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Débora González, Marta Torrens, Magí Farré
BACKGROUND: 2C-B (Nexus) is one of the most widespread novel psychoactive substances. There is limited information about its pharmacological properties, and few studies in humans concern its acute and chronic effects. 2C-B has been classified as a stimulant, hallucinogen, entactogen, and/or empathogen. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the emotional, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of 2C-B. METHODS: Twenty healthy recreational 2C-B users (12 women) self-administered a 20 mg dose of 2C-B...
2015: BioMed Research International
Oliver G Bosch, Christoph Eisenegger, Jürg Gertsch, Robin von Rotz, Dario Dornbierer, M Salomé Gachet, Markus Heinrichs, Thomas C Wetter, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire...
December 2015: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shaobin Yu, Ling Zhu, Qiang Shen, Xue Bai, Xuhui Di
Methamphetamine (METH) is a sympathomimetic amine that belongs to phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs, which are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, METH produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin release in nerve terminals, gliosis, and apoptosis. This review summarized the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excessive dopamine, ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction, protein nitration, endoplasmic reticulum stress, p53 expression, inflammatory molecular, D3 receptor, microtubule deacetylation, and HIV-1 Tat protein that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
Jessica Welter, Simon D Brandt, Pierce Kavanagh, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
The number of so-called new psychoactive substances (NPS) is still increasing by modification of the chemical structure of known (scheduled) drugs. As analogues of amphetamines, 2-aminopropyl-benzofurans were sold. They were consumed because of their euphoric and empathogenic effects. After the 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofurans, the 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran isomers appeared. Thus, the question arose whether the metabolic fate, the mass spectral fragmentation, and the detectability in urine are comparable or different and how an intake can be differentiated...
May 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yasmin Schmid, Florian Enzler, Peter Gasser, Eric Grouzmann, Katrin H Preller, Franz X Vollenweider, Rudolf Brenneisen, Felix Müller, Stefan Borgwardt, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans...
October 15, 2015: Biological Psychiatry
Jessica Welter, Pierce Kavanagh, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
5-APB (5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) and its N-methyl derivative 5-MAPB (N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) are analogues of amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, and belong to the so-called novel psychoactive substances (NPS). They were consumed as stimulants or entactogens with euphoric and empathogenic effects. Being controlled in some countries, both compounds should be covered by drug testing in clinical and forensic toxicology. Therefore, metabolism studies have been performed by working up rat urine samples after a high single dose of the corresponding NPS with solid-phase extraction without and after enzymatic conjugates cleavage...
February 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yasmin Schmid, Cédric M Hysek, Linda D Simmler, Molly J Crockett, Boris B Quednow, Matthias E Liechti
Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgment Task in a cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects...
September 2014: Journal of Psychopharmacology
T Matsumoto, Y Maeno, H Kato, Y Seko-Nakamura, J Monma-Ohtaki, A Ishiba, M Nagao, Y Aoki
Using in vivo microdialysis, a comparative study was conducted to examine the effects of amphetamine-related compounds (methamphetamine, MAP; 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA; p-methoxyamphetamine, PMA; p-methoxymethamphetamine, PMMA; 4-methylthioamphetamine, 4-MTA; 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine, TMA; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, DOI) on extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Dialysates were assayed using HPLC equipped with electrochemical detector following i.p. administration with each drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg...
August 2014: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Richard A Glennon
The term "synthetic cathinones" is fairly new, but, although the abuse of synthetic cathinones is a recent problem, research on cathinone analogs dates back >100 years. One structural element cathinone analogs have in common is an α-aminophenone moiety. Introduction of amine and/or aryl substituents affords a large number of agents. Today, >40 synthetic cathinones have been identified on the clandestine market and many have multiple "street names." Many cathinone analogs, although not referred to as such until the late 1970s, were initially prepared as intermediates in the synthesis of ephedrine analogs...
2014: Advances in Pharmacology
Cédric M Hysek, Yasmin Schmid, Linda D Simmler, Gregor Domes, Markus Heinrichs, Christoph Eisenegger, Katrin H Preller, Boris B Quednow, Matthias E Liechti
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women)...
November 2014: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Laura E Halpin, Stuart A Collins, Bryan K Yamamoto
Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage...
February 27, 2014: Life Sciences
Michael W Church, Jinsheng S Zhang, Megan M Langford, Shane A Perrine
'Ecstasy' or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine abused for its euphoric, empathogenic, hallucinatory, and stimulant effects. It is also used to treat certain psychiatric disorders. Common settings for Ecstasy use are nightclubs and "rave" parties where participants consume MDMA and dance to loud music. One concern with the club setting is that exposure to loud sounds can cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Another concern is that consumption of MDMA may enhance such hearing loss...
