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Dorsal striatum

Yu-Chen Lu, Yu-Jun Wang, Bin Lu, Ming Chen, Ping Zheng, Jing-Gen Liu
Itch is an unpleasant sensation that initiates scratching behavior. Itch-scratch reaction is a complex phenomenon whose occurrence implicates supraspinal structures required for regulation of sensory, emotional, cognitive, and motivational aspects. However, the central mechanisms underlying the processing of itch and the interplay of the supraspinal regions and spinal cord in regulating itch-scratch processes are poorly understood. Here, we have identified that the neural projections from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to dorsal medial striatum (DMS) constitute a critical circuit element for regulating itch-related behaviors in the brain of male C57BL/6J mice...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Susan J Melhorn, Mary K Askren, Wendy K Chung, Mario Kratz, Tyler A Bosch, Vidhi Tyagi, Mary F Webb, Mary Rosalynn B De Leon, Thomas J Grabowski, Rudolph L Leibel, Ellen A Schur
Background: Variants in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene increase obesity risk. People with "high-risk" FTO genotypes exhibit preference for high-fat foods, reduced satiety responsiveness, and greater food intake consistent with impaired satiety. Objective: We sought central nervous system mechanisms that might underlie impaired satiety perception in people with a higher risk of obesity based on their FTO genotype. Design: We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample that was enriched for obesity and included 20 higher-risk participants with the AA (risk) genotype at the rs9939609 locus of FTO and 94 lower-risk participants with either the AT or TT genotype...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
T D London, J A Licholai, I Szczot, M A Ali, K H LeBlanc, W C Fobbs, A V Kravitz
The striatum controls food-related actions and consumption and is linked to feeding disorders including obesity and anorexia nervosa. Two populations of neurons project from the striatum: direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs) and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs). The selective contribution of dMSNs and iMSNs to food-related actions and consumption remains unknown. Here, we used in vivo electrophysiology and fiber photometry in mice (of both sexes) to record both spiking activity and pathway-specific calcium activity of dorsal striatal neurons during approach to and consumption of food pellets...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
David A Nicholson, Todd Roberts, Samuel J Sober
The thalamostriatal system is a major network in the mammalian brain, originating principally from the intralaminar nuclei of thalamus. Its functions remain unclear, but a subset of these projections provides a pathway through which the cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia. Both the cerebellum and basal ganglia play crucial roles in motor control. Although songbirds have yielded key insights into the neural basis of vocal learning, it is unknown whether a thalamostriatal system exists in the songbird brain...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Frank H Wilhelm
Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs...
March 5, 2018: Appetite
Masanori Isobe, Sarah A Redden, Nancy J Keuthen, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner, Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) is characterized by the repetitive pulling out of one's own hair, and is classified as an Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorder. Abnormalities of the ventral and dorsal striatum have been implicated in disease models of trichotillomania, based on translational research, but direct evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate subcortical morphometric abnormalities, including localized curvature changes, in trichotillomania. De-identified MRI scans were pooled by contacting authors of previous peer-reviewed studies that examined brain structure in adult patients with trichotillomania, following an extensive literature search...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yuan-Hao Chen, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer, Jonathon Miller
Background: Traumatic brain injury is associated with substantial alterations in reward processing, but underlying mechanisms are controversial. Objective: A better understanding of alterations in dopamine (DA) release patterns from the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell (NAc) may provide insights into posttraumatic reward pathology. Materials and Methods: The patterns of DA release with or without exposure to nicotine in brain slices with striatum and NAc, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 psi fluid percussion (FPI) or sham injury were analysis by using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Ritchy Hodebourg, Jennifer E Murray, Maxime Fouyssac, Mickaël Puaud, Barry J Everitt, David Belin
The alarming increase in heroin overdoses in the USA is a reminder of the need for efficacious and novel treatments for opiate addiction. This may reflect the relatively poor understanding of the neural basis of heroin, as compared to cocaine, seeking behavior. While cocaine reinforcement depends on the mesolimbic system, well established cocaine seeking is dependent on dorsolateral striatum (aDLS) dopamine-dependent mechanisms which are disrupted by N-acetylcysteine, through normalisation of corticostriatal glutamate homeostasis...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Debora Aricò, Bartolo Lanuzza, Filomena Irene Ilaria Cosentino, Domenico Paci, Maurizio Papotto, Manuela Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Walter Paulus, Raffaele Ferri
Background: Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. Methods: A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Francesca Romana Rizzo, Mauro Federici, Nicola Biagio Mercuri
An increase of extracellular dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the psychostimulant properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Although this drug has been reported to affect the DA uptake transporter (DAT), it might activate other mechanisms to regulate the outflow of DA in the brain. Our aim was to examine the overall effects of MDMA on the release of DA in the striatum. We studied the effect of MDMA on stimulus-evoked synaptic DA release in dorsal striatal slices of mice using in vitro amperometric techniques...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience
