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Dorsal striatum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521141/indirect-pathway-of-caudal-basal-ganglia-for-rejection-of-valueless-visual-objects
#1
Hyoung F Kim, Hidetoshi Amita, Okihide Hikosaka
The striatum controls behavior in two ways: facilitation and suppression through the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. However, it is still unclear what information is processed in these pathways. To address this question, we studied two pathways originating from the primate caudate tail (CDt). We found that the CDt innervated the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr), directly or indirectly through the caudal-ventral part of the globus pallidus externus (cvGPe)...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511993/the-expression-of-opioid-genes-in-non-classical-reward-areas-depends-on-early-life-conditions-and-ethanol-intake
#2
Linnea Granholm, Aniruddah Todkar, Sofia Bergman, Kent Nilsson, Erika Comasco, Ingrid Nylander
The young brain is highly sensitive to environmental influences that can cause long-term changes in neuronal function, possibly through altered gene expression. The endogenous opioid system continues to mature after birth and because of its involvement in reward, an inadequate maturation of this system could lead to enhanced susceptibility for alcohol use disorder. Recent studies show that the classical reward areas nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area are less affected by early life stress whereas endogenous opioids in non-classical areas, e...
May 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509375/chronic-nicotine-induced-changes-in-gene-expression-of-delta-and-kappa-opioid-receptors-and-their-endogenous-ligands-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-the-rat
#3
Muzeyyen Ugur, Egemen Kaya, Oguz Gozen, Ersin O Koylu, Lutfiye Kanit, Aysegul Keser, Burcu Balkan
Delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR and KOR, respectively) and their endogenous ligands, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN)-derived opioid peptides are proposed as important mediators of nicotine reward. The present study investigated the regulatory effect of chronic nicotine treatment on the gene expression of DOR, KOR, PENK and PDYN in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three groups of rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 mg/kg/day for six days. Rats were decapitated one hour after the last dose on day six, as this timing coincides with increased dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic system...
May 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507136/ocd-candidate-gene-slc1a1-eaat3-impacts-basal-ganglia-mediated-activity-and-stereotypic-behavior
#4
Isaac D Zike, Muhammad O Chohan, Jared M Kopelman, Emily N Krasnow, Daniel Flicker, Katherine M Nautiyal, Michael Bubser, Christoph Kellendonk, Carrie K Jones, Gregg Stanwood, Kenji Fransis Tanaka, Holly Moore, Susanne E Ahmari, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1)...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506001/motor-cortex-stimulation-does-not-lead-to%C3%A2-functional-recovery-after-experimental-cortical-injury-in-rats
#5
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Ali Jahanshahi, Evi Lemmens, Matthias Bauwens, Sarah-Anna Hescham, Sandra Schipper, Melanie Lagiere, Sven Hendrix, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Motor impairments are among the major complications that develop after cortical damage caused by either stroke or traumatic brain injury. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) can improve motor functions in animal models of stroke by inducing neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the therapeutic effect of chronic MCS was assessed in a rat model of severe cortical damage. METHODS: A controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied to the forelimb area of the motor cortex followed by implantation of a flat electrode covering the lesion area...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505380/potential-reward-reduces-the-adverse-impact-of-negative-distractor-stimuli
#6
Srikanth Padmala, Mihai Sirbu, Luiz Pessoa
Knowledge about interactions between reward and negative processing is rudimentary. Here, we employed functional MRI to probe how potential reward signaled by advance cues alters aversive distractor processing during perception. Behaviorally, the influence of aversive stimuli on task performance was reduced during the reward compared to no-reward condition. In the brain, at the task phase, paralleling the observed behavioral pattern, we observed significant interactions in the anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, such that responses during the negative (vs...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503136/a-quantitative-golgi-study-of-dendritic-morphology-in-the-mice-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#7
Ivana Bicanic, Ana Hladnik, Zdravko Petanjek
In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit) impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496399/the-effect-of-wealth-shocks-on-loss-aversion-behavior-and-neural-correlates
#8
V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Sergio Ruiz, Sangkyun Lee, Charles N Noussair, Ranganatha Sitaram
Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493093/insights-from-mathematical-modeling-for-convection-enhanced-intraputamenal-delivery-of-gdnf
#9
Elena Belova, Christopher L Shaffer, Patrick E Trapa
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) promoting survival and functional recovery of dopaminergic neurons when delivered to the degenerated striatum. To study the aspects of intraputamenal delivery of GDNF, a mathematical model of recombinant methionyl human GDNF (r-metHuGDNF) convection in the human putamen has been developed. The convection-enhanced delivery infusions of r-metHuGDNF were simulated at rates up to 5 μL/min. The high-rate infusions (≥1 μL/min) permit rapid and uniform distribution of drug with up to 75% of the distribution volume having a concentration within 5% of the infusate concentration...
May 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484419/altered-functional-connectivity-of-striatal-subregions-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Fangyuan Cui, Li Zhou, Zengjian Wang, Courtney Lang, Joel Park, Zhongjian Tan, Yao Yu, Chunyan Sun, Ying Gao, Jian Kong
Abnormal corticostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been implicated in the neuropathology of multiple sclerosis. The striatum, a component of the basal ganglia, is involved in diverse functions including movement, cognition, emotion, and limbic information processing. However, the brain circuits of the striatal subregions contributing to the changes in rsFC in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients remain unknown. We used six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere as seeds to investigate the rsFC of striatal subregions between RRMS patients and matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476484/organization-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-system-anatomical-and-functional-mapping-of-monosynaptic-inputs-using-rabies-virus
#11
REVIEW
Sachie K Ogawa, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine and serotonin play critical roles in flexible behaviors and are related to various psychiatric and motor disorders. This paper reviews the global organization of dopamine and serotonin systems through recent findings using a modified rabies virus. We first introduce methods for comprehensive mapping of monosynaptic inputs. We then describe quantitative comparisons across the data regarding monosynaptic inputs to dopamine neurons versus serotonin neurons. There is surprising similarity between the input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the input to serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR), suggesting functional interactions between these systems...
