiences-along-the-continuum-of-recovery-from-eating-disorders
#13
Adele Lafrance, Anja Loizaga-Velder, Jenna Fletcher, Marika Renelli, Natasha Files, Kenneth W Tupper
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious health conditions that are among the most difficult to treat. Innovative treatments are needed and modalities from across cultures must be considered. Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant-based tea originally used by Amazonian indigenous groups. A growing body of research points to its promise in the healing of various mental health issues. This study explored the potential therapeutic value of ayahuasca in the context of EDs, including the perceived impact of the preparatory diet and the ayahuasca purge...
November 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804451/behavioral-changes-over-time-following-ayahuasca-exposure-in-zebrafish
#14
Robson Savoldi, Daniel Polari, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Bruno Lobao-Soares, Mauricio Yonamine, Fulvio A M Freire, Ana C Luchiari
The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796595/william-burroughs-sailor-of-the-soul
#15
Andrew J Lees
In 1953, William Seward Burroughs made several important and largely unrecognized discoveries relating to the composition and clinical pharmacological effects of the hallucinogenic plant potion known as yagé or ayahuasca. Illustrations of Burroughs' voucher sample of Psychotria viridis and his letter to the father of modern ethnobotany, Richard Evans Schultes, are published here for the very first time.
November 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706205/the-alkaloids-of-banisteriopsis-caapi-the-plant-source-of-the-amazonian-hallucinogen-ayahuasca-stimulate-adult-neurogenesis-in-vitro
#16
Jose A Morales-García, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Sandra Alonso-Gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Amanda Feilding, Ana Perez-Castillo, Jordi Riba
Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625125/dreams-and-psychedelics-neurophenomenological-comparison-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
Rainer Kraehenmann
BACKGROUND: A resurgence of neurobiological and clinical research is currently underway into the therapeutic potential of serotonergic or 'classical' psychedelics, such as the prototypical psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,Ndimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca - a betacarboline- and dimethyltryptamine (DMT)-containing Amazonian beverage. The aim of this review is to introduce readers to the similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and night dreams, and to draw conclusions related to therapeutic applications of psychedelics in psychiatry...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618842/alsuntangled-40-ayahuasca
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591380/chronic-intermittent-exposure-to-ayahuasca-during-aging-does-not-affect-memory-in-mice
#19
N F Correa-Netto, L S Coelho, G S Galfano, F Nishide, F Tamura, M K Shimizu, J G Santos, A Linardi
The Quechua term ayahuasca refers to a beverage obtained from decoctions of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi with leaves of Psychotria viridis. The ritualistic use of ayahuasca is becoming a global phenomenon, with some individuals using this beverage throughout life, including in old age. Cognitive impairment is a common manifestation during aging. There are conflicting reports on the ability of some ayahuasca compounds to exert neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects that could improve or impair learning and memory...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591379/an-ontogenic-study-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-intermittent-exposure-to-ayahuasca-in-mice
#20
N F Correa-Netto, M Y Masukawa, F Nishide, G S Galfano, F Tamura, M K Shimizo, M P Marcato, J G Santos, A Linardi
Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from decoctions of the Banisteriopsis caapi plus Psychotria viridis. In religious contexts, ayahuasca is used by different age groups. However, little is known of the effects of ayahuasca during ontogenic development, particularly with regard to the functional characteristics of the central nervous system. Animal models are useful for studying the ontogenic effects of ayahuasca because they allow exclusion of the behavioral influence associated with the ritualistic use. We investigated the effects of exposure to ayahuasca (1...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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