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Organ pipes

Deepak Dubal, Belén Ballesteros, Ashwini Mohite, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Hybrid materials are prominent role-models for the fabrication of high performance supercapacitors. Here, we have explored organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on open-end porous 1D polypyrrole nano-pipes (PPy-NPipes) and heteropolyoxometalate (phosphotungstate ([PW12O40]3- (PW12) or phosphomolybdate [PMo12O40]3- (PMo12)) that display excellent areal capacitances. Two different hybrid materials (PMo12@PPy and PW12@PPy) were effectively synthesized and applied for symmetric supercapacitors. The anchoring of the inorganic nanoclusters onto the conducting polymer nanopipes led indeed to electrodes which stood up to our best expectations exhibiting outstanding areal capacitances which are almost 1...
November 29, 2016: ChemSusChem
Grégory Francius, Racha El Zein, Laurence Mathieu, Florence Gosselin, Armand Maul, Jean-Claude Block
Adsorption of organic macromolecules onto surfaces in contact with waters forms a so-called conditioning film and induces modifications of the surface properties. Here, we characterized conditioning films formed onto two hydrophobic materials (used as pipe liner) and immersed for 24 h in tap water. Using combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and chemical force microscopy (CFM), we detected some changes in roughness and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the surface of the tested coupons, and also the deposition of numerous organic polymers (few millions/cm(2)) randomly distributed on the surface...
November 14, 2016: Water Research
Y-J Wang, J Yan, F Yin, L Li, Y-G Qin, C-Y Meng, R-F Lu, L Guo
The testis is sensitive to cadmium, but studies investigating cadmium-induced testicular injury have not yet clearly revealed the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the injurious effects of cadmium on rat testes and the role that autophagy plays in this process. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 (low), 0.4 (middle), and 0.8 mg/kg·body weight (high) cadmium chloride for 5 weeks, while the control rats were injected with equal volume of saline...
November 21, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
November 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jonathan P Ritson, Michael Bell, Richard E Brazier, Emilie Grand-Clement, Nigel J D Graham, Chris Freeman, David Smith, Michael R Templeton, Joanna M Clark
Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Robin Root, Arnau van Wyngaard, Alan Whiteside
We draw on a study of a church run community home-based care organization in Swaziland to explore how individuals living with HIV perceived caregivers' impact on wellbeing. Our primary concern was to examine how religion, as a heuristic practice of Christian-based caregiving, was felt to be consequential in a direly underserved region. Part of a larger medical anthropological project, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 79 CHBC clients, of whom half (53%) said they would have died, some from suicide, without its services...
November 15, 2016: Medical Anthropology
D D'Alessandro, A Nusca, C Napoli
INTRODUCTION: In the field of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), one of the most reported, studied and discussed sources of infections is water, partly due to its controllability, but also because healthcare facilities, especially hospitals, require a significant quantity of water per day. In addition to water, during healthcare procedures, other liquids can serve as source of infections. The present study reports a review of those HCAIs associated to liquid vehicles occurred in Italy during the period 2000-2014...
November 2016: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Ze-Hua Liu, Hua Yin, Zhi Dang
With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands...
November 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael Weitzman, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Fatma Bali, M J Ruzmyn Vilcassim, Shashank Gandhi, Richard Peltier, Arthur Nadas, Scott Sherman, Lily Lee, Zhang Hong, Jenni Shearston, Su Hyun Park, Terry Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Hookahs (water pipes) are rapidly increasing in popularity worldwide. Evidence suggests that although perceived as safer than cigarette smoke, hookah smoke may be as, or even more, dangerous as cigarette smoke. METHODS: Air samples from 33 homes-11 where only hookah-smoking occurred, 12 with only cigarettes and 10 with no smoking-were collected to analyse concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, elemental and organic carbon and carbon monoxide (CO)...
