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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914138/the-role-of-conscious-attention-in-how-weight-serves-as-an-embodiment-of-importance
#1
Colin A Zestcott, Jeff Stone, Mark J Landau
Inconsistency among findings in the embodied cognition literature suggests a need for theoretical boundary conditions. The current research proposes that conscious attention of a bodily state can moderate its influence on social judgment. Three studies tested this possibility in the case of the demonstrated effect of weight sensations on judgments of an abstract idea's importance. Studies 1 and 2 showed that participants rated a topic as more important when holding a moderately heavy, compared with light, clipboard...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892566/brain-heart-interactions-reveal-consciousness-in-non-communicating-patients
#2
Federico Raimondo, Benjamin Rohaut, Athena Demertzi, Melanie Valente, Denis Engemann, Moti Salti, Diego Fernandez Slezak, Lionel Naccache, Jacobo D Sitt
Objective We here aimed at characterizing heart-brain interactions in patients with disorders of consciousness. We tested how this information impacts data-driven classification between unresponsive and minimally conscious patients. Methods A cohort of 127 patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS, n=70) and minimally conscious state (MCS, n=57) were presented with the 'Local-Global' auditory oddball paradigm, which distinguishes two levels of processing: short-term deviation of local auditory regularities and global long-term rule violations...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891356/benefits-and-burdens-family-caregivers-experiences-of-assistive-technology-at-in-everyday-life-with-persons-with-young-onset-dementia-yod
#3
Torhild Holthe, Rita Jentoft, Cathrine Arntzen, Kirsten Thorsen
BACKGROUND: People with dementia and their family caregivers may benefit from assistive technology (AT), but knowledge is scarce about family carers' (FC) experiences and involvement in the use of AT in everyday life. AIM: To examine the FC roles and experiences with AT as means of supporting people with young onset-dementia (YOD). METHOD: Qualitative interview study with follow-up design. Repeated semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FC of people with YOD, participating in an ongoing intervention study investigating the families' use and experiences of AT in everyday life...
September 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890691/predicting-intentions-of-a-familiar-significant-other-beyond-the-mirror-neuron-system
#4
Stephanie Cacioppo, Elsa Juan, George Monteleone
Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS). The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878716/cognitive-mechanisms-underlying-directional-and-non-directional-spatial-numerical-associations-across-the-lifespan
#5
Manuel Ninaus, Korbinian Moeller, Liane Kaufmann, Martin H Fischer, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Guilherme Wood
There is accumulating evidence suggesting an association of numbers with physical space. However, the origin of such spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) is still debated. In the present study we investigated the development of two SNAs in a cross-sectional study involving children, young and middle-aged adults as well as the elderly: (1) the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, reflecting a directional SNA; and (2) the numerical bisection bias in a line bisection task with numerical flankers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873870/-design-for-somebody-approach-enabling-mobile-technology-development
#6
Andrew Sirkka, Sari Merilampi, Antti Koivisto, Janika Tommiska, Tatu-Pekka Saarinen
This paper presents case examples of Design for Somebody (DfS) philosophy used both in developing novel technologies and modifying existing main stream technologies applicable for users with special needs. DfS embodies variety of mobile technology approaches to generate personalised means to enable and motivate physical, cognitive and social skills development.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861011/narrative-constructions-for-the-organization-of-self-experience-proof-of-concept-via-embodied-robotics
#7
Anne-Laure Mealier, Gregoire Pointeau, Solène Mirliaz, Kenji Ogawa, Mark Finlayson, Peter F Dominey
It has been proposed that starting from meaning that the child derives directly from shared experience with others, adult narrative enriches this meaning and its structure, providing causal links between unseen intentional states and actions. This would require a means for representing meaning from experience-a situation model-and a mechanism that allows information to be extracted from sentences and mapped onto the situation model that has been derived from experience, thus enriching that representation. We present a hypothesis and theory concerning how the language processing infrastructure for grammatical constructions can naturally be extended to narrative constructions to provide a mechanism for using language to enrich meaning derived from physical experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856969/an-embodied-and-intersubjective-practice-of-occupational-therapy
#8
Cathrine Arntzen
The literature on clinical reasoning tends to ignore the context and the interaction between patient and therapist. This article outlines a theoretical foundation for an extended mode of clinical reasoning in occupational therapy. Cognitive theories of human action, as well as narrative and instrumental approaches, provide an insufficient picture of the nature of clinical reasoning in occupational therapy practice. An embodied intersubjective clinical reasoning can function as an adjunct to traditional clinical reasoning in occupational therapy practice and is discussed through the concepts of the ambiguous body, incorporation of things, and the process of shared meaning-making...
