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Embodied cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813351/motor-heuristics-and-embodied-choices-how-to-choose-and-act
#1
REVIEW
Markus Raab
Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#2
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793239/ghosts-in-machine-learning-for-cognitive-neuroscience-moving-from-data-to-theory
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Carlson, Erin Goddard, David M Kaplan, Colin Klein, J Brendan Ritchie
The application of machine learning methods to neuroimaging data has fundamentally altered the field of cognitive neuroscience. Future progress in understanding brain function using these methods will require addressing a number of key methodological and interpretive challenges. Because these challenges often remain unseen and metaphorically "haunt" our efforts to use these methods to understand the brain, we refer to them as "ghosts". In this paper, we describe three such ghosts, situate them within a more general framework from philosophy of science, and then describe steps to address them...
August 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780312/losing-ground-frontostriatal-atrophy-disrupts-language-embodiment-in-parkinson-s-and-huntington-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Giselle Kozono, Agustina Legaz, Agustín Ibáñez, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García
Within the language domain, movement disorders triggered by frontostriatal damage are characterized by deficits in action verbs, motor-language coupling, and syntax. However, these impairments have not been jointly interpreted under a unifying rationale or integratively assessed in terms of possible clinical implications. To bridge these gaps, here we introduce the "disrupted motor grounding hypothesis", a new framework to conceive such impairments as disturbances of embodied mechanisms (high-order domains based on the recycling of functionally germane sensorimotor circuits)...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779872/embodied-cognition-and-the-cerebellum-perspectives-from-the-dysmetria-of-thought-and-the-universal-cerebellar-transform-theories
#5
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
In this report, we analyze the relationship between embodied cognition and current theories of the cerebellum, particularly the Dysmetria of Thought theory and the concept of the Universal Cerebellar Transform (UCT). First, we describe the UCT and the Dysmetria of Thought theories, highlight evidence supporting these hypotheses and discuss their mechanisms, functions and relevance. We then propose the following relationships. (i) The UCT strengthens embodied cognition because it provides an example of embodiment where the nature and intensity of the dependence between cognitive, affective and sensorimotor processes are defined...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769082/neural-substrates-of-embodied-natural-beauty-and-social-endowed-beauty-an-fmri-study
#6
Wei Zhang, Xianyou He, Siyan Lai, Juan Wan, Shuxian Lai, Xueru Zhao, Darong Li
What are the neural mechanisms underlying beauty based on objective parameters and beauty based on subjective social construction? This study scanned participants with fMRI while they performed aesthetic judgments on concrete pictographs and abstract oracle bone scripts. Behavioral results showed both pictographs and oracle bone scripts were judged to be more beautiful when they referred to beautiful objects and positive social meanings, respectively. Imaging results revealed regions associated with perceptual, cognitive, emotional and reward processing were commonly activated both in beautiful judgments of pictographs and oracle bone scripts...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764852/parkinson-s-disease-compromises-the-appraisal-of-action-meanings-evoked-by-naturalistic-texts
#7
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Elena Herrera, Leonardo Moreno, Jairo Carmona, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Margherita Melloni, Agustina Legaz, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Sandra Baez, Agustín Ibáñez
The linguistic profile of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by difficulties in processing units which denote bodily movements. However, the available evidence has low ecological validity, as it stems from atomistic tasks which are never encountered in real life. Here, we assessed whether such deficits also occur for meanings evoked by context-rich narratives, considering patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively) and matched controls for each group. Participants read two naturalistic stories (an action text and a neutral text) and responded to questions tapping the appraisal of verb-related and circumstantial information...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761554/towards-neuro-inspired-symbolic-models-of-cognition-linking-neural-dynamics-to-behaviors-through-asynchronous-communications
#8
Pierre Bonzon
A computational architecture modeling the relation between perception and action is proposed. Basic brain processes representing synaptic plasticity are first abstracted through asynchronous communication protocols and implemented as virtual microcircuits. These are used in turn to build mesoscale circuits embodying parallel cognitive processes. Encoding these circuits into symbolic expressions gives finally rise to neuro-inspired programs that are compiled into pseudo-code to be interpreted by a virtual machine...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758311/was-it-less-painful-for-knights-influence-of-appearance-on-pain-perception
#9
A Weeth, A Mühlberger, Y Shiban
BACKGROUND: Pain perception is a subjective experience shaped by different factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of a visually manipulated appearance of a virtual arm on pain perception. Specifically, we investigated how pain perception and vegetative skin responses were modified by inducing a virtual protection on the right arm by a virtual armour. METHODS: Participants (n = 32) immersed in virtual reality embodied a virtual arm, which appeared in three different versions (uncovered, neutral or protected)...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751875/evoking-and-measuring-identification-with-narrative-characters-a-linguistic-cues-framework
#10
Kobie van Krieken, Hans Hoeken, José Sanders
Current research on identification with narrative characters poses two problems. First, although identification is seen as a dynamic process of which the intensity varies during reading, it is usually measured by means of post-reading questionnaires containing self-report items. Second, it is not clear which linguistic characteristics evoke identification. The present paper proposes that an interdisciplinary framework allows for more precise manipulations and measurements of identification, which will ultimately advance our understanding of the antecedents and nature of this process...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727724/grandmothering-and-cognitive-resources-are-required-for-the-emergence-of-menopause-and-extensive-post-reproductive-lifespan
#11
Carla Aimé, Jean-Baptiste André, Michel Raymond
Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in humans well before the end of the expected lifespan, leading to an extensive post-reproductive period which remains a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. All human populations display this particularity; thus, it is difficult to empirically evaluate the conditions for its emergence. In this study, we used artificial neural networks to model the emergence and evolution of allocation decisions related to reproduction in simulated populations. When allocation decisions were allowed to freely evolve, both menopause and extensive post-reproductive life-span emerged under some ecological conditions...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725678/hands-on-experience-can-lead-to-systematic-mistakes-a-study-on-adults-understanding-of-sinking-objects
#12
Ramón D Castillo, Talia Waltzer, Heidi Kloos
In line with theories of embodied cognition, hands-on experience is typically assumed to support learning. In the current paper, we explored this issue within the science domain of sinking objects. Adults had to make a guess about which of two objects in a pair would sink faster. The crucial manipulation was whether participants were handed real-life objects (real-objects condition) or were shown static images of objects (static-images condition). Results of Experiment 1 revealed more systematic mistakes in the real-objects than the static-images condition...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725095/with-whom-do-researchers-collaborate-and-why
#13
Hajdeja Iglič, Patrick Doreian, Luka Kronegger, Anuška Ferligoj
Although research collaboration has been studied extensively, we still lack understanding regarding the factors stimulating researchers to collaborate with different kinds of research partners including members of the same research center or group, researchers from the same organization, researchers from other academic and non-academic organizations as well as international partners. Here, we provide an explanation of the emergence of diverse collaborative ties. The theoretical framework used for understanding research collaboration couples scientific and technical human capital embodied in the individual with the social organization and cognitive characteristics of the research field...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713451/words-that-move-us-the-effects-of-sentences-on-body-sway
#14
John F Stins, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Femke Hulzinga, Eric Wenker, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
According to the embodied cognition perspective, cognitive systems and perceptuo-motor systems are deeply intertwined and exert a causal effect on each other. A prediction following from this idea is that cognitive activity can result in subtle changes in observable movement. In one experiment, we tested whether reading various sentences resulted in changes in postural sway. Sentences symbolized various human activities involving high, low, or no physical effort. Dutch participants stood upright on a force plate, measuring the body center of pressure, while reading a succession of sentences...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701903/an-embodiment-perspective-on-number-space-mapping-in-3-5-year-old-dutch-children
#15
Jaccoline E van 't Noordende, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if counting and adding/subtracting direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance. Forty-eight 3.5-year-old children completed a block adding, subtracting and counting task...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690554/white-lies-in-hand-are-other-oriented-lies-modified-by-hand-gestures-possibly-not
#16
Katarzyna Cantarero, Michal Parzuchowski, Karolina Dukala
Previous studies have shown that the hand-over-heart gesture is related to being more honest as opposed to using self-centered dishonesty. We assumed that the hand-over-heart gesture would also relate to other-oriented dishonesty, though the latter differs highly from self-centered lying. In Study 1 (N = 79), we showed that performing a hand-over-heart gesture diminished the tendency to use other-oriented white lies and that the fingers crossed behind one's back gesture was not related to higher dishonesty...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667328/eeg-correlates-of-sensorimotor-processing-independent-components-involved-in-sensory-and-motor-processing
#17
Andrew Melnik, W David Hairston, Daniel P Ferris, Peter König
Sensorimotor processing is a critical function of the human brain with multiple cortical areas specialised for sensory recognition or motor execution. Although there has been considerable research into sensorimotor control in humans, the steps between sensory recognition and motor execution are not fully understood. To provide insight into brain areas responsible for sensorimotor computation, we used complex categorization-response tasks (variations of a Stroop task requiring recognition, decision-making, and motor responses) to test the hypothesis that some functional modules are participating in both sensory as well as motor processing...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655877/mammalian-empathy-behavioural-manifestations-and-neural-basis
#18
REVIEW
Frans B M de Waal, Stephanie D Preston
Recent research on empathy in humans and other mammals seeks to dissociate emotional and cognitive empathy. These forms, however, remain interconnected in evolution, across species and at the level of neural mechanisms. New data have facilitated the development of empathy models such as the perception-action model (PAM) and mirror-neuron theories. According to the PAM, the emotional states of others are understood through personal, embodied representations that allow empathy and accuracy to increase based on the observer's past experiences...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637913/predicting-green-really-radical-plant-predictive-processing
#19
Paco Calvo, Karl Friston
In this article we account for the way plants respond to salient features of their environment under the free-energy principle for biological systems. Biological self-organization amounts to the minimization of surprise over time. We posit that any self-organizing system must embody a generative model whose predictions ensure that (expected) free energy is minimized through action. Plants respond in a fast, and yet coordinated manner, to environmental contingencies. They pro-actively sample their local environment to elicit information with an adaptive value...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633620/reversing-the-manual-digit-bias-in-two-digit-number-comparison
#20
Thomas J Faulkenberry, Alexander Cruise, Samuel Shaki
Though recent work in numerical cognition has supported a strong tie between numerical and spatial representations (e.g., a mental number line), less is known about such ties in multi-digit number representations. Along this line, Bloechle, Huber, and Moeller (2015) found that pointing positions in two-digit number comparison were biased leftward toward the decade digit. Moreover, this bias was reduced in unit-decade incompatible pairs. In the present study, we tracked computer mouse movements as participants compared two-digit numbers to a fixed standard (55)...
May 2017: Experimental Psychology
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