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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912072/lexical-retrieval-and-semantic-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-question-of-noun-and-verb-dissociation
#1
Henrique Salmazo-Silva, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Sheila Rocha, Roberta Roque Baradel, André M Cravo, João Ricardo Sato, Fabio Godinho, Maria Teresa Carthery-Goulart
The dissociation between the processing of verbs and nouns has been debated in light of the Embodied Cognition Theory (EC). The objective of this paper is to verify how action and verb processing deficits of PD patients are modulated by different tasks with different cognitive demands. Action and object lexical-semantic processing was evaluated in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and cognitively healthy controls through three different tasks (verbal fluency, naming and semantic association). Compared to controls, PD patients presented worse performance in naming actions and in the two semantic association tasks (action/object)...
November 29, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882680/reconciling-conceptualisations-of-the-body-and-person-centred-care-of-the-older-person-with-cognitive-impairment-in-the-acute-care-setting
#2
Carole Rushton, David Edvardsson
In this article, we sought reconciliation between the "body-as-representation" and the "body-as-experience," that is, how the body is represented in discourse and how the body of older people with cognitive impairment is experienced. We identified four contemporary "technologies" and gave examples of these to show how they influence how older people with cognitive impairment are often represented in acute care settings. We argued that these technologies may be mediated further by discourses of ageism and ableism which can potentiate either the repressive or productive tendencies of these technologies resulting in either positive or negative care experiences for the older person and/or their carer, including nurses...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882594/-cuts-in-action-a-high-density-eeg-study-investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-different-editing-techniques-in-film
#3
Katrin S Heimann, Sebo Uithol, Marta Calbi, Maria A Umiltà, Michele Guerra, Vittorio Gallese
In spite of their striking differences with real-life perception, films are perceived and understood without effort. Cognitive film theory attributes this to the system of continuity editing, a system of editing guidelines outlining the effect of different cuts and edits on spectators. A major principle in this framework is the 180° rule, a rule recommendation that, to avoid spectators' attention to the editing, two edited shots of the same event or action should not be filmed from angles differing in a way that expectations of spatial continuity are strongly violated...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860038/-i-m-worried-about-getting-water-in-the-holes-in-my-head-a-phenomenological-psychology-case-study-of-the-experience-of-undergoing-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Virginia Eatough, Karen Shaw
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a form of biotechnological surgery which has had considerable success for the motor improvement of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Paradoxically, this observed motor improvement is not matched with improved psychosocial adjustment. This study contributes to a small but growing body of research aiming to understand this paradox. We conclude by discussing these aspects from a phenomenological and health psychology understanding of decision-making, human affectivity, and embodiment...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853431/developing-dynamic-field-theory-architectures-for-embodied-cognitive-systems-with-cedar
#5
Oliver Lomp, Mathis Richter, Stephan K U Zibner, Gregor Schöner
Embodied artificial cognitive systems, such as autonomous robots or intelligent observers, connect cognitive processes to sensory and effector systems in real time. Prime candidates for such embodied intelligence are neurally inspired architectures. While components such as forward neural networks are well established, designing pervasively autonomous neural architectures remains a challenge. This includes the problem of tuning the parameters of such architectures so that they deliver specified functionality under variable environmental conditions and retain these functions as the architectures are expanded...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852170/parental-embodied-mentalizing-how-the-nonverbal-dance-between-parents-and-infants-predicts-children-s-socio-emotional-functioning
#6
Dana Shai, Jay Belsky
Parental mentalizing - the parent's ability to envision the child's mental states (such as desires, thoughts, or wishes) - has been argued to underlie a parent's ability to respond sensitively to their child's emotional needs, and thereby promote advantageous cognitive and socio-emotional development. Mentalizing is typically operationalized in terms of how parents talk to or about their infants. This work extends research on mentalizing by operationalizing parental mentalizing exclusively in terms of nonverbal, bodily based, interactive behavior, namely parental embodied mentalizing(PEM)...
November 16, 2016: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833651/embodiment-and-human-development
#7
Peter J Marshall
We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development...
December 2016: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826264/from-savannas-to-settlements-exploring-cognitive-foundations-for-the-design-of-urban-spaces
#8
M Gordon Brown, Charles C Lee
Urban configurations in developing countries have become the subject of urban design, with good design promoting economic benefits. Yet, the common practice of urban design lacks a principled scientific foundation. In this respect, cognitive neuroscience could provide a unique perspective and potential foundational insights regarding how embodied cognition links configuration with movement. Although the neural networks that underlie navigation abilities in the brain have been extensively studied, the manner in which these networks might best constrain urban configurations has not been examined specifically...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807426/temporal-information-processing-and-its-relation-to-executive-functions-in-elderly-individuals
#9
Kamila Nowak, Anna Dacewicz, Katarzyna Broczek, Malgorzata Kupisz-Urbanska, Tadeusz Galkowski, Elzbieta Szelag
Normal aging triggers deterioration in cognitive functions. Evidence has shown that these age-related changes concern also executive functions (EF) as well as temporal information processing (TIP) in a millisecond range. A considerable amount of literature data has indicated that each of these two functions sets a frame for our mental activity and may be considered in terms of embodied cognition due to advanced age. The present study addresses the question whether in elderly subjects the efficiency of TIP is related to individual differences in EF...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793098/-proactive-use-of-cue-context-congruence-for-building-reinforcement-learning-s-reward-function
#10
Judit Zsuga, Klara Biro, Gabor Tajti, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz, Rudolf Gesztelyi
BACKGROUND: Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted value of future states. Thus the value of state is determined by agent related attributes (action set, policy, discount factor) and the agent's knowledge of the environment embodied by the reward function and hidden environmental factors given by the transition probability...
October 28, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777563/grounding-abstractness-abstract-concepts-and-the-activation-of-the-mouth
#11
Anna M Borghi, Edoardo Zarcone
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774058/-it-don-t-mean-a-thing-if-it-ain-t-got-that-swing-an-alternative-concept-for-understanding-the-evolution-of-dance-and-music-in-human-beings
#12
Joachim Richter, Roya Ostovar
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761127/is-there-any-influence-of-variations-in-context-on-object-affordance-effects-in-schizophrenia-perception-of-property-and-goals-of-action
#13
Jessica Sevos, Anne Grosselin, Denis Brouillet, Jacques Pellet, Catherine Massoubre
The simple perception of an object can potentiate an associated action. This affordance effect depends heavily on the action context in which the object is presented. In recent years, psychologists, psychiatrists, and phenomenologists have agreed that subjects with schizophrenia may not perceive the affordances of people or objects that could lead to a loss of ease in their actions. We examined whether the addition of contextually congruent elements, during the perception of everyday objects, could promote the emergence of object-affordance effects in subjects with schizophrenia and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748736/a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-informed-consent-process-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-clinical-research-and-opportunities-for-improvement
#14
M Raj, S W Choi, J Platt
Informed consent (IC) struggles to meet the ethical principles it strives to embody in the context of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients often participate in multiple clinical trials making it difficult to effectively inform the participants and fulfill complex regulations. The recent Notice of Proposed Rule Making would make major changes to federal requirements, providing a timely opportunity to evaluate existing practice. Twenty health care professionals within a Midwest Academic Medical Center involved in obtaining IC in the HCT clinic or involved in patient care during or after the IC process were interviewed to understand: (1) how they approached the IC process; (2) how they described a 'successful' IC process; and (3) opportunities for innovation...
October 17, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734764/instructions-to-mimic-improve-facial-emotion-recognition-in-people-with-sub-clinical-autism-traits
#15
Michael B Lewis, Emily Dunn
People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729885/first-steps-into-language-examining-the-specific-longitudinal-relations-between-walking-exploration-and-linguistic-skills
#16
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman
Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693906/beyond-blindness-on-the-role-of-organism-and-environment-in-trial-generation
#17
Lorenzo Baravalle, Davide Vecchi
In this paper we aim to amend the traditional analogy at the heart of evolutionary epistemologies. We shall first argue, contrary to what has been frequently done, that both hypothesis generation and the processes of generation of genetic and phenotypic change are often directed as well as environmentally conditioned. Secondly, we shall argue that environmental influence does not affect trial generation directly but that environmental information is processed by the epistemic agent and by the biological organism respectively...
September 29, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680660/why-are-there-developmental-stages-in-language-learning-a-developmental-robotics-model-of-language-development
#18
Anthony F Morse, Angelo Cangelosi
Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities...
September 28, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672373/remember-hard-but-think-softly-metaphorical-effects-of-hardness-softness-on-cognitive-functions
#19
Jiushu Xie, Zhi Lu, Ruiming Wang, Zhenguang G Cai
Previous studies have found that bodily stimulation, such as hardness biases social judgment and evaluation via metaphorical association; however, it remains unclear whether bodily stimulation also affects cognitive functions, such as memory and creativity. The current study used metaphorical associations between "hard" and "rigid" and between "soft" and "flexible" in Chinese, to investigate whether the experience of hardness affects cognitive functions whose performance depends prospectively on rigidity (memory) and flexibility (creativity)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642660/tracking-and-simulating-dynamics-of-implicit-stereotypes-a-situated-social-cognition-perspective
#20
Annique Smeding, Jean-Charles Quinton, Kelly Lauer, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo
Adopting a situated social cognition perspective, we relied on different methodologies-1 computational and 3 empirical studies-to investigate social group-related specificities pertaining to implicit gender-domain stereotypes, as measured by a mouse-tracking adapted Implicit Association Test (IAT) and IAT(-like) tasks. We tested whether the emergence of implicit stereotypes was partially determined by associations congruent with the self, by visuospatial features of the task and subsequent competition at both sensorimotor and abstract levels...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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