August 2013: Hearing Research
Geetruida D van Dijken, Renske E Blom, Ronald J Hené, Walther H Boer, NIGRAM Consortium
BACKGROUND: Globally, millions of subjects regularly use ecstasy, a drug popular due to its empathogenic and entactogenic effects. Dilutional hyponatraemia, mainly caused by direct stimulation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion by ecstasy, is among the many side effects of the drug (active substance 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA). Severe, symptomatic hyponatraemia related to the use of MDMA has been reported in more than 30 cases. The mortality of this complication is high and mainly females are involved...
September 2013: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
N Bajaj, D Mullen, S Wylie
'Legal highs' are recreational drugs sold over the internet and the so-called 'head shops' all over the UK. They are freely available to buy and use as they are not covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was sold as a 'legal high' until 17 April 2010 when it was made a class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Numerous deaths and self-harm has been associated with mephedrone use. Effects of mephedrone are reported to be empathogenic similar to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and stimulant properties similar to cocaine...
2010: BMJ Case Reports
Sebastian Rojek, Małgorzata Kłys, Marcin Strona, Martyna Maciów, Karol Kula
The easily available "legal highs", which are products containing psychoactive substances, such as cathinones, piperazines and synthetic cannabinoids, are abused by adolescents in Poland and in the world as alternatives to classic drugs, such as amphetamines or marijuana. The majority of these potentially dangerous substances are still legal and they are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death, and provide new challenges in clinical and forensic toxicological practice. Investigations in the field of "designer drugs" may be well illustrated by the case of a suicide of a 21-year old male who ingested a specified dose of a preparation called "Amphi-bi-a" that contains bk-MBDB, chemically 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl) butan-1-one, which belongs to the cathinone group, as a synthetic euphoric empathogen and psychoactive stimulant that is chemically similar to MDMA...
October 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Patrick Dawson, James D Moffatt
The long use of ephedrine, amphetamines, cocaine, LSD and more recently 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") allows us to predict with some confidence what cardiovascular risks are likely to be associated with novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Once the probably multiple biological activities of a compound are known it is possible to define the likely risks of cardiovascular toxicity. Agonists of 5-HT(2A) receptors or alpha-adrenoceptors may cause vasoconstriction and tissue ischemia. Drugs which have agonist affinity for 5-HT(2B) receptors will probably promote heart valve fibrosis leading to heart failure...
December 3, 2012: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Iain S McGregor, Michael T Bowen
Drug use typically occurs within a social context, and social factors play an important role in the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. There is now accumulating evidence of an interaction between the neural substrates of affiliative behavior and those of drug reward, with a role for brain oxytocin systems in modulating acute and long-term drug effects. Early research in this field indicated that exogenous oxytocin administration can prevent development of tolerance to ethanol and opiates, the induction of stereotyped, hyperactive behavior by stimulants, and the withdrawal symptoms associated with sudden abstinence from drugs and alcohol...
March 2012: Hormones and Behavior
Lawrence Scahill, George M Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2010: Biological Psychiatry
Fabrizio Schifano, Antonio Albanese, Suzanne Fergus, Jackie L Stair, Paolo Deluca, Ornella Corazza, Zoe Davey, John Corkery, Holger Siemann, Norbert Scherbaum, Magi' Farre', Marta Torrens, Zsolt Demetrovics, A Hamid Ghodse
BACKGROUND: Recently, those substances deriving from the active ingredient of the Khat plant, cathinone, have been rising in popularity. Indeed, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone; 'meow meow' and others) has been seen by some as a cheaper alternative to other classified recreational drugs. AIMS: We aimed here at providing a state-of-the-art review on mephedrone history and prevalence of misuse, chemistry, pharmacology, legal status, product market appearance, clinical/management and related fatalities...
April 2011: Psychopharmacology
Gillinder Bedi, David Hyman, Harriet de Wit
BACKGROUND: Users of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), "ecstasy," report that the drug produces unusual psychological effects, including increased empathy and prosocial feelings. These "empathogenic" effects are cited as reasons for recreational ecstasy use and also form the basis for the proposed use of MDMA in psychotherapy. However, they have yet to be characterized in controlled studies. Here, we investigate effects of MDMA on an important social cognitive capacity, the identification of emotional expression in others, and on socially relevant mood states...
December 15, 2010: Biological Psychiatry
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