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Ayahuasca

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918874/effects-of-the-natural-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloid-harmine-a-main-constituent-of-ayahuasca-in-memory-and-in-the-hippocampus-a-systematic-literature-review-of-preclinical-studies
#1
Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak
Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#2
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810345/classical-hallucinogens-and-neuroimaging-a-systematic-review-of-human-studies-hallucinogens-and-neuroimaging
#3
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic hallucinogens produce alterations of perceptions, mood, and cognition, and have anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiaddictive properties. These drugs act as agonists of frontocortical 5-HT2A receptors, but the neural basis of their effects are not well understood. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of neuroimaging studies analyzing the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens in man. Studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases until 12 April 2016 were included using the following keywords: "ayahuasca", "DMT", "psilocybin", "LSD", "mescaline" crossed one by one with the terms "mri", "fmri", "pet", "spect", "imaging" and "neuroimaging"...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799032/herbal-highs-review-on-psychoactive-effects-and-neuropharmacology
#4
Silvia Graziano, Laura Orsolini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, R Tittarelli, Fabrizio Schifano, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: A new trend among users of new psychoactive substances' the consumption of "herbal highs": plant parts containing psychoactive substances. Most of the substances extracted from herbs, in old centuries were at the centre of religious ceremonies of ancient civilizations. Currently, these herbal products are mainly sold by internet web sites and easily obtained since some of them have no legal restriction. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed psychoactive effects and neuropharmacology of the most used "herbal highs" with characterized active principles, with studies reporting mechanisms of action, pharmacological and subjective effects, eventual secondary effects including intoxications and/or fatalities Method: The PubMed database was searched using the following key...
October 31, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768991/medicine-religion-and-ayahuasca-in-catalonia-considering-ayahuasca-networks-from-a-medical-anthropology-perspective
#5
Ismael Apud, Oriol Romaní
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503452/treating-addiction-perspectives-from-eeg-and-imaging-studies-on-psychedelics
#6
L F Tófoli, D B de Araujo
Despite reports of apparent benefits, social and political pressure beginning in the late 1960s effectively banned scientific inquiry into psychedelic substances. Covert examination of psychedelics persisted through the 1990s; the turn of the century and especially the past 10 years, however, has seen a resurgent interest in psychedelic substances (eg, LSD, ayahuasca, psilocybin). This chapter outlines relevant EEG and brain imaging studies evaluating the effects of psychedelics on the brain. This chapter also reviews evidence of the use of psychedelics as adjunct therapy for a number of psychiatric and addictive disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470427/measuring-the-subjective-revisiting-the-psychometric-properties-of-three-rating-scales-that-assess-the-acute-effects-of-hallucinogens
#7
José Carlos Bouso, Eduardo José Pedrero-Pérez, Sam Gandy, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). METHODS: These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435062/ayahuasca-enhances-creative-divergent-thinking-while-decreasing-conventional-convergent-thinking
#8
K P C Kuypers, J Riba, M de la Fuente Revenga, S Barker, E L Theunissen, J G Ramaekers
INTRODUCTION: Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390204/-the-potential-use-of-ayahuasca-in-psychiatry
#9
Ede Frecska, Petra Bokor, Gabor Andrassy, Attila Kovacs
Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377797/a-rapid-and-simple-method-for-the-determination-of-psychoactive-alkaloids-by-ce-uv-application-to-peganum-harmala-seed-infusions
#10
Marcos Tascón, Fernando Benavente, Nora M Vizioli, Leonardo G Gagliardi
The β-carboline alkaloids of the harmala (HAlks) group are compounds widely spread in many natural sources, but found at relatively high levels in some specific plants like Peganum harmala (Syrian rue) or Banisteriopsis caapi. HAlks are a reversible Mono Amino Oxidase type A Inhibitor (MAOI) and, as a consequence, these plants or their extracts can be used to produce psychotropic effects when are combined with psychotropic drugs based on amino groups. Since the occurrence and the levels of the HAlks in natural sources are subject to significant variability, more widespread use is not clinical but recreational or ritual, for example B...
