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Dorsal striatum

Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Michelle K Sequeira, Britta S Nelson, Hannah D Fulenwider, Courtney E King, Sadie E Nennig, Jennifer B Bohannon, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, Markus Heilig, Jesse R Schank
We have previously demonstrated that the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is upregulated in the central nucleus of the amygdala of alcohol preferring (P) rats and that this receptor mediates escalated alcohol consumption in this strain. However, it is unclear if non-genetic models of escalated consumption are also mediated by NK1R signaling, and if so, what brain regions govern this effect. In the experiments presented here, we use two methods of inducing escalated alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats: yohimbine pretreatment and intermittent alcohol access (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday availability; 20% alcohol)...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ellie-Anna Minogianis, Waqqas M Shams, Omar S Mabrouk, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Wayne G Brake, Robert T Kennedy, Patrick du Souich, Anne-Noël Samaha
The faster drugs of abuse reach the brain, the greater is the risk of addiction. Even small differences in the rate of drug delivery can influence outcome. Infusing cocaine intravenously over 5 versus 90-100 seconds promotes sensitization to the psychomotor and incentive motivational effects of the drug and preferentially recruits mesocorticolimbic regions. It remains unclear whether these effects are due to differences in how fast and/or how much drug reaches the brain. Here, we predicted that varying the rate of intravenous cocaine infusion between 5-90 seconds produces different rates of rise of brain drug concentrations, while producing similar peak concentrations...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Beata Bystrowska, Małgorzata Frankowska, Irena Smaga, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamioło, Małgorzata Filip
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptor proteins in several brain regions in rats undergoing cocaine self-administration and extinction training. We used a triad-yoked procedure to distinguish between the motivational and pharmacological effects of cocaine. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and the basolateral and basomedial amygdala following cocaine (0...
May 12, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Fatéma Dodat, Daniel Lévesque, Lalit K Srivastava
The mechanisms underlying psychostimulant drug-induced sensitization include long-term cellular and molecular adaptations in dopaminergic circuits. Nur77, a member of the Nur family of transcription factors, is expressed in brain regions receiving dopamine inputs and plays a role in activity-induced synaptic modification. Here we evaluated changes in Nur77 mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum (Str) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats receiving a repeated, sensitizing regimen of amphetamine (AMPH)...
May 8, 2018: Brain Research
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hidetoshi Amita, Hyoung F Kim, Mitchell Smith, Atul Gopal, Okihide Hikosaka
Direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia work together for controlling behavior. However, it is still a controversial topic whether these pathways are segregated or merged with each other. To address this issue, we studied the connections of these two pathways in the caudal parts of the basal ganglia of rhesus monkeys using anatomical tracers. Our previous studies showed that the caudal basal ganglia control saccades by conveying long-term values (stable values) of many visual objects toward the superior colliculus...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Max Schneider, Laura Leuchs, Michael Czisch, Philipp G Sämann, Victor I Spoormaker
The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Yeojun Yoon, Hasang Park, Sangyeon Kim, Phuong T Nguyen, Seung Jae Hyeon, Sooyoung Chung, Hyeonjoo Im, Junghee Lee, Sean Bong Lee, Hoon Ryu
A recent study reveals that missense mutations of EWSR1 are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the function of wild-type (WT) EWSR1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is not known yet. Herein, we investigated the neuroanatomical and motor function changes in Ewsr1 knock out (KO) mice. First, we quantified neuronal nucleus size in the motor cortex, dorsal striatum and hippocampus of three different groups: WT, heterozygous Ewsr1 KO (+/-), and homozygous Ewsr1 KO (-/-) mice...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Nikki C Lee, Wouter D Weeda, Catherine Insel, Leah H Somerville, Lydia Krabbendam, Mariëtte Huizinga
Adolescence is a period characterised by increases in risk-taking. This behaviour has been associated with an imbalance in the integration of the networks involved in cognitive control and motivational processes. We examined whether the influence of emotional cues on cognitive control differs between adolescents who show high or low levels of risk-taking behaviour. Participants who scored especially high or low on a risky decision task were subsequently administered an emotional go/no-go fMRI task comprising angry, happy and calm faces...
April 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sofía González-Salinas, Andrea C Medina, Eduardo Alvarado-Ortiz, Anaid Antaramian, Gina L Quirarte, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá
Similar to the hippocampus and amygdala, the dorsal striatum is involved in memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance, a task commonly used to study memory processes. It has been reported that memory retrieval of fear conditioning regulates gene expression of arc and zif268 in the amygdala and the hippocampus, and it is surprising that only limited effort has been made to study the molecular events caused by retrieval in the striatum. To further explore the involvement of immediate early genes in retrieval, we used real-time PCR to analyze arc and zif268 transcription in dorsal striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala at different time intervals after retrieval of step-through inhibitory avoidance memory...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
Xiao Gao, Qianlin Liang, Guorong Wu, Ying She, Nan Sui, Hong Chen
Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes)...
