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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785732/the-mental-representation-of-human-action
#1
Sydney Levine, Alan M Leslie, John Mikhail
Various theories of moral cognition posit that moral intuitions can be understood as the output of a computational process performed over structured mental representations of human action. We propose that action plan diagrams-"act trees"-can be a useful tool for theorists to succinctly and clearly present their hypotheses about the information contained in these representations. We then develop a methodology for using a series of linguistic probes to test the theories embodied in the act trees. In Study 1, we validate the method by testing a specific hypothesis (diagrammed by act trees) about how subjects are representing two classic moral dilemmas and finding that the data support the hypothesis...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#2
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779740/the-influence-of-sensorimotor-experience-on-the-aesthetic-evaluation-of-dance-across-the-life-span
#3
Louise P Kirsch, Emily S Cross
Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777676/cognitive-effects-of-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-p300-study
#4
Juan Lei, Nadine Conradi, Cornelius Abel, Stefan Frisch, Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Marcel Hildner, Christian A Kell, Jochen Kaiser, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may compensate dysfunctions of the basal ganglia (BG), involved with intrinsic evaluation of temporal intervals and action initiation or continuation. In the cognitive domain, RAS containing periodically presented tones facilitates young healthy participants' attention allocation to anticipated time points, indicated by better performance and larger P300 amplitudes to periodic compared to random stimuli. Additionally, active auditory-motor synchronization (AMS) leads to a more precise temporal encoding of stimuli via embodied timing encoding than stimulus presentation adapted to the participants' actual movements...
May 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776734/taking-into-consideration-explanations-of-perception-action-interactions-that-may-be-less-dramatic-but-more-reflective-of-what-happens-in-the-real-world
#5
Robert W Proctor, Aiping Xiong
Bruce Bridgeman and colleagues reported the first experiments providing evidence of two functionally distinct visual-processing systems. We summarize that work and subsequent research that resulted in modifications of this view. Then, we describe studies of stimulus-response correspondence effects that provide evidence for distinct representations of responses. More recently, Bridgeman and colleagues examined whether "action affects perception", concluding that the phenomena can be more accurately construed as "information affects memory"...
May 15, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769565/adaptation-to-criticality-through-organizational-invariance-in-embodied-agents
#6
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia
Many biological and cognitive systems do not operate deep within one or other regime of activity. Instead, they are poised at critical points located at phase transitions in their parameter space. The pervasiveness of criticality suggests that there may be general principles inducing this behaviour, yet there is no well-founded theory for understanding how criticality is generated at a wide span of levels and contexts. In order to explore how criticality might emerge from general adaptive mechanisms, we propose a simple learning rule that maintains an internal organizational structure from a specific family of systems at criticality...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765313/can-tai-chi-and-qigong-postures-shape-our-mood-toward-an-embodied-cognition-framework-for-mind-body-research
#7
Kamila Osypiuk, Evan Thompson, Peter M Wayne
Dynamic and static body postures are a defining characteristic of mind-body practices such as Tai Chi and Qigong (TCQ). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that TCQ may be beneficial for psychological health, including management and prevention of depression and anxiety. Although a variety of causal factors have been identified as potential mediators of such health benefits, physical posture, despite its visible prominence, has been largely overlooked. We hypothesize that body posture while standing and/or moving may be a key therapeutic element mediating the influence of TCQ on psychological health...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765311/altered-sense-of-body-ownership-and-agency-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype-a-rubber-hand-illusion-study
#8
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735206/dementia-and-the-gender-trouble-theorising-dementia-gendered-subjectivity-and-embodiment
#9
Linn J Sandberg
Despite person-centred approaches increasingly focusing on looking at the person in dementia instead of the pathology, the role of gender in dementia has been little explored. This article discusses how pervasive discourses on a loss of self and dementia as abject are interwoven with a de-gendering of persons with dementia. The cultural anxiety that dementia evokes in terms of loss of bodily and cognitive control could also be linked to a failure to normatively and intelligibly express gender when living with dementia...
June 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734039/what-neuromodulation-and-lesion-studies-tell-us-about-the-function-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-embodied-cognition
#10
REVIEW
Christian Keysers, Riccardo Paracampo, Valeria Gazzola
We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new themes. First, focal perturbations of a node of that circuit lead to changes across all nodes. Second, primary somatosensory cortex is an integral part of this network suggesting embodied representations are somatosensory-motor...
