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Dorsal striatum

Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Sandra Malone
Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86) maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment (DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n = 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the scanner...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Jeroen Aerts, Annelies Laeremans, Laurens Minerva, Kurt Boonen, Budamgunta Harshavardhan, Rudi D'hooge, Dirk Valkenborg, Geert Baggerman, Lutgarde Arckens
The Morris water maze (MWM) spatial learning task has been demonstrated to involve a cognitive switch of action control to serve the transition from an early towards a late learning phase. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this switch are largely unknown. We employed MALDI MS imaging (MSI) to screen for changes in expression of small proteins in brain structures implicated in the different learning phases. We compared mice trained for 3days and 30days in the MWM, reflecting an early and a late learning phase in relation to the acquisition of a spatial learning task...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xuemei Lei, Chuansheng Chen, Chunhui Chen, Qinghua He, Robert K Moyzis, Gui Xue, Qi Dong
Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex...
2016: PloS One
Ursula F Bailer, Julie C Price, Carolyn C Meltzer, Angela Wagner, Chester A Mathis, Anthony Gamst, Walter H Kaye
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have anxious and inhibited temperaments with high concern for consequences. Studies using either positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggest involvement of the middle and dorsal caudate (DC) in individuals recovered (REC) from AN. For example, dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptor binding in the middle caudate and DC was associated with anxiety and harm avoidance, and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response in the DC was positively related to trait anxiety...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Andrew Vo, Ken N Seergobin, Penny A MacDonald
Dopaminergic therapy has been shown to worsen some cognitive functions, particularly learning, in Parkinson's disease (PD). This has been attributed to dopamine overdose of brain regions that are relatively dopamine replete. Dopamine dosages are titrated to the severely depleted dorsal striatum (DS). According to this account, dopaminergic therapy should worsen cognitive functions in healthy young adults who have normal dopamine levels. As a critical test of the dopamine overdose hypothesis, we tested the effect of levodopa on learning stimulus-response associations and on performing stimulus-specific responses once these associations were learned...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Martin J Bobak, Matthew W Weber, Melissa A Doellman, Douglas R Schuweiler, Jeana M Athens, Steven A Juliano, Paul A Garris
Modafinil (MOD) exhibits therapeutic efficacy for treating sleep and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism is incompletely understood. Compared to other psychostimulants inhibiting dopamine (DA) uptake, MOD weakly interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modestly elevates striatal dialysate DA, suggesting additional targets besides DAT. However, the ability of MOD to induce wakefulness is abolished with DAT knockout, conversely suggesting that DAT is necessary for MOD action. Another psychostimulant target, but one not established for MOD, is activation of phasic DA signaling...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Luigi Bellocchio, Andrea Ruiz-Calvo, Anna Chiarlone, Magali Cabanas, Eva Resel, Jean-René Cazalets, Cristina Blázquez, Yoon H Cho, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Manuel Guzmán
: The dorsal striatum is a major input structure of the basal ganglia and plays a key role in the control of vital processes such as motor behavior, cognition, and motivation. The functionality of striatal neurons is tightly controlled by various metabotropic receptors. Whereas the Gs/Gi-protein-dependent tuning of striatal neurons is fairly well known, the precise impact and underlying mechanism of Gq-protein-dependent signals remain poorly understood. Here, using different experimental approaches, especially designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) chemogenetic technology, we found that sustained activation of Gq-protein signaling impairs the functionality of striatal neurons and we unveil the precise molecular mechanism underlying this process: a phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2/cJun N-terminal kinase pathway...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shi-Xun Ma, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Jee-Yeon Seo, Ji-Young Hwang, Sa-Ik Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats...
October 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
R Asri, B O'Neill, J C Patel, K A Siletti, M E Rice
The study of transmitter interactions in reward and motor pathways in the brain, including the striatum, requires methodology to detect stimulus-driven neurotransmitter release events. Such methods exist for dopamine, and have contributed to the understanding of local and behavioral factors that regulate dopamine release. However, factors that regulate release of another key transmitter in these pathways, acetylcholine (ACh), are unresolved, in part because of limited temporal and spatial resolution of current detection methods...