August 1, 2017: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856948/embodied-valuation-directional-action-is-associated-with-item-values
#9
Danielle J Green, Alison Harris, Aleena Young, Catherine L Reed
We have a lifetime of experience interacting with objects we value. Although many economic theories represent valuation as a purely cognitive process independent of the sensorimotor system, embodied cognitive theory suggests that our memories for items' value should be linked to actions we use to obtain them. Here we investigated whether the value of real items was associated with specific directional movements toward or away from the body. Participants priced a set of food items to determine their values; they then used directional actions to classify each item as high- or low-value...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841747/-psychotherapy-quo-vadis
#10
Gunther Meinlschmidt, Marion Tegethoff
Background: The science and practice of psychotherapy is continuously developing. The goal of this article is to describe new impulses, guiding current advancements in the field. Methods: This paper provides a selective narrative review, synthesizing and condensing relevant literature identified through various sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and "Web of Science", as well as citation tracking, to elaborate key developments in the field of psychotherapy Results: We describe several dynamics: 1) Following up the so-called "third wave of cognitive behavioral therapy", new interventions arise that have at their core fostering interpersonal virtues, such as compassion, forgiveness, and gratitude; 2) Based on technological quantum leaps, new interventions arise that exploit current developments in the field of new media, information, and communication technologies, as well as brain imaging, such as digital interventions for mental disorders and new forms of neurofeedback; 3) Inspired by the field of positive psychology, there is a revival of the promotion of strength and resilience in therapeutic contexts; 4) In light of the new paradigm "precision medicine", the issue of differential and adaptive indication of psychotherapy, addressed with new methods, regains relevance and drives a new field of "precision psychotherapy"...
August 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826604/the-neuroscience-of-body-memory-from-the-self-through-the-space-to-the-others
#11
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
Our experience of the body is not direct; rather, it is mediated by perceptual information, influenced by internal information, and recalibrated through stored implicit and explicit body representation (body memory). This paper presents an overview of the current investigations related to body memory by bringing together recent studies from neuropsychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary and cognitive psychology. To do so, in the paper, I explore the origin of representations of human body to elucidate their developmental process and, in particular, their relationship with more explicit concepts of self...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826515/man-not-a-machine-models-minds-and-mental-labor-c-1980
#12
Max Stadler
This essay is concerned with the fate of the so-called "computer metaphor" of the mind in the age of mass computing. As such, it is concerned with the ways the mighty metaphor of the rational, rule-based, and serial "information processor," which dominated neurological and psychological theorizing in the early post-WW2 era, came apart during the 1970s and 1980s; and how it was, step by step, replaced by a set of model entities more closely in tune with the significance that was now discerned in certain kinds of "everyday practical action" as the ultimate manifestation of the human mind...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818663/a-lightweight-inexpensive-robotic-system-for-insect-vision
#13
Chelsea Sabo, Robert Chisholm, Adam Petterson, Alex Cope
Designing hardware for miniaturized robotics which mimics the capabilities of flying insects is of interest, because they share similar constraints (i.e. small size, low weight, and low energy consumption). Research in this area aims to enable robots with similarly efficient flight and cognitive abilities. Visual processing is important to flying insects' impressive flight capabilities, but currently, embodiment of insect-like visual systems is limited by the hardware systems available. Suitable hardware is either prohibitively expensive, difficult to reproduce, cannot accurately simulate insect vision characteristics, and/or is too heavy for small robotic platforms...