Rong-Jun Ni, Zhao-Huan Huang, Yu-Mian Shu, Yu Wang, Tao Li, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The striatum and globus pallidus are principal nuclei of the basal ganglia. Nissl- and acetylcholinesterase-stained sections of the tree shrew brain showed the neuroanatomical features of the caudate nucleus (Cd), internal capsule (ic), putamen (Pu), accumbens, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus. The ic separated the dorsal striatum into the Cd and Pu in the tree shrew, but not in rats and mice. In addition, computer-based 3D images allowed a better understanding of the position and orientation of these structures...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Orwa Dandash, Murat Yücel, Rothanthi Daglas, Christos Pantelis, Patrick McGorry, Michael Berk, Alex Fornito
Mood disturbances seen in first-episode mania (FEM) are linked to disturbed functional connectivity of the striatum. Lithium and quetiapine are effective treatments for mania but their neurobiological effects remain largely unknown. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled maintenance trial in 61 FEM patients and 30 healthy controls. Patients were stabilized for a minimum of 2 weeks on lithium plus quetiapine then randomly assigned to either lithium (serum level 0.6 mmol/L) or quetiapine (dosed up to 800 mg/day) treatment for 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Ida Marabese, Serena Boccella, Monica Iannotta, Livio Luongo, Vito de Novellis, Francesca Guida, Nicola Serra, Antonio Farina, Sabatino Maione, Enza Palazzo
The study investigated the role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) in pain signalling in the dorsal striatum of sham and neuropathic rats. Supraspinal circuitries involved in the dorsal striatum control of pain were also explored. In the sham rats, microinjection of N,N'-bis(diphenylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (AMN082), a selective mGluR7 positive allosteric modulator, into the dorsal striatum, facilitated pain, increased the activity of the ON cells and inhibited the activity of the OFF cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla, and decreased glutamate levels in the dorsal striatum...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yanhong Duan, Qi Wang, Qingwen Zeng, Jiayue Wang, Zhenzhen Chen, Meichen Xu, Yale Duan, Zheng Zhao, Qingsheng Xue, Xiaohua Cao
Although the striatum has a well-documented role in procedural learning and memory, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. GluN2B subunit is abundantly expressed in striatum, however, the function of striatal GluN2B subunit in striatum-related learning is also unclear. In the present study, using transgenic mice with forebrain-specific overexpression of the GluN2B subunit, we observed that up-regulation of GluN2B subunit expression results in enhanced dorsal striatum-related motor skill learning and stimulus-response (S-R) learning as well as cortico-dorsomedial striatal (cortico-DMS) long-term potentiation (LTP)...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Shushu He, Fei Li, Tian Gu, Huayu Ma, Xinyi Li, Shujuan Zou, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong, Song Chen
Although temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been associated with abnormal gray matter volumes in cortical areas and in the striatum, the corticostriatal functional connectivity (FC) of patients with TMD has not been studied. Here, we studied 30 patients with TMD and 20 healthy controls that underwent clinical evaluations, including Helkimo indices, pain assessments, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The FCs of the striatal regions with the other brain areas were examined with a seed-based approach...
March 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lupeng Wang, Krsna V Rangarajan, Charles R Gerfen, Richard J Krauzlis
The basal ganglia are implicated in perceptual decision-making, although their specific contributions remain unclear. Here, we tested the causal role of the basal ganglia by manipulating neuronal activity in the dorsal striatum of mice performing a visual orientation-change detection (yes/no) task. Brief unilateral optogenetic stimulation caused large changes in task performance, shifting psychometric curves upward by increasing the probability of "yes" responses with only minor changes in sensitivity...
February 14, 2018: Neuron
Jarid Goodman, Mark G Packard
The present review describes a role for the dorsal striatum in extinction. Evidence from brain lesion and pharmacological studies indicate that the dorsolateral region of the striatum (DLS) mediates extinction in various maze learning and instrumental learning tasks. Within the context of a multiple memory systems view, the role of the DLS in extinction appears to be selective. Specifically, the DLS mediates extinction of habit memory and is not required for extinction of cognitive memory. Thus, extinction mechanisms mediated by the DLS may involve response-produced inhibition (e...
March 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Csaba Kerepesi, Bálint Varga, Balázs Szalkai, Vince Grolmusz
In the applications of the graph theory, it is unusual that one considers numerous, pairwise different graphs on the very same set of vertices. In the case of human braingraphs or connectomes, however, this is the standard situation: the nodes correspond to anatomically identified cerebral regions, and two vertices are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow identifies a fiber of axons, running between the two regions, corresponding to the two vertices. Therefore, if we examine the braingraphs of n subjects, then we have n graphs on the very same, anatomically identified vertex set...
February 26, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Shigeki Kato, Ryoji Fukabori, Kayo Nishizawa, Kana Okada, Nozomu Yoshioka, Masateru Sugawara, Yuko Maejima, Kenju Shimomura, Masahiro Okamoto, Satoshi Eifuku, Kazuto Kobayashi
Learning processes contributing to appropriate selection and flexible switching of behaviors are mediated through the dorsal striatum, a key structure of the basal ganglia circuit. The major inputs to striatal subdivisions are provided from the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, including the central lateral nucleus (CL) and parafascicular nucleus (PF). Thalamostriatal neurons in the PF modulate the acquisition and performance of stimulus-response learning. Here, we address the roles of the CL thalamostriatal neurons in learning processes by using a selective neural pathway targeting technique...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
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