July 5, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354908/antidepressive-anxiolytic-and-antiaddictive-effects-of-ayahuasca-psilocybin-and-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials-published-in-the-last-25-years
#11
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jordi Riba, Antônio W Zuardi, Jaime E C Hallak
To date, pharmacological treatments for mood and anxiety disorders and for drug dependence show limited efficacy, leaving a large number of patients suffering severe and persistent symptoms. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may have antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive properties. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of clinical trials published from 1990 until 2015, assessing these therapeutic properties. Electronic searches were performed using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348465/application-of-ambient-ionization-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-to-determination-of-the-botanical-provenance-of-the-constituents-of-psychoactive-drug-mixtures
#12
Ashton D Lesiak, Rabi A Musah
A continuing challenge in analytical chemistry is species-level determination of the constituents of mixtures that are made of a combination of plant species. There is an added urgency to identify components in botanical mixtures that have mind altering properties, due to the increasing global abuse of combinations of such plants. Here we demonstrate the proof of principle that ambient ionization mass spectrometry, namely direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS), and statistical analysis tools can be used to rapidly determine the individual components within a psychoactive brew (Ayahuasca) made from a mixture of botanicals...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230395/effects-of-ayahuasca-and-its-alkaloids-on-drug-dependence-a-systematic-literature-review-of-quantitative-studies-in-animals-and-humans
#13
Amanda A Nunes, Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, Rafael F Sanches, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
Recently, the anti-addictive potential of ayahuasca, a dimethyltryptamine(DMT)- and β-carboline-rich hallucinogenic beverage traditionally used by indigenous groups of the Northwest Amazon and currently by syncretic churches worldwide, has received increased attention. To better evaluate this topic, we performed a systematic literature review using the PubMed database to find quantitative studies (using statistical analysis) that assessed the effects of ayahuasca or its components in drug-related symptoms or disorders...
July 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206020/chemical-constituents-of-plants-from-the-genus-psychotria
#14
REVIEW
Hongmei Yang, Hongmei Zhang, Caiqiong Yang, Yegao Chen
Psychotria is a genus of ca. 1500 species in the family Rubiaceae. Up to now, 41 species of the Psychotria genus have been chemically investigated, and 159 compounds, including alkaloids of indole, quinoline and benzoquinolizidine type, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and aliphatic compounds have been isolated. These compounds show potent bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities.
July 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111702/antidepressive-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-ayahuasca-a-systematic-literature-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#15
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). METHODS: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. RESULTS: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria...
March 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039035/inhibition-of-alpha-oscillations-through-serotonin-2a-receptor-activation-underlies-the-visual-effects-of-ayahuasca-in-humans
#16
Marta Valle, Ana Elda Maqueda, Mireia Rabella, Aina Rodríguez-Pujadas, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Sergio Romero, Joan Francesc Alonso, Miquel Àngel Mañanas, Steven Barker, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26976063/ayahuasca-pharmacology-neuroscience-and-therapeutic-potential
#17
Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Juan C Pascual, Enrique Álvarez, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B...
March 11, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973523/the-therapeutic-potentials-of-ayahuasca-possible-effects-against-various-diseases-of-civilization
#18
REVIEW
Ede Frecska, Petra Bokor, Michael Winkelman
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650973/antidepressant-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-ayahuasca-in-patients-with-recurrent-depression-a-spect-study
#19
Rafael Faria Sanches, Flávia de Lima Osório, Rafael G Dos Santos, Ligia R H Macedo, João Paulo Maia-de-Oliveira, Lauro Wichert-Ana, Draulio Barros de Araujo, Jordi Riba, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian botanical hallucinogenic brew which contains dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, and harmine, a monoamine-oxidase A inhibitor. Our group recently reported that ayahuasca administration was associated with fast-acting antidepressive effects in 6 depressive patients. The objective of the present work was to assess the antidepressive potentials of ayahuasca in a bigger sample and to investigate its effects on regional cerebral blood flow. In an open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit, 17 patients with recurrent depression received an oral dose of ayahuasca (2...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26647632/identification-challenges-in-examination-of-commercial-plant-material-of-psychotria-viridis
#20
Anna P Kowalczuk, Anna Łozak, Robert Bachliński, Anna Duszyński, Joanna Sakowska, Jordan K Zjawiony
Psychoria viridis (chacruna) is a hallucinogenic plant with psychoactive properties associated with the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). This species is primarily known as an ingredient of the beverage Ayahuasca, but dry leaves are also smoked by recreational users. The plant is controlled in Poland and France and its proper identification poses many challenges due to the fact that genus Psychotria is relatively large and there are other species that are easily confused with chacruna. The aim of the present work was to develop an effective authentication procedure for the dried and shredded leaves of P...
July 2015: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
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