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Organ pipes

Changyoon Baek, Hyun Jin Yoo, Won-Nyoung Lee, Minho Lee, Junhong Min
Natural organic matter (NOM) is known to cause major problems with drinking water quality management, such as sedimentation of disinfectants during the purification process, microbial growth of water pipes, and corrosion of pipes. For efficient and continuous removal of NOM from drinking water, a packed bed-type platform containing microbeads based on nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) was developed. ZnO was synthesized on graphene oxide (GO)-coated microbeads by optimizing the ZnO concentration and reaction time...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sanni L Aalto, Jatta Saarenheimo, Janne Ropponen, Janne Juntunen, Antti J Rissanen, Marja Tiirola
Sediment microbes have a great potential to transform reactive N to harmless N2 , thus decreasing wastewater nitrogen load into aquatic ecosystems. Here, we examined if spatial allocation of the wastewater discharge by a specially constructed sediment diffuser pipe system enhanced the microbial nitrate reduction processes. Full-scale experiments were set on two Finnish lake sites, Keuruu and Petäjävesi, and effects on the nitrate removal processes were studied using the stable isotope pairing technique. All nitrate reduction rates followed nitrate concentrations, being highest at the wastewater-influenced sampling points...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
Masahiro Okada, Tokihiko Kaburagi
Higher-order frequency locking of an organ pipe was investigated in terms of relationships between the locking phenomena and the harmonics of the pipe sound and an external force acting onto the pipe. The authors first assumed the pipe as a phase oscillator that is used in synchronization theory and predicted frequency ratios that can cause frequency locking. The authors then forced an actual pipe using a pure tone with frequency ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 2 : 1, 1 : 3, and 2 : 3. In addition, experiments were conducted using complex tones to investigate effects of higher harmonics of the external force on frequency locking...
March 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Suyun Chang, Yinqi Tang, Lixin Dong, Qiang Zhan, Wei Xu
Impacts of deposits discharged from a municipal pipe on urban river sediment were investigated in the Hucang River in Tianjin, China. At the outlet of the pump station, the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediment increased sharply from 2390, 799, and 14,600 mg/kg to 6500, 3700, and 153,000 mg/kg, respectively, and remained stable at high level after the rainy season. A portion of pollutants would migrate along the river, and the concentration was usually in a negative relationship with the distance...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thanh-Binh Nguyen, Kazuto Shima
The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of sewage sludge composting using a simple aeration method. Two consecutive composting trials (run A and run B) using Japanese sludge and woodchips (1:1, v/v) were conducted in cubic boxes (0.45 × 0.45 × 0.45 m3) made by plywood at Okayama University. Air was forced up through small holes perforated on two open-ended parallel PVC pipes (ø 16 mm, 0.25 m apart) laid at the base. The results show that compost temperatures were rapidly increased to the peak points of 47...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Management
Matteo Bernard Bertagni, Carlo Camporeale
The interaction of a gravity-driven water film with an evolving solid substrate (calcite or ice) results in the formation of fascinating wavy patterns similar both in caves and in ice-falls. Due to their remarkable similarity, we adopt a unified approach in the study of pattern formation of longitudinally oriented organ-pipe-like structures, called flutings. Since the morphogenesis of cave patterns can evolve for millennia, they have an additional value as silent repositories of past climates. Fluting formation is studied with the aid of gradient expansion and center manifold projection...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization (WHO), environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors such as traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter (PM), mental stress/loneliness, and the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system...
March 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Derek R Faust, Robert Kröger, Matthew T Moore, Scott A Rush
Agricultural non-point sources of nutrients and sediments have caused eutrophication and other water quality issues in aquatic and marine ecosystems, such as the annual occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Management practices have been implemented adjacent to and in agricultural drainage ditches to promote their wetland characteristics and functions, including reduction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment losses downstream. This review: (1) summarized studies examining changes in nutrient and total suspended solid concentrations and loads associated with management practices in drainage ditches (i...
January 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Astrid Avellan, John P Stegemeier, Ke Gai, James Dale, Heileen Hsu-Kim, Clément Levard, Dennis O'Rear, Thomas P Hoelen, Gregory V Lowry
Petroleum, natural gas, and natural gas condensate can contain low levels of mercury (Hg). The speciation of Hg can affect its behavior during processing, transport, and storage so efficient and safe management of Hg requires an understanding of its chemical form in oil, gas and byproducts. Here, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the Hg speciation in samples of solid residues collected throughout the petroleum value chain including stabilized crude oil residues, sediments from separation tanks and condensate glycol dehydrators, distillation column pipe scale, and biosludge from wastewater treatment...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Michelle A North, David W Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for 5 h/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks...