April 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733663/concepts-control-and-context-a-connectionist-account-of-normal-and-disordered-semantic-cognition
#11
Paul Hoffman, James L McClelland, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Semantic cognition requires conceptual representations shaped by verbal and nonverbal experience and executive control processes that regulate activation of knowledge to meet current situational demands. A complete model must also account for the representation of concrete and abstract words, of taxonomic and associative relationships, and for the role of context in shaping meaning. We present the first major attempt to assimilate all of these elements within a unified, implemented computational framework. Our model combines a hub-and-spoke architecture with a buffer that allows its state to be influenced by prior context...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731730/editorial-embodied-cognition-over-the-lifespan-theoretical-issues-and-implications-for-applied-settings
#12
EDITORIAL
Annalisa Setti, Anna M Borghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725348/dynamic-neuro-cognitive-imagery-improves-mental-imagery-ability-disease-severity-and-motor-and-cognitive-functions-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Amit Abraham, Ariel Hart, Isaac Andrade, Madeleine E Hackney
People with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience kinesthetic deficits, which affect motor and nonmotor functions, including mental imagery. Imagery training is a recommended, yet underresearched, approach in PD rehabilitation. Dynamic Neuro-Cognitive Imagery (DNI™) is a codified method for imagery training. Twenty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III) were randomly allocated into DNI training (experimental; n = 10) or in-home learning and exercise program (control; n = 10). Both groups completed at least 16 hours of training within two weeks...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723600/cognitive-training-with-action-related-verbs-induces-neural-plasticity-in-the-action-representation-system-as-assessed-by-gray-matter-brain-morphometry
#14
Marta Ghio, Matteo Locatelli, Andrea Tettamanti, Daniela Perani, Roberto Gatti, Marco Tettamanti
Embodied cognition theories of semantic memory still face the need for multiple sources of converging evidence in support of the involvement of sensory-motor systems in action-related knowledge. Previous studies showed that training manual actions improves semantic processing of verbs referring to the trained actions. The present work aimed to provide complementary evidence by measuring the brain plasticity effects of a cognitive training requiring sustained lexical-semantic processing of action-related verbs...
April 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709765/pointing-perception-is-precise
#15
S M Cooney, N Brady, A McKinney
The spontaneity and ease with which we point understates the gesture's significance to understanding cognition. Onset of pointing in infancy predicts early word acquisition and signals a capacity for shared intentionality. Yet, notwithstanding its importance, there is little research on the perception of pointing and its referents. Here we show that perceptual acuity for discerning where another person is pointing is remarkably accurate. Thresholds, as low as 0.5° of visual angle across an interpersonal distance of ∼2 m, are modulated by the referent's location in space and the hand used to point and remain constant when the pointer's eyes are occluded from view and when 'embodiment' cues are enhanced or minimized...
April 27, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707860/narrative-intelligence-in-nursing-storying-patient-lives-in-dementia-care
#16
Gary Witham, Carol Haigh
This paper examines narrative approaches to care within the context of dementia. It reviews the function of stories and explores some of the narrative genres that shape the cultural perceptions of dementia. We argue that narrative intelligence within healthcare is an important element in nurturing communal self-identity for people living with dementia. Listening and responding to stories and the cultural framework that this encompasses is an embodied action that is not just related to cognitive recall but situates us within a cultural community...
April 29, 2018: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700312/action-and-object-words-are-differentially-anchored-in-the-sensory-motor-system-a-perspective-on-cognitive-embodiment
#17
Houpand Horoufchin, Danilo Bzdok, Giovanni Buccino, Anna M Borghi, Ferdinand Binkofski
Embodied and grounded cognition theories have assumed that the sensorimotor system is causally involved in processing motor-related language content. Although a causal proof on a single-cell basis is ethically not possible today, the present fMRI study provides confirmation of this longstanding speculation, as far as it is possible with recent methods, employing a new computational approach. More specifically, we were looking for common activation of nouns and objects, and actions and verbs, representing the canonical and mirror neuron system, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698082/phenomenological-inquiry-into-phoenix-rising-yoga-therapy
#18
Jenilee Sneed, Tonya Hammer
There is growing recognition within psychology and other disciplines that body experience may be as important as cognitive and emotional experience. However, psychology has few psychotherapeutic interventions to support the integration of mind and body within therapy. Phoenix Rising Yoga Therapy (PRYT) is a form of mind-body therapy that uses yoga posture, touch, and psychotherapeutic dialogue to facilitate growth and healing. The current study explored the phenomenological experience of four women who each received five PRYT sessions...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692896/literary-reading-and-eating-disorders-survey-evidence-of-therapeutic-help-and-harm
#19
Emily T Troscianko
Background: There is growing evidence for the efficacy of self-help bibliotherapy as a treatment for eating disorders, although little understanding of how specific linguistic characteristics may enhance or constrain its effects. Meanwhile, 'creative bibliotherapy' (the therapeutic use of fiction, poetry, or sometimes film, rather than self-help books) is widely practised, but even more poorly understood than the self-help variety: although a range of theoretical models exist, claims of the healing power of literature are far more commonly made than tested...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685747/four-domains-the-fundamental-unicell-and-post-darwinian-cognition-based-evolution
#20
William B Miller, John S Torday
Contemporary research supports the viewpoint that self-referential cognition is the proper definition of life. From that initiating platform, a cohesive alternative evolutionary narrative distinct from standard Neodarwinism can be presented. Cognition-Based Evolution contends that biological variation is a product of a self-reinforcing information cycle that derives from self-referential attachment to biological information space-time with its attendant ambiguities. That information cycle is embodied through obligatory linkages among energy, biological information, and communication...
April 13, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
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