August 31, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813351/motor-heuristics-and-embodied-choices-how-to-choose-and-act
#14
REVIEW
Markus Raab
Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#15
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793239/ghosts-in-machine-learning-for-cognitive-neuroscience-moving-from-data-to-theory
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Carlson, Erin Goddard, David M Kaplan, Colin Klein, J Brendan Ritchie
The application of machine learning methods to neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered the field of cognitive neuroscience. Future progress in understanding brain function using these methods will require addressing a number of key methodological and interpretive challenges. Because these challenges often remain unseen and metaphorically "haunt" our efforts to use these methods to understand the brain, we refer to them as "ghosts". In this paper, we describe three such ghosts, situate them within a more general framework from philosophy of science, and then describe steps to address them...
August 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780312/losing-ground-frontostriatal-atrophy-disrupts-language-embodiment-in-parkinson-s-and-huntington-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Giselle Kozono, Agustina Legaz, Agustín Ibáñez, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García
Within the language domain, movement disorders triggered by frontostriatal damage are characterized by deficits in action verbs, motor-language coupling, and syntax. However, these impairments have not been jointly interpreted under a unifying rationale or integratively assessed in terms of possible clinical implications. To bridge these gaps, here we introduce the "disrupted motor grounding hypothesis", a new framework to conceive such impairments as disturbances of embodied mechanisms (high-order domains based on the recycling of functionally germane sensorimotor circuits)...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779872/embodied-cognition-and-the-cerebellum-perspectives-from-the-dysmetria-of-thought-and-the-universal-cerebellar-transform-theories
#18
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
In this report, we analyze the relationship between embodied cognition and current theories of the cerebellum, particularly the Dysmetria of Thought theory and the concept of the Universal Cerebellar Transform (UCT). First, we describe the UCT and the Dysmetria of Thought theories, highlight evidence supporting these hypotheses and discuss their mechanisms, functions and relevance. We then propose the following relationships. (i) The UCT strengthens embodied cognition because it provides an example of embodiment where the nature and intensity of the dependence between cognitive, affective and sensorimotor processes are defined...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769082/neural-substrates-of-embodied-natural-beauty-and-social-endowed-beauty-an-fmri-study
#19
Wei Zhang, Xianyou He, Siyan Lai, Juan Wan, Shuxian Lai, Xueru Zhao, Darong Li
What are the neural mechanisms underlying beauty based on objective parameters and beauty based on subjective social construction? This study scanned participants with fMRI while they performed aesthetic judgments on concrete pictographs and abstract oracle bone scripts. Behavioral results showed both pictographs and oracle bone scripts were judged to be more beautiful when they referred to beautiful objects and positive social meanings, respectively. Imaging results revealed regions associated with perceptual, cognitive, emotional and reward processing were commonly activated both in beautiful judgments of pictographs and oracle bone scripts...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764852/parkinson-s-disease-compromises-the-appraisal-of-action-meanings-evoked-by-naturalistic-texts
#20
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Elena Herrera, Leonardo Moreno, Jairo Carmona, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Margherita Melloni, Agustina Legaz, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Sandra Baez, Agustín Ibáñez
The linguistic profile of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by difficulties in processing units which denote bodily movements. However, the available evidence has low ecological validity, as it stems from atomistic tasks which are never encountered in real life. Here, we assessed whether such deficits also occur for meanings evoked by context-rich narratives, considering patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively) and matched controls for each group. Participants read two naturalistic stories (an action text and a neutral text) and responded to questions tapping the appraisal of verb-related and circumstantial information...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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