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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727724/grandmothering-and-cognitive-resources-are-required-for-the-emergence-of-menopause-and-extensive-post-reproductive-lifespan
#1
Carla Aimé, Jean-Baptiste André, Michel Raymond
Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in humans well before the end of the expected lifespan, leading to an extensive post-reproductive period which remains a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. All human populations display this particularity; thus, it is difficult to empirically evaluate the conditions for its emergence. In this study, we used artificial neural networks to model the emergence and evolution of allocation decisions related to reproduction in simulated populations. When allocation decisions were allowed to freely evolve, both menopause and extensive post-reproductive life-span emerged under some ecological conditions...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725678/hands-on-experience-can-lead-to-systematic-mistakes-a-study-on-adults-understanding-of-sinking-objects
#2
Ramón D Castillo, Talia Waltzer, Heidi Kloos
In line with theories of embodied cognition, hands-on experience is typically assumed to support learning. In the current paper, we explored this issue within the science domain of sinking objects. Adults had to make a guess about which of two objects in a pair would sink faster. The crucial manipulation was whether participants were handed real-life objects (real-objects condition) or were shown static images of objects (static-images condition). Results of Experiment 1 revealed more systematic mistakes in the real-objects than the static-images condition...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725095/with-whom-do-researchers-collaborate-and-why
#3
Hajdeja Iglič, Patrick Doreian, Luka Kronegger, Anuška Ferligoj
Although research collaboration has been studied extensively, we still lack understanding regarding the factors stimulating researchers to collaborate with different kinds of research partners including members of the same research center or group, researchers from the same organization, researchers from other academic and non-academic organizations as well as international partners. Here, we provide an explanation of the emergence of diverse collaborative ties. The theoretical framework used for understanding research collaboration couples scientific and technical human capital embodied in the individual with the social organization and cognitive characteristics of the research field...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713451/words-that-move-us-the-effects-of-sentences-on-body-sway
#4
John F Stins, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Femke Hulzinga, Eric Wenker, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
According to the embodied cognition perspective, cognitive systems and perceptuo-motor systems are deeply intertwined and exert a causal effect on each other. A prediction following from this idea is that cognitive activity can result in subtle changes in observable movement. In one experiment, we tested whether reading various sentences resulted in changes in postural sway. Sentences symbolized various human activities involving high, low, or no physical effort. Dutch participants stood upright on a force plate, measuring the body center of pressure, while reading a succession of sentences...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701903/an-embodiment-perspective-on-number-space-mapping-in-3-5-year-old-dutch-children
#5
Jaccoline E van 't Noordende, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if counting and adding/subtracting direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance. Forty-eight 3.5-year-old children completed a block adding, subtracting and counting task...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690554/white-lies-in-hand-are-other-oriented-lies-modified-by-hand-gestures-possibly-not
#6
Katarzyna Cantarero, Michal Parzuchowski, Karolina Dukala
Previous studies have shown that the hand-over-heart gesture is related to being more honest as opposed to using self-centered dishonesty. We assumed that the hand-over-heart gesture would also relate to other-oriented dishonesty, though the latter differs highly from self-centered lying. In Study 1 (N = 79), we showed that performing a hand-over-heart gesture diminished the tendency to use other-oriented white lies and that the fingers crossed behind one's back gesture was not related to higher dishonesty...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667328/eeg-correlates-of-sensorimotor-processing-independent-components-involved-in-sensory-and-motor-processing
#7
Andrew Melnik, W David Hairston, Daniel P Ferris, Peter König
Sensorimotor processing is a critical function of the human brain with multiple cortical areas specialised for sensory recognition or motor execution. Although there has been considerable research into sensorimotor control in humans, the steps between sensory recognition and motor execution are not fully understood. To provide insight into brain areas responsible for sensorimotor computation, we used complex categorization-response tasks (variations of a Stroop task requiring recognition, decision-making, and motor responses) to test the hypothesis that some functional modules are participating in both sensory as well as motor processing...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655877/mammalian-empathy-behavioural-manifestations-and-neural-basis
#8
REVIEW
Frans B M de Waal, Stephanie D Preston
Recent research on empathy in humans and other mammals seeks to dissociate emotional and cognitive empathy. These forms, however, remain interconnected in evolution, across species and at the level of neural mechanisms. New data have facilitated the development of empathy models such as the perception-action model (PAM) and mirror-neuron theories. According to the PAM, the emotional states of others are understood through personal, embodied representations that allow empathy and accuracy to increase based on the observer's past experiences...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637913/predicting-green-really-radical-plant-predictive-processing