April 30, 2018: Appetite
Yutong Liu, Juan Li, Kaige Xu, Jingjing Gu, Lu Huang, Lei Zhang, N Liu, Jiming Kong, Malcolm Xing, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been widely used as theranostic drug-carrier and MRI contrast agent. Their potential effects are still in blank while SPIONs are used for brain. The present study aims to investigate SPIONs' neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo using stereotaxic technique. By co-incubating SPIONs with dopaminergic neuronal PC12 cells, we found that SPIONs had a dose-dependent cytotoxic in PC12 cells at 60-200 ug/mL but not at 10-50 ug/mL, it reduced cell viability, decreased the capacity of PC12 cells to extend neurites in response to nerve growth factor (NGF), induced a reduction of the tyrosine hydroxylase protein, while increasing PC12 cell apoptosis...
April 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Melissa Malvaez, Kate M Wassum
Habits are an essential and pervasive component of our daily lives that allow us to efficiently perform routine tasks. But their disruption contributes to the symptoms that underlie many psychiatric diseases. Emerging data are revealing the cellular and molecular mechanisms of habit formation in the dorsal striatum. New data suggest that in both the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity acts as a critical negative regulator of the transcriptional processes underlying habit formation...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Anna Cavaccini, Marta Gritti, Andrea Giorgi, Andrea Locarno, Nicolas Heck, Sara Migliarini, Alice Bertero, Maddalena Mereu, Giulia Margiani, Massimo Trusel, Tiziano Catelani, Roberto Marotta, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Jocelyne Caboche, Alessandro Gozzi, Massimo Pasqualetti, Raffaella Tonini
Monoaminergic modulation of cortical and thalamic inputs to the dorsal striatum (DS) is crucial for reward-based learning and action control. While dopamine has been extensively investigated in this context, the synaptic effects of serotonin (5-HT) have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how serotonergic signaling affects associative plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on the striatal projection neurons of the direct pathway (dSPNs). Combining chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches reveals that impeding serotonergic signaling preferentially gates spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at thalamostriatal synapses...
April 25, 2018: Neuron
Felipe V Gomes, Jessica R Edelson, David W Volk, Anthony A Grace
Altered cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) expression has been reported in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia, a developmental mental illness that usually emerges in late adolescence/early adulthood. However, the developmental period at which changes in the CB1R expression appear in schizophrenia is unknown. To gain insight into this factor, we assessed the postnatal developmental trajectory of CB1R expression in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia. Using in situ hybridization with film and grain analyses, CB1R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in multiple brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), secondary motor cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum, dorsal subregions and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, of MAM-treated rats and normal controls at three developmental periods [juvenile - postnatal day (PD) 30; adolescence - PD45; and adulthood - PD85]...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Damien Brevers, Sarah C Herremans, Qinghua He, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Mathieu Petieau, Dimitri Verdonck, Tasha Poppa, Sara De Witte, Charles Kornreich, Antoine Bechara, Chris Baeken
Nowadays, sports betting has become increasingly available and easy to engage in. Here we examined the neural responses to stimuli that represent sporting events available for betting as compared to sporting events without a gambling opportunity. We used a cue exposure task in which football (soccer) fans (N = 42) viewed cues depicting scheduled football games that would occur shortly after the scanning session. In the "betting" condition, participants were instructed to choose, at the end of each block, the game (and the team) they wanted to bet on...
April 26, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ester Nespoli, Francesca Rizzo, Tobias Boeckers, Ulrike Schulze, Bastian Hengerer
Motor tics are sudden, repetitive, involuntary movements representing the hallmark behaviors of the neurodevelopmental disease Tourette's syndrome (TS). The primary cause of TS remains unclear. The initial observation that dopaminergic antagonists alleviate tics led to the development of a dopaminergic theory of TS etiology which is supported by post mortem and in vivo studies indicating that non-physiological activation of the striatum could generate tics. The striatum controls movement execution through the balanced activity of dopamine receptor D1 and D2-expressing medium spiny neurons of the direct and indirect pathway, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Floris G Wouterlood, Angela Engel, Mariah Daal, Gertjan Houwen, Aileen Meinderts, Tomàs Jordà Siquier, Jeroen A M Beliën, Yvette C van Dongen, Jørgen Scheel-Krüger, Anne-Marie Thierry, Henk J Groenewegen, Jean-Michel Deniau
Parallel corticostriatonigral circuits have been proposed that separately process motor, cognitive, and emotional-motivational information. Functional integration requires that interactions exist between neurons participating in these circuits. This makes it imperative to study the complex anatomical substrate underlying corticostriatonigral circuits. It has previously been proposed that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral mesencephalon may play a role in this circuit interaction. Therefore, we studied in rats convergence of basal ganglia circuits by depositing an anterograde neuroanatomical tracer into the ventral striatum together with a retrograde fluorescent tracer ipsilaterally in the dorsolateral striatum...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Kimberly H LeBlanc, Tanisha D London, Ilona Szczot, Miriam E Bocarsly, Danielle M Friend, Katrina P Nguyen, Marda M Mengesha, Marcelo Rubinstein, Veronica A Alvarez, Alexxai V Kravitz
The dorsal striatum has been linked to decision-making under conflict, but the mechanism by which striatal neurons contribute to approach-avoidance conflicts remains unclear. We hypothesized that striatopallidal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-expressing neurons promote avoidance, and tested this hypothesis in two exploratory approach-avoidance conflict paradigms in mice: the elevated zero maze and open field. Genetic elimination of D2Rs on striatopallidal neurons (iMSNs), but not other neural populations, increased avoidance of the open areas in both tasks, in a manner that was dissociable from global changes in movement...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
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