October 3, 2016: Analyst
Paul J Cocker, M Tremblay, S Kaur, Catharine A Winstanley
RATIONALE: Whilst dopamine agonist therapies can successfully manage the symptoms of diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), fibromyalgia and restless leg syndrome, they can also cause impulse control and addiction disorders such as gambling disorder (GD). These compulsive behaviours seriously undermine the utility of such treatments. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to model this phenomenon using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT) in order to investigate the neurobiological basis underlying such behavioural changes...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Denise M Werchan, Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank, Dima Amso
: Recent research indicates that adults and infants spontaneously create and generalize hierarchical rule sets during incidental learning. Computational models and empirical data suggest that, in adults, this process is supported by circuits linking prefrontal cortex (PFC) with striatum and their modulation by dopamine, but the neural circuits supporting this form of learning in infants are largely unknown. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to record PFC activity in 8-month-old human infants during a simple audiovisual hierarchical-rule-learning task...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nadine Schweizer, Thomas Viereckel, Casey J A Smith-Anttila, Karin Nordenankar, Emma Arvidsson, Souha Mahmoudi, André Zampera, Hanna Wärner Jonsson, Jonas Bergquist, Daniel Lévesque, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Malin Andersson, Sylvie Dumas, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a central role in motor, cognitive, and affective behavior. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is the most common surgical intervention for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and STN has lately gained attention as target for DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and addiction. Animal studies using STN-DBS, lesioning, or inactivation of STN neurons have been used extensively alongside clinical studies to unravel the structural organization, circuitry, and function of the STN...
September 2016: ENeuro
Jin-Tao Zhang, Yuan-Wei Yao, Marc N Potenza, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Lu Liu, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Shan-Shan Ma, Xiao-Yi Fang
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by high levels of craving for online gaming and related cues. Since addiction-related cues can evoke increased activation in brain areas involved in motivational and reward processing and may engender gaming behaviors or trigger relapse, ameliorating cue-induced craving may be a promising target for interventions for IGD. This study compared neural activation between 40 IGD and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects during an Internet-gaming cue-reactivity task and found that IGD subjects showed stronger activation in multiple brain areas, including the dorsal striatum, brainstem, substantia nigra, and anterior cingulate cortex, but lower activation in the posterior insula...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Paola C Bello-Medina, Gonzalo Flores, Gina L Quirarte, James L McGaugh, Roberto A Prado Alcalá
A growing body of evidence indicates that treatments that typically impair memory consolidation become ineffective when animals are given intense training. This effect has been obtained by treatments interfering with the neural activity of several brain structures, including the dorsal striatum. The mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are unknown. One possibility is that intense training promotes the transfer of information derived from the enhanced training to a wider neuronal network. We now report that inhibitory avoidance (IA) induces mushroom spinogenesis in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the dorsal striatum in rats, which is dependent upon the intensity of the foot-shock used for training; that is, the effect is seen only when high-intensity foot-shock is used in training...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Woo-Hyun Cho, Jung-Soo Han
Flexibility in using different learning strategies was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains. Mice were trained sequentially in two different Morris water maze protocols that tested their ability to switch their learning strategy to complete a new task after first being trained in a different task. Training consisted either of visible platform trials (cued training) followed by subsequent hidden platform trials (place training) or the reverse sequence (place training followed by cued training)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yu-Chen Chan
Gelotophobics have social deficits in the form of relative humorlessness and heightened sensitivity to aggressive humor; however, little is known about the neural reward mechanisms for this group. The present study attempted to identify the neural substrates of responses to hostile and non-hostile jokes in gelotophobics and non-gelotophobics. Gelotophobics showed greater activation than did non-gelotophobics in the dorsal corticostriatal system, which comprises the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, suggesting a higher degree of voluntary top-down cognitive control of emotion...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zengjian Wang, Xiaoyun Wang, Jian Liu, Jun Chen, Xian Liu, Guangning Nie, Kristen Jorgenson, Ki Cheul Sohn, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu, Bo Liu, Jian Kong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder with a high prevalence and significant social and economic impacts. Nevertheless, the treatment of MDD is far from satisfactory. Acupuncture treatment has emerged as a promising method for treating MDD. However, the neural mechanism by which acupuncture reduces depressive symptoms is not fully understood. Studies have shown that the corticostriatal reward circuitry is associated with the pathophysiology of MDD; thus, we investigated the corticostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before and after real and sham acupuncture treatments combined with the antidepressant fluoxetine...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
F Javier Rubio, Xuan Li, Qing-Rong Liu, Raffaello Cimbro, Bruce T Hope
The study of neuroplasticity and molecular alterations in learned behaviors is switching from the study of whole brain regions to the study of specific sets of sparsely distributed activated neurons called neuronal ensembles that mediate learned associations. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) has recently been optimized for adult rat brain tissue and allowed isolation of activated neurons using antibodies against the neuronal marker NeuN and Fos protein, a marker of strongly activated neurons. Until now, Fos-expressing neurons and other cell types were isolated from fresh tissue, which entailed long processing days and allowed very limited numbers of brain samples to be assessed after lengthy and complex behavioral procedures...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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