#9
Paco Calvo, Karl Friston
In this article we account for the way plants respond to salient features of their environment under the free-energy principle for biological systems. Biological self-organization amounts to the minimization of surprise over time. We posit that any self-organizing system must embody a generative model whose predictions ensure that (expected) free energy is minimized through action. Plants respond in a fast, and yet coordinated manner, to environmental contingencies. They pro-actively sample their local environment to elicit information with an adaptive value...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633620/reversing-the-manual-digit-bias-in-two-digit-number-comparison
#10
Thomas J Faulkenberry, Alexander Cruise, Samuel Shaki
Though recent work in numerical cognition has supported a strong tie between numerical and spatial representations (e.g., a mental number line), less is known about such ties in multi-digit number representations. Along this line, Bloechle, Huber, and Moeller (2015) found that pointing positions in two-digit number comparison were biased leftward toward the decade digit. Moreover, this bias was reduced in unit-decade incompatible pairs. In the present study, we tracked computer mouse movements as participants compared two-digit numbers to a fixed standard (55)...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#11
Albert R Powers, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626341/intercorporeality-and-aida-developing-an-interaction-theory-of-social-cognition
#12
Shogo Tanaka
The aim of this article is to develop an interaction theory (IT) of social cognition. The central issue in the field of social cognition has been theory of mind (ToM), and there has been debate regarding its nature as either theory-theory or as simulation theory. Insights from phenomenology have brought a second-person perspective based on embodied interactions into the debate, thereby forming a third position known as IT. In this article, I examine how IT can be further elaborated by drawing on two phenomenological notions-Merleau-Ponty's intercorporeality and Kimura's aida...
June 2017: Theory & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625346/the-role-of-the-motor-system-in-action-naming-in-patients-with-neurodegenerative-extrapyramidal-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Maria Cotelli, Rosa Manenti, Michela Brambilla, Barbara Borroni
Previous studies of patients with brain damage have suggested a close relationship between aphasia and movement disorders. Neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes associated with cognitive impairment provide an interesting model for studying the neural substrates of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this review, we focused on studies investigating language production abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). According to some reports, these patients exhibit a reduction in performance in both action and object naming or verb production compared to healthy individuals...
May 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601710/evolution-of-word-meanings-through-metaphorical-mapping-systematicity-over-the-past-millennium
#14
Yang Xu, Barbara C Malt, Mahesh Srinivasan
One way that languages are able to communicate a potentially infinite set of ideas through a finite lexicon is by compressing emerging meanings into words, such that over time, individual words come to express multiple, related senses of meaning. We propose that overarching communicative and cognitive pressures have created systematic directionality in how new metaphorical senses have developed from existing word senses over the history of English. Given a large set of pairs of semantic domains, we used computational models to test which domains have been more commonly the starting points (source domains) and which the ending points (target domains) of metaphorical mappings over the past millennium...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588543/commentary-the-poverty-of-embodied-cognition
#15
COMMENT
Kinga Wołoszyn, Mateusz Hohol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588463/looking-for-the-self-phenomenology-neurophysiology-and-philosophical-significance-of-drug-induced-ego-dissolution
#16
Raphaël Millière
There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585737/a-new-measure-of-hallucinatory-states-and-a-discussion-of-rem-sleep-dreaming-as-a-virtual-laboratory-for-the-rehearsal-of-embodied-cognition
#17
Clemens Speth, Jana Speth
Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to (a) motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and (b) cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory state...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582683/action-recognition-is-sensitive-to-the-identity-of-the-actor
#18
Ylva Ferstl, Heinrich Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Recognizing who is carrying out an action is essential for successful human interaction. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this ability are little understood and have been subject of discussions in embodied approaches to action recognition. Here we examine one solution, that visual action recognition processes are at least partly sensitive to the actor's identity. We investigated the dependency between identity information and action related processes by testing the sensitivity of neural action recognition processes to clothing and facial identity information with a behavioral adaptation paradigm...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#19
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#20
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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