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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088645/towards-solving-the-hard-problem-of-consciousness-the-varieties-of-brain-resonances-and-the-conscious-experiences-that-they-support
#1
Stephen Grossberg
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how we experience qualia or phenomenal experiences, such as seeing, hearing, and feeling, and knowing what they are. To solve this problem, a theory of consciousness needs to link brain to mind by modeling how emergent properties of several brain mechanisms interacting together embody detailed properties of individual conscious psychological experiences. This article summarizes evidence that Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, accomplishes this goal...
December 6, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080969/an-active-inference-theory-of-allostasis-and-interoception-in-depression
#2
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S Quigley, Paul Hamilton
In this paper, we integrate recent theoretical and empirical developments in predictive coding and active inference accounts of interoception (including the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model) with working hypotheses from the theory of constructed emotion to propose a biologically plausible unified theory of the mind that places metabolism and energy regulation (i.e. allostasis), as well as the sensory consequences of that regulation (i.e. interoception), at its core. We then consider the implications of this approach for understanding depression...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#3
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078359/in-touch-with-mental-rotation-interactions-between-mental-and-tactile-rotations-and-motor-responses
#4
Johannes Lohmann, Bettina Rolke, Martin V Butz
Although several process models have described the cognitive processing stages that are involved in mentally rotating objects, the exact nature of the rotation process itself remains elusive. According to embodied cognition, cognitive functions are deeply grounded in the sensorimotor system. We thus hypothesized that modal rotation perceptions should influence mental rotations. We conducted two studies in which participants had to judge if a rotated letter was visually presented canonically or mirrored. Concurrently, participants had to judge if a tactile rotation on their palm changed direction during the trial...
January 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018283/curling-up-with-a-good-e-book-mother-child-shared-story-reading-on-screen-or-paper-affects-embodied-interaction-and-warmth
#5
Nicola Yuill, Alex F Martin
This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018274/time-series-analysis-of-embodied-interaction-movement-variability-and-complexity-matching-as-dyadic-properties
#6
Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca, Dobromir Dotov, Ruben Fossion, Tom Froese
There is a growing consensus that a fuller understanding of social cognition depends on more systematic studies of real-time social interaction. Such studies require methods that can deal with the complex dynamics taking place at multiple interdependent temporal and spatial scales, spanning sub-personal, personal, and dyadic levels of analysis. We demonstrate the value of adopting an extended multi-scale approach by re-analyzing movement time-series generated in a study of embodied dyadic interaction in a minimal virtual reality environment (a perceptual crossing experiment)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018252/embodied-music-cognition-trouble-ahead-trouble-behind
#7
Jakub R Matyja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018203/computational-properties-of-the-hippocampus-increase-the-efficiency-of-goal-directed-foraging-through-hierarchical-reinforcement-learning
#8
Eric Chalmers, Artur Luczak, Aaron J Gruber
The mammalian brain is thought to use a version of Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL) to guide "goal-directed" behavior, wherein animals consider goals and make plans to acquire desired outcomes. However, conventional MBRL algorithms do not fully explain animals' ability to rapidly adapt to environmental changes, or learn multiple complex tasks. They also require extensive computation, suggesting that goal-directed behavior is cognitively expensive. We propose here that key features of processing in the hippocampus support a flexible MBRL mechanism for spatial navigation that is computationally efficient and can adapt quickly to change...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017838/the-embodied-mind-a-review-on-functional-genomic-and-neurological-correlates-of-mind-body-therapies
#9
REVIEW
David Muehsam, Susan Lutgendorf, Paul J Mills, Badri Rickhi, Gaétan Chevalier, Namuun Bat, Deepak Chopra, Blake Gurfein
A broad range of mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used by the public today, and a growing body of clinical and basic sciences research has resulted in evidence-based integration of many MBTs into clinical practice. Basic sciences research has identified some of the physiological correlates of MBT practices, leading to a better understanding of the processes by which emotional, cognitive and psychosocial factors can influence health outcomes and well-being. In particular, results from functional genomics and neuroimaging describe some of the processes involved in the mind-body connection and how these can influence health outcomes...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999558/an-embodied-approach-to-understanding-making-sense-of-the-world-through-simulated-bodily-activity
#10
REVIEW
Firat Soylu
Even though understanding is a very widely used concept, both colloquially and in scholarly work, its definition is nebulous and it is not well-studied as a psychological construct, compared to other psychological constructs like learning and memory. Studying understanding based on third-person (e.g., behavioral, neuroimaging) data alone presents unique challenges. Understanding refers to a first-person experience of making sense of an event or a conceptual domain, and therefore requires incorporation of multiple levels of study, at the first-person (phenomenological), behavioral, and neural levels...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959914/learning-new-sensorimotor-contingencies-effects-of-long-term-use-of-sensory-augmentation-on-the-brain-and-conscious-perception
#11
Sabine U König, Frank Schumann, Johannes Keyser, Caspar Goeke, Carina Krause, Susan Wache, Aleksey Lytochkin, Manuel Ebert, Vincent Brunsch, Basil Wahn, Kai Kaspar, Saskia K Nagel, Tobias Meilinger, Heinrich Bülthoff, Thomas Wolbers, Christian Büchel, Peter König
Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927731/advancing-an-ethic-of-embodied-relational-sexuality-to-guide-decision-making-in-dementia-care
#12
Alisa Grigorovich, Pia Kontos
Sexuality and intimacy are universal needs that transcend age, cognitive decline, and disability; sexuality is a fundamental aspect of the human experience. However, supporting sexuality in long-term residential care presents ethical challenges as this setting is both a home environment for residents and a workplace for health practitioners. This is particularly complex in the case of residents with dementia given the need to balance protection from harm and freedom of self-determination. Despite such complexity, this challenge has received limited critical theoretical attention...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920670/two-visual-pathways-in-primates-based-on-sampling-of-space-exploitation-and-exploration-of-visual-information
#13
Bhavin R Sheth, Ryan Young
Evidence is strong that the visual pathway is segregated into two distinct streams-ventral and dorsal. Two proposals theorize that the pathways are segregated in function: The ventral stream processes information about object identity, whereas the dorsal stream, according to one model, processes information about either object location, and according to another, is responsible in executing movements under visual control. The models are influential; however recent experimental evidence challenges them, e.g., the ventral stream is not solely responsible for object recognition; conversely, its function is not strictly limited to object vision; the dorsal stream is not responsible by itself for spatial vision or visuomotor control; conversely, its function extends beyond vision or visuomotor control...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912072/lexical-retrieval-and-semantic-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-question-of-noun-and-verb-dissociation
#14
Henrique Salmazo-Silva, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Sheila Rocha, Roberta Roque Baradel, André M Cravo, João Ricardo Sato, Fabio Godinho, Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart
The dissociation between the processing of verbs and nouns has been debated in light of the Embodied Cognition Theory (EC). The objective of this paper is to verify how action and verb processing deficits of PD patients are modulated by different tasks with different cognitive demands. Action and object lexical-semantic processing was evaluated in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and cognitively healthy controls through three different tasks (verbal fluency, naming and semantic association). Compared to controls, PD patients presented worse performance in naming actions and in the two semantic association tasks (action/object)...
November 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882680/reconciling-conceptualisations-of-the-body-and-person-centred-care-of-the-older-person-with-cognitive-impairment-in-the-acute-care-setting
#15
Carole Rushton, David Edvardsson
In this article, we sought reconciliation between the "body-as-representation" and the "body-as-experience," that is, how the body is represented in discourse and how the body of older people with cognitive impairment is experienced. We identified four contemporary "technologies" and gave examples of these to show how they influence how older people with cognitive impairment are often represented in acute care settings. We argued that these technologies may be mediated further by discourses of ageism and ableism which can potentiate either the repressive or productive tendencies of these technologies resulting in either positive or negative care experiences for the older person and/or their carer, including nurses...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882594/-cuts-in-action-a-high-density-eeg-study-investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-different-editing-techniques-in-film
#16
Katrin S Heimann, Sebo Uithol, Marta Calbi, Maria A Umiltà, Michele Guerra, Vittorio Gallese
In spite of their striking differences with real-life perception, films are perceived and understood without effort. Cognitive film theory attributes this to the system of continuity editing, a system of editing guidelines outlining the effect of different cuts and edits on spectators. A major principle in this framework is the 180° rule, a rule recommendation that, to avoid spectators' attention to the editing, two edited shots of the same event or action should not be filmed from angles differing in a way that expectations of spatial continuity are strongly violated...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860038/-i-m-worried-about-getting-water-in-the-holes-in-my-head-a-phenomenological-psychology-case-study-of-the-experience-of-undergoing-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-for-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Virginia Eatough, Karen Shaw
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a form of biotechnological surgery which has had considerable success for the motor improvement of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Paradoxically, this observed motor improvement is not matched with improved psychosocial adjustment. This study contributes to a small but growing body of research aiming to understand this paradox. We conclude by discussing these aspects from a phenomenological and health psychology understanding of decision-making, human affectivity, and embodiment...
February 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853431/developing-dynamic-field-theory-architectures-for-embodied-cognitive-systems-with-cedar
#18
Oliver Lomp, Mathis Richter, Stephan K U Zibner, Gregor Schöner
Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852170/parental-embodied-mentalizing-how-the-nonverbal-dance-between-parents-and-infants-predicts-children-s-socio-emotional-functioning
#19
Dana Shai, Jay Belsky
Parental mentalizing - the parent's ability to envision the child's mental states (such as desires, thoughts, or wishes) - has been argued to underlie a parent's ability to respond sensitively to their child's emotional needs, and thereby promote advantageous cognitive and socio-emotional development. Mentalizing is typically operationalized in terms of how parents talk to or about their infants. This work extends research on mentalizing by operationalizing parental mentalizing exclusively in terms of nonverbal, bodily based, interactive behavior, namely parental embodied mentalizing(PEM)...
November 16, 2016: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833651/embodiment-and-human-development
#20
Peter J Marshall
We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development...
December 2016: Child Development Perspectives
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