May 2, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473642/selective-vulnerability-of-striatal-d2-versus-d1-dopamine-receptor-expressing-medium-spiny-neurons-in-hiv-1-tat-transgenic-male-mice
#12
Christina J Schier, William D Marks, Jason J Paris, Aaron J Barbour, Virginia D McLane, William F Maragos, A Rory McQuiston, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser
Despite marked regional differences in HIV susceptibility within the CNS, there has been surprisingly little exploration into the differential vulnerability among neuron types and the circuits they underlie. The dorsal striatum is especially susceptible, harboring high viral loads and displaying marked neuropathology-with motor impairment a frequent manifestation of chronic infection; yet, little is known about the response of individual striatal neuron types to HIV or how this disrupts function. Consequently, we examined the morphological, electrophysiological, and anxiety-like and exploratory/locomotor behavioral effects of HIV-1 Tat in dopamine subtype 1 (D1) and dopamine subtype 2 (D2) receptor-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) by breeding transgenic Tat-expressing mice to Drd1a-tdTomato- or Drd2-eGFP- reporter mice...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473192/characterization-of-a-cerebral-palsy-like-model-in-rats-analysis-of-gait-pattern-and-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-motor-areas
#13
Adriana Souza Dos Santos, Wellington de Almeida, Bruno Popik, Bruno Marques Sbardelotto, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Marcelo Alves de Souza, Lígia Aline Centenaro
In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473012/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-evolution-and-role-in-mental-disorders
#14
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Taking the evolutionary development of the forebrain as a starting point, the authors developed a biological framework for the subcortical regulation of human emotional behaviour which may offer an explanation for the pathogenesis of the principle symptoms of mental disorders. Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behaviour are essential for all free-moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must therefore have been capable of generating these behaviours...
May 5, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467898/distinct-corticostriatal-gabaergic-neurons-modulate-striatal-output-neurons-and-motor-activity
#15
Sarah Melzer, Mariana Gil, David E Koser, Magdalena Michael, Kee Wui Huang, Hannah Monyer
The motor cortico-basal ganglion loop is critical for motor planning, execution, and learning. Balanced excitation and inhibition in this loop is crucial for proper motor output. Excitatory neurons have been thought to be the only source of motor cortical input to the striatum. Here, we identify long-range projecting GABAergic neurons in the primary (M1) and secondary (M2) motor cortex that target the dorsal striatum. This population of projecting GABAergic neurons comprises both somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) and parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons that target direct and indirect pathway striatal output neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons differentially...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466439/high-sensitivity-neuroimaging-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-resting-state-fmri-and-a-triple-network-model
#16
Enyan Yu, Zhengluan Liao, Yunfei Tan, Yaju Qiu, Junpeng Zhu, Zhang Han, Jue Wang, Xinwei Wang, Hong Wang, Yan Chen, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Dewang Mao, Zhongxiang Ding
Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that Granger causality analysis (GCA) is a suitable method for revealing causal effects between brain regions. The purpose of the present study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers with a high sensitivity to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The resting-state fMRI data of 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 14 patients with aMCI, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated using GCA. This study focused on the "triple networks" concept, a recently proposed higher-order functioning-related brain network model that includes the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN)...
May 3, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462940/chronic-nicotine-alters-corticostriatal-plasticity-in-the-striatopallidal-pathway-mediated-by-nr2b-containing-silent-synapses
#17
Jianxun Xia, Allison M Meyers, Jeff A Beeler
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and success rates for quitting remain low. High relapse rates are attributed to pervasive nicotine-reinforced associative learning of incentive cues that is highly resistant to extinction. Why such learning is so persistent is poorly understood but may arise as a consequence of neuroadaptations in synaptic plasticity induced by chronic nicotine. We used whole-cell patch clamp recording to investigate the effect of chronic nicotine (cNIC) on synaptic plasticity in dopamine D2 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons in the indirect, striatopallidal pathway in dorsolateral striatum...
May 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459442/moral-transgressions-corrupt-neural-representations-of-value
#18
Molly J Crockett, Jenifer Z Siegel, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others...
May 1, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458022/impaired-prefrontal-cognitive-control-over-interference-by-food-images-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-bulimia-nervosa
#19
Jung Eun Lee, Kee Namkoong, Young-Chul Jung
Binge-eating disorder (BED)characterized by recurrent episodes of binge-eating without inappropriate compensatory behaviors is classified as an official diagnosis in DSM-5. However, the neural bases that differentiate BED from other eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa (BN), are still under debate. Thirty-nine participants (HC, n=14; BN, n=13; BED, n=12) underwent functional MRI while performing a Stroop-Match-to-Sample task. This pilot study investigated how food images interfered with the behavioral performances and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent neuronal activity...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455126/neurochemical-arguments-for-the-use-of-dopamine-d4-receptor-stimulation-to-improve-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-schizophrenia
#20
Mei Huang, Sunoh Kwon, Wenqi He, Herbert Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) D4 receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia and the ability of some atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to improve the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Systemic administration of a D4 agonist, PD168077, at a sub-effective dose, together with a sub-effective dose of lurasidone, an atypical APD which is a weak D4 receptor antagonist, reversed the deficit in novel object recognition (NOR) in rats treated subchronically with phencyclidine (PCP), a rodent model of CIAS...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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