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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#1
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321194/mindfulness-and-emotion-regulation-insights-from-neurobiological-psychological-and-clinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
Simón Guendelman, Sebastián Medeiros, Hagen Rampes
There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294145/humans-conceptualize-victory-and-defeat-in-body-size
#3
Wenjun Yu, Zhongqiang Sun, Jifan Zhou, Chaoer Xu, Mowei Shen
Size matters considerably for victory and defeat during competitive situations. Drawing on the embodied theory of cognition, we examined the reciprocal association between size and competition outcomes. To do so, we used the 'rock-paper-scissors game', whose outcome is not contingent on apparent physical size. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the target gesture was a winning or a losing one. Compared to responses in the incompatible condition (small-winner and large-loser), those in the compatible condition (large-winner and small-loser) were quicker...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289397/are-older-adults-less-embodied-a-review-of-age-effects-through-the-lens-of-embodied-cognition
#4
REVIEW
Matthew C Costello, Emily K Bloesch
Embodied cognition is a theoretical framework which posits that cognitive function is intimately intertwined with the body and physical actions. Although the field of psychology is increasingly accepting embodied cognition as a viable theory, it has rarely been employed in the gerontological literature. However, embodied cognition would appear to have explanatory power for aging research given that older adults typically manifest concurrent physical and mental changes, and that research has indicated a correlative relationship between such changes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286487/empathy-related-responses-to-depicted-people-in-art-works
#5
Ladislav Kesner, Jiří Horáček
Existing theories of empathic response to visual art works postulate the primacy of automatic embodied reaction to images based on mirror neuron mechanisms. Arguing for a more inclusive concept of empathy-related response and integrating four distinct bodies of literature, we discuss contextual, and personal factors which modulate empathic response to depicted people. We then present an integrative model of empathy-related responses to depicted people in art works. The model assumes that a response to empathy-eliciting figural artworks engages the dynamic interaction of two mutually interlinked sets of processes: socio-affective/cognitive processing, related to the person perception, and esthetic processing, primarily concerned with esthetic appreciation and judgment and attention to non-social aspects of the image...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286214/cognitive-status-in-the-oldest-old-and-centenarians-a-condition-crucial-for-quality-of-life-methodologically-difficult-to-assess
#6
REVIEW
Beatrice Arosio, Rita Ostan, Daniela Mari, Sarah Damanti, Francesco Ronchetti, Sara Arcudi, Maria Scurti, Claudio Franceschi, Daniela Monti
Human life expectancy and the number of the oldest old are rapidly increasing worldwide. Advanced age is the main risk factor for dementia, representing one of the major causes of disability/dependency among older people with a strong impact on their families/caregivers. Centenarians have reached the extreme limits of human life escaping or delaying the major age-related diseases. Thus, these extraordinary individuals embody the best model to answer the crucial question if cognitive decline and dementia are progressive and unavoidable occurrences of increasing age...
March 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280771/support-of-mathematical-thinking-through-embodied-cognition-nondigital-and-digital-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Cathy Tran, Brandon Smith, Martin Buschkuehl
Research on mathematics education has shown that learners' actions can influence how they think and vice versa. Much of this work has been rooted in the use of manipulatives, gestures, and body movements. Our article dissects the mechanisms that underscore the impact of embodied activities and applies this lens to explore how to harness the affordances of new technology to enhance mathematical thinking. This is especially crucial given the increasing accessibility of technology-such as digital touch devices, 3D printers, and location sensors-for constructing embodied experiences...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275706/think3d-improving-mathematics-learning-through-embodied-spatial-training
#8
Heather Burte, Aaron L Gardony, Allyson Hutton, Holly A Taylor
Spatial thinking skills positively relate to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outcomes, but spatial training is largely absent in elementary school. Elementary school is a time when children develop foundational cognitive skills that will support STEM learning throughout their education. Spatial thinking should be considered a foundational cognitive skill. The present research examined the impact of an embodied spatial training program on elementary students' spatial and mathematical thinking...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253002/the-grounded-nature-of-psychological-perspective-taking
#9
Thorsten M Erle, Sascha Topolinski
Psychological perspective-taking is a powerful social cognition that helps us to understand other people. It creates feelings of closeness and sympathy, motivates us to help others, and is important for positive social relationships. In contrast to the impressive knowledge about its consequences, relatively little is known about how exactly people achieve them. The present paper addresses this question from a grounded cognition perspective, drawing on recent findings on the embodiment of visuospatial perspective-taking...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247203/discovering-the-neural-nature-of-moral-cognition-empirical-theoretical-and-practical-challenges-in-bioethical-research-with-electroencephalography-eeg
#10
Nils-Frederic Wagner, Pedro Chaves, Annemarie Wolff
In this article we critically review the neural mechanisms of moral cognition that have recently been studied via electroencephalography (EEG). Such studies promise to shed new light on traditional moral questions by helping us to understand how effective moral cognition is embodied in the brain. It has been argued that conflicting normative ethical theories require different cognitive features and can, accordingly, in a broadly conceived naturalistic attempt, be associated with different brain processes that are rooted in different brain networks and regions...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242730/behavioural-and-computational-varieties-of-response-inhibition-in-eye-movements
