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Embodied cognition

Keith J Holyoak, Dušan Stamenković
We review psychological research bearing on major theories of metaphor comprehension. A broad survey of behavioral studies is coupled with findings from recent meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of metaphor processing. We identify three broad theoretical positions that have been the foci of research efforts: analogy, categorization, and conceptual mapping. The first two of these emphasize relatively well-specified information-processing models; the third links metaphor comprehension to embodied cognition...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Veronica Romero, Paula Fitzpatrick, Stephanie Roulier, Amie Duncan, Michael J Richardson, R C Schmidt
Even high functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit impairments that affect their ability to carry out and maintain effective social interactions in multiple contexts. One aspect of subtle nonverbal communication that might play a role in this impairment is the whole-body motor coordination that naturally arises between people during conversation. The current study aimed to measure the time-dependent, coordinated whole-body movements between children with ASD and a clinician during a conversational exchange using tools of nonlinear dynamics...
2018: PloS One
Ana Deligiannis
This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Stefania Moretti, Alberto Greco
Studies from the embodiment perspective on language processing have shown facilitation or interference effects depending on the compatibility between verbal contents, concrete or abstract, and the motion of various parts of the body. The aim of the present study was to test whether such compatibility effects can be found when a higher cognitive process like truth evaluation is accomplished with head movements. Since nodding is a vertical head gesture typically performed with positive and affirmative responses, and shaking is a horizontal head gesture associated with negative and dissenting contents, faster response times can be expected when true information is evaluated by making a vertical head movement and false information by making a horizontal head movement...
March 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Heath E Matheson, Ariana M Familiar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Theories of embodied cognition propose that we recognize tools in part by reactivating sensorimotor representations of tool use in a process of simulation. If motor simulations play a causal role in tool recognition then performing a concurrent motor task should differentially modulate recognition of experienced vs. non-experienced tools. We sought to test the hypothesis that an incompatible concurrent motor task modulates conceptual processing of learned vs. non-learned objects by directly manipulating the embodied experience of participants...
March 2, 2018: Psychological Research
Hans Magnus Solli, António Barbosa da Silva
BACKGROUND: The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Peter Gärdenfors, Marlize Lombard
With this contribution we analyze ancient hunting technologies as one way to explore the development of causal cognition in the hominin lineage. Building on earlier work, we separate seven grades of causal thinking. By looking at variations in force dynamics as a central element in causal cognition, we analyze the thinking required for different hunting technologies such as stabbing spears, throwing spears, launching atlatl darts, shooting arrows with a bow, and the use of poisoned arrows. Our interpretation demonstrates that there is an interplay between the extension of human body through technology and expanding our cognitive abilities to reason about causes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kyle Morrissey, Darcy Hallett, Rutanya Wynes, Jingmei Kang, Ming Han
Previous research in embodied mathematical cognition has found differences between those who start counting on their left hand and those who start counting on the right hand. However, if starting hand is a finger-embodied effect, then finger-specific interference may affect these differences between left and right starters. Furthermore, cultures that demonstrate different finger-counting habits may also be differently affected by this interference. In the current study, a total of 66 Canadians and 60 Chinese participants completed a single/dual-task paradigm and were also assessed on their starting hand for counting...
February 23, 2018: Psychological Research
Vittorio Gallese, Valentina Cuccio
As it is widely known, Parkinson's disease is clinically characterized by motor disorders such as the loss of voluntary movement control, including resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia (Bocanegra et al., 2015; Helmich, Hallett, Deuschl, Toni, & Bloem, 2012; Liu et al., 2006; Rosin, Topka, & Dichgans, 1997). In the last years, many empirical studies (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015; Spadacenta et al., 2012) have also shown that the processing of action verbs is selectively impaired in patients affected by this neurodegenerative disorder...
March 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Melissa N Horger
This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Jiushu Xie, Him Cheung, Manqiong Shen, Ruiming Wang
This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition...
February 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis, Domna Banakou, Manuela Garcia Quiroga, Christos Giachritsis, Mel Slater
The ability to perspective-take (cognitive awareness of another's state) and empathise (emotional/affective response) are important characteristics for sensitive, co-operative and constructive parenting, which assists in developing adaptive functioning for children. For the first time, immersive virtual reality was used to place parents in the position of a child in order to assess impact on perspective-taking and empathy. This novel study was conducted with 20 non-high risk Spanish mothers (a pilot study with 12 mothers is reported in supplementary files)...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Bechtold, Marta Ghio, Joachim Lange, Christian Bellebaum
According to the embodied cognition framework, the formation of conceptual representations integrates the type of experience during learning. In this electroencephalographic study, we applied a linguistic variant of a training paradigm, in which participants learned to associate novel names to novel tools while either manipulating or visually exploring them. The analysis focused on event-related desynchronization (ERD) of oscillations in the mu and beta frequency range, which reflects activation of sensorimotor brain areas...
February 5, 2018: Brain and Language
Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca, Tom Froese, Leonhard Schilbach, Kai Vogeley, Bert Timmermans
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be understood as a social interaction disorder. This makes the emerging "second-person approach" to social cognition a more promising framework for studying ASD than classical approaches focusing on mindreading capacities in detached