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Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Anand Ramasamy, Sumalya Sen, Somnath Mondal
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), described as a classical hallucinogen, began its journey from the middle of the last century following an accidental discovery. Since then, it was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its beneficial role as an adjunct to psychotherapy was much unknown, until some 'benevolent' experiments were carried out over time to explore some of its potential uses. But, many of its effects were unclear and seemed to be a psychedelic enigma. In this review article, we have described the receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Matthew B Calvert, Jonathan Sperry
Guided by a biosynthetic hypothesis, a serendipitous total synthesis of yuremamine has resulted in its structural revision from the putative pyrroloindole (1) to the flavonoidal indole (2), which was initially proposed as a biosynthetic intermediate.
April 11, 2015: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Michael Winkelman
Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment...
2014: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Veronica Serra, Liana Fattore, Maria Scherma, Roberto Collu, Maria Sabrina Spano, Walter Fratta, Paola Fadda
RATIONALE: Salvinorin A is a recreational drug derived from Salvia divinorum, a sage species long used as an entheogen. While salvinorin A has potent hallucinogenic properties, its abuse potential has not been assessed consistently in controlled behavioural and neurochemical studies in rodents. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess salvinorin A abuse potential by measuring its capacity to establish and maintain self-administration behaviour and to modify dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of rats...
January 2015: Psychopharmacology
Marc G Blainey
Santo Daime, a Brazilian religion organized around a potent psychoactive beverage called ayahuasca, is now being practiced across Europe and North America. Deeming ayahuasca a dangerous "hallucinogen," most Western governments prosecute people who participate in Santo Daime. On the contrary, members of Santo Daime (called "daimistas") consider ayahuasca a medicinal sacrament (or "entheogen"). Empirical studies corroborate daimistas' claim that entheogens are benign and can be beneficial when employed in controlled contexts...
February 2015: Journal of Religion and Health
Frederick R Dannaway
This paper seeks to emphasize what may be the most primary mode of altering consciousness in the ancient world: namely, the burning of substances for inhalation in enclosed areas. While there is abundant literature on archaic uses of entheogenic plants, the literature on psychoactive incenses is quite deficient. From the tents of nomadic tribes to the small meditation rooms of Taoist adepts, the smoldering fumes of plants and resins have been used to invoke and banish and for shamanic travels since humanity mastered fire...
December 2010: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Philippe Lucas
This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A...
July 2009: International Journal on Drug Policy
Ronald K Bullis
In 2006, the Supreme Court paved the way for the sacramental use of a hallucinogen, hoasca, to be imported, distributed and ingested by a religious group. This case has broad implications for religious freedom for using sacramental psychotropics and how such cases might be decided in the future. This article outlines the arguments used both by the church and by the government. It lists the facts of the cases, explains and analyzes the decision, evaluates the likelihood of expansions of religion-based exceptions for entheogen use in light of the Supreme Court's decision and offers a profile for those groups most likely to receive such an exemption...
June 2008: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Giampietro Frison, Donata Favretto, Flavio Zancanaro, Giorgio Fazzin, Santo Davide Ferrara
Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation...
August 6, 2008: Forensic Science International
John D Sellman, Michael P Baker, Simon J Adamson, Lloyd G Geering
The purpose of the present paper was to explore the concept and experience of God in relation to recovery from drug addiction from a scientific perspective. Examination of a diverse literature was undertaken, including five key threads: the universality of the experience of God; the induction of spiritual experiences of God through hallucinogenic drugs; the nature of drug addiction from an evolutionary neurobiological perspective; the 12 Step movement as the prototype for the place of God in recovery from drug addiction; and identified ingredients for successful recovery from addiction...
October 2007: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Frederick R Dannaway, Alan Piper, Peter Webster
This is an article in two parts. The first part discusses current research in psychoactive preparations of ergot in various religious systems with a particular emphasis on Persian, Greek, Jewish and Islamic sources. Certain poems, hadith, and scriptural writings suggest an entheogenic heritage to various ancient sects that exerted and received philosophical and ritual influences over large distances and over time. Particularly, some esoteric Shia and Sufi writings are highly suggestive of a "celestial botany" that employed psychoactive plants for initiatory and ritual purposes...
December 2006: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Bruce G Charlton
Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape...
2007: Medical Hypotheses
Stephen R Berlant
In this paper, I theorize that the Egyptian White and Triple Crowns were originally primordia of the entheogenic Psilocybe (Stropharia) cubensis, which an Egyptian tale known as Cheops and the Magicians allegorically explained grew on barley, and that Osiris was the God of spiritual rebirth because he personified this and other entheogenic mushrooms. I go on to theorize that the plant known commonly as the Eye of Horus, which the Egyptians included in cakes and ales designed to spiritually rebirth the living and the dead, was an entheogenic mushroom cap entirely analogous, if not identical, to Soma...
November 14, 2005: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
T B Roberts
Daily events that boost the immune system (as indicated by levels of salivary immunoglobulin A), some instances of spontaneous remission, and mystical experiences seem to share a similar cluster of thoughts, feelings, moods, perceptions, and behaviors. Entheogens--psychedelic drugs used in a religious context--can also produce mystical experiences (peak experiences, states of unitive consciousness, intense primary religious experiences) with the same cluster of effects. When this happens, is it also possible that such entheogen-induced mystical experiences strengthen the immune system? Might spontaneous remissions occur more frequently under such conditions? This article advances the so called "Emxis hypothesis"--that entheogen-induced mystical experiences influence the immune system...
1999: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
J Ott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1996: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
J Ott, P Neely
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1980: Journal of Psychedelic Drugs
M W Beug, J Bigwood
The analysis of twenty species from seven genera of Pacific Northwest mushrooms revealed psilocybin (and in some cases psilocin as well) in seven species from three genera. The species found to contain psilocybin (and psilocin) varied from one collection to another by more than a factor of seven in amount present. Total psilocybin and psilocin levels in species known to be in use for recreational and entheogenic purposes varied from 0.1% by dry weight up to a high of nearly 2% by dry weight.
May 1982: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J Bigwood, J Ott, C Thompson, P Neely
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1979: Journal of Psychedelic Drugs
C A Ruck, J Bigwood, D Staples, J Ott, R G Wasson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1979: Journal of Psychedelic Drugs
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