May 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Agnès Borbon, Anne Boynard, Thérèse Salameh, Alexia Baudic, Valérie Gros, Julie Gauduin, Olivier Perrussel, Cyril Pallares
Trends of long-term observations and emission inventories suggest that traffic emissions will no longer dominate the concentrations of monoaromatic compounds (i.e., TEX - toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene) in European urban areas. But the split limit between traffic and other emission sector contributions such as solvent use remains tenuous. Here long-term observations of an extensive set of hydrocarbons, including TEX, at traffic and urban background sites in London, Paris and Strasbourg were combined to estimate the relative importance of traffic emissions on TEX in every city...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
David M Howard
The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Alessia Eramo, Hannah Delos Reyes, Nicole L Fahrenfeld
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) degrade water quality through the release of microbial contaminants in CSO effluent. Improved understanding of the partitioning of microbial contaminants onto settleable particles can provide insight into their fate in end-of-pipe treatment systems or following release during CSO events. Sampling was performed across the hydrograph for three storm events as well as during baseflow and wet weather in three surface waters impacted by CSO. qPCR was performed for select antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and a marker gene for human fecal indicator organisms (BacHum) in samples processed the partitioning of microbial contaminants on settleable particles versus suspended in the aqueous phase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kenneth Ip, Kaiming She, Kemi Adeyeye
Recovering heat from waste water discharged from showers to preheat the incoming cold water has been promoted as a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and low-carbon design option which has been included in the UK's Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for demonstrating compliance with the Building Regulation for dwellings. Incentivized by its carbon cost-effectiveness, waste water heat exchangers (WWHX) have been selected and incorporated in a newly constructed Sports Pavilion at the University of Brighton in the UK...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Caitlin R Proctor, Dongjuan Dai, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
BACKGROUND: Several biotic and abiotic factors have been reported to influence the proliferation of microbes, including Legionella pneumophila, in hot water premise plumbing systems, but their combined effects have not been systematically evaluated. Here, we utilize simulated household water heaters to examine the effects of stepwise increases in temperature (32-53 °C), pipe material (copper vs. cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)), and influent assimilable organic carbon (0-700 μg/L) on opportunistic pathogen gene copy numbers and the microbiota composition, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
October 4, 2017: Microbiome
Aleksandra Gavrilovska-Brzanov, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Andrijan Kartalov, Maja Mojsova-Mijovska, Marija Jovanovski-Srceva, Gordana Taleska, Nikola Brzanov, Risto Simeonov, Maja Slaninka Miceska
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is supposed to modulate the production of carbon monoxide by the reduction of heme oxygenase activity or transcriptional regulation of inducible heme oxygenase. On the other hand, the inhalation of tobacco smoke can substantially raise the level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Furthermore, methemoglobin is maintained at a constant level. However, excessive production of methemoglobin relative to total methemoglobin reductase activity results in methemoglobin increase...
June 2017: Medical Archives
Ting Wu, Xiaoping Li, Tao Yang, Xuemeng Sun, Howard W Mielke, Yue Cai, Yuwei Ai, Yanan Zhao, Dongying Liu, Xu Zhang, Xiaoyun Li, Lijun Wang, Hongtao Yu
The purpose of this study was to identify the concentration of multi-elements (MEs) in source water (surface and drinking water) and assess their quality for sustainability. A total of 161 water samples including 88 tap drinking waters (DW) and 73 surface waters (SW) were collected from five cities in Xi'an, Yan'an, Xining, Lanzhou, and Urumqi in northwestern China. Eighteen parameters including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC) total nitrogen (TN), chemical compositions of anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO₃(-),HCO₃(-), SO₄(2-)), cations (NH₄⁺, K⁺, Na⁺, Ca(2+),Mg(2+)), and metals (lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu)) were analyzed in the first time at the five cities ...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yehya Elsayed, Sarah Dalibalta, Maissam El Kouche
Dokha is known to be one of the most rapidly spreading alternative tobacco products (ATPs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It is smoked using a pipe known as Midwakh. There is no scientific research published on the chemical composition of dokha and only very little was done to investigate its impact on human health. Three different types of dokha were included in this study. The trace metals content in the dokha samples were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning electron microscope...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Milos Pjanic
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic unit of polycarbonate polymers and epoxy resins, the types of plastics that could be found in essentially every human population and incorporated into almost every aspect of the modern human society. BPA polymers appear in a wide range of products, from liquid storages (plastic bottles, can and glass linings, water pipes and tanks) and food storages (plastics wraps and containers), to medical and dental devices. BPA polymers could be hydrolyzed spontaneously or in a photo- or temperature-catalyzed process, providing widespread environmental distribution and chronic exposure to the BPA monomer in contemporary human populations...
2017: PeerJ
Wenwen Liu, Bo Liang, Yongjin Ma, Yi Liu, Anquan Zhu, Pengfei Tan, Xiang Xiong, Jun Pan
The construction of a plasmonic photocatalyst is an efficient way to suppress detrimental electrons-holes recombination and extend the spectral range of light absorption in semiconductors. However, the facilitation effect in the aspect of electrons-holes separation is great limited as the lack of a driving force compelled the electrons or holes migration to surface catalytic sites makes them flow randomly in semiconductors. In this work, we confirm that the integration of MoS2 nanosheets formed two dimensional (2D) layered heterojunction with C3N4 with Au-C3N4 plasmonic photocatalyst can further enhance electrons-holes separation through the formation of Au-C3N4-MoS2 nanostructure by a facile ultrasonic chemical method...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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