October 26, 2016: Tobacco Control
Jost Leonhardt Fischer, Rolf Bader, Markus Abel
A synchronization experiment on two mutual interacting organ pipes is compared with a theoretical model which takes into account the coupling mechanisms by the underlying first principles of fluid mechanics and aeroacoustics. The focus is on the Arnold-tongue, a mathematical object in the parameter space of detuning and coupling strength which quantitatively captures the interaction of the synchronized sound sources. From the experiment, a nonlinearly shaped Arnold-tongue is obtained, describing the coupling of the synchronized pipe-pipe system...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Junjun Chang, Luyao Ma, Jinquan Chen, Yifeng Lu, Xiaoyun Wang
Four laboratory-scale baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (BSCWs) were established for the treatment of greenhouse wastewater containing high levels of nitrate and sulfate in the present study. Each BSCW microcosm involved a treatment zone and another post-treatment zone with a surface area ratio of 2:1. Evenly mixed straws of carnation and rose (w/w: 1/1), two common ornamental flowers, were supplemented as an organic carbon source into the treatment zone through a hydrolysis zone (CW 1), decentralized vertically installed perforated pipes (CW 2), and centralized pipes (CW 3 in the figures), except the blank system...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maya Benami, Osnat Gillor, Amit Gross
Millions of decentralized graywater-reuse systems are operating worldwide. This water is directly accessible to household inhabitants, raising environmental and public health concerns. Graywater may contain a variety of harmful organisms, the types and numbers of which vary with source-type, storage time, and background levels of infection in the community source. In this review, we find that most studies indicate high amounts of microbial pathogens in raw graywater and therefore treatment and disinfection are recommended to lower possible health risks...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
Amy J Pickering, Benjamin F Arnold, Holly N Dentz, John M Colford, Clair Null
BACKGROUND: The recent global climate agreement in Paris aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development, and establishes an international trading mechanism to meet this goal. Currently, carbon offset program implementers are allowed to collect their own monitoring data to determine the number of carbon credits to be awarded. OBJECTIVES: We summarize reasons for mandating independent monitoring of greenhouse gas emission reduction projects...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
James B Winterbourn, Katie Clements, James A Lowther, Shelagh K Malham, James E McDonald, Davey L Jones
Bivalve shellfish have the capacity to accumulate norovirus (NoV) from waters contaminated with human sewage. Consequently, shellfish represent a major vector for NoV entry into the human food chain, leading to gastrointestinal illness. Identification of areas suitable for the safe cultivation of shellfish requires an understanding of NoV behaviour upon discharge of municipal-derived sewage into coastal waters. This study exploited the potential of edible mussels (Mytilus edulis) to accumulate NoV and employed the ISO method for quantification of NoV within mussel digestive tissues...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Chisa Yamada, Steven W Pipe, Lili Zhao, Alan B Leichtman, Milagros Samaniego, Randall S Sung, Robertson D Davenport
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is increasingly used for treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after solid organ transplants. There is concern that TPE may increase risk of bleeding, although data are limited. After TPE, clot-based coagulation tests may not accurately represent the levels of coagulation factors due to the effect of citrate. We investigated protein levels of fibrinogen using antigen detection method (FibAg) and correlated results with a clot-based fibrinogen activity test (Fib)...
September 7, 2016: Transfusion
Ahmed A Abokifa, Y Jeffrey Yang, Cynthia S Lo, Pratim Biswas
Biofilms are ubiquitous in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), and recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial carbon associated with the biofilm contributes to the total disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation with distinct mechanisms from those formed from precursors derived from natural organic matter (NOM). A multiple species reactive-transport model was developed to explain the role of biofilms in DBPs formation by accounting for the simultaneous transport and interactions of disinfectants, organic compounds, and biomass...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
Sanly Liu, Cindy Gunawan, Nicolas Barraud, Scott A Rice, Elizabeth J Harry, Rose Amal
In drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth, with the presence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protecting the biomass from environmental and shear stresses. Biofilm formation poses a significant problem to the drinking water industry as a potential source of bacterial contamination, including pathogens, and, in many cases, also affecting the taste and odor of drinking water and promoting the corrosion of pipes. This article critically reviews important research findings on biofilm growth in DWDS, examining the factors affecting their formation and characteristics as well as the various technologies to characterize and monitor and, ultimately, to control their growth...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Miles A Kirby, Corey L Nagel, Ghislaine Rosa, Laurien Iyakaremye, Laura Divens Zambrano, Thomas F Clasen
Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Johanna Rajasärkkä, Marek Pernica, Jan Kuta, Jonáš Lašňák, Zdenĕk Šimek, Luděk Bláha
Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Junjun Chang, Luyao Ma, Yuanyang Zhou, Shenghua Zhang, Weilu Wang
Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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