#11
REVIEW
Vassilis Cutsuridis
Response inhibition is the ability to override a planned or an already initiated response. It is the hallmark of executive control as its deficits favour impulsive behaviours, which may be detrimental to an individual's life. This article reviews behavioural and computational guises of response inhibition. It focuses only on inhibition of oculomotor responses. It first reviews behavioural paradigms of response inhibition in eye movement research, namely the countermanding and antisaccade paradigms, both proven to be useful tools for the study of response inhibition in cognitive neuroscience and psychopathology...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237024/missing-mediated-interruptions-in-manual-assembly-critical-aspects-of-breakpoint-selection
#12
Ari Kolbeinsson, Jessica Lindblom, Peter Thorvald
The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228739/touchscreen-tablets-coordinating-action-and-perception-for-mathematical-cognition
#13
Carolien A C G Duijzer, Shakila Shayan, Arthur Bakker, Marieke F Van der Schaaf, Dor Abrahamson
Proportional reasoning is important and yet difficult for many students, who often use additive strategies, where multiplicative strategies are better suited. In our research we explore the potential of an interactive touchscreen tablet application to promote proportional reasoning by creating conditions that steer students toward multiplicative strategies. The design of this application (Mathematical Imagery Trainer) was inspired by arguments from embodied-cognition theory that mathematical understanding is grounded in sensorimotor schemes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224689/acquisition-of-abstract-concepts-is-influenced-by-emotional-valence
#14
Marta Ponari, Courtenay Frazier Norbury, Gabriella Vigliocco
There is considerable lack of evidence concerning the linguistic and cognitive skills underpinning abstract vocabulary acquisition. The present study considers the role of emotional valence in providing an embodied learning experience in which to anchor abstract meanings. First, analyses of adult ratings of age-of-acquisition, concreteness and valence demonstrate that abstract words acquired early tend to be emotionally valenced. Second, auditory Lexical Decision accuracies of children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years (n = 20 per group) complement these analyses, demonstrating that emotional valence facilitates processing of abstract words, but not concrete...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222382/corporeal-illusions-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injuries
#15
Michele Scandola, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Renato Avesani, Gianettore Bertagnoni, Anna Marangoni, Valentina Moro
While several studies have investigated corporeal illusions in patients who have suffered from a stroke or undergone an amputation, only anecdotal or single case reports have explored this phenomenon after spinal cord injury. Here we examine various different types of bodily misperceptions in a comparatively large group of 49 people with spinal cord injury in the post-acute and chronic phases after the traumatic lesion onset. An extensive battery of questionnaires concerning a variety of body related feelings was administered and the results were correlated to the main clinical variables...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220954/is-god-just-a-big-person-children-s-conceptions-of-god-across-cultures-and-religious-traditions
#16
Melanie A Nyhof, Carl N Johnson
The present research examines the influence of intuitive cognitive domain and religion on the God concepts of children growing up in religious traditions that present God in ways varying from abstract to concrete. In Study 1, we compared children from a Latter-Day Saints (LDS) background with those from mainstream Christian (MC) backgrounds in the United States. In contrast to MC theology that holds that God is all-knowing, all-powerful, and disembodied, LDS theology depicts God as embodied. In Study 1, 3- to 7-year-olds from LDS and MC backgrounds were asked about supernatural mental and immaterial attributes of God, a ghost, a dad, and a bug...
March 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217739/grounded-and-embodied-mathematical-cognition-promoting-mathematical-insight-and-proof-using-action-and-language
#17
Mitchell J Nathan, Candace Walkington
We develop a theory of grounded and embodied mathematical cognition (GEMC) that draws on action-cognition transduction for advancing understanding of how the body can support mathematical reasoning. GEMC proposes that participants' actions serve as inputs capable of driving the cognition-action system toward associated cognitive states. This occurs through a process of transduction that promotes valuable mathematical insights by eliciting dynamic depictive gestures that enact spatio-temporal properties of mathematical entities...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203635/grounded-understanding-of-abstract-concepts-the-case-of-stem-learning
#18
REVIEW
Justin C Hayes, David J M Kraemer
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194106/reacog-a-minimal-cognitive-controller-based-on-recruitment-of-reactive-systems
#19
Malte Schilling, Holk Cruse
It has often been stated that for a neuronal system to become a cognitive one, it has to be large enough. In contrast, we argue that a basic property of a cognitive system, namely the ability to plan ahead, can already be fulfilled by small neuronal systems. As a proof of concept, we propose an artificial neural network, termed reaCog, that, first, is able to deal with a specific domain of behavior (six-legged-walking). Second, we show how a minor expansion of this system enables the system to plan ahead and deploy existing behavioral elements in novel contexts in order to solve current problems...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189047/eeg-beta-power-changes-reflect-motor-involvement-in-abstract-action-language-processing
#20
Franziska Schaller, Sabine Weiss, Horst M Müller
Brain oscillations in the α- and β-range become suppressed during motor processing and motor imagery. It has recently been discussed that such power changes also occur during action language processing. In our study, we compared β2-oscillations (16-25Hz) during the observation of prototypical arm movements (revealed via motion tracking) as well as during semantic processing of concrete and abstract sentences containing arm-related action verbs. Whereas we did find a strong desynchronization in the β2-range during action observation, the processing of action sentences evoked a rather weak desynchronization...
May 2017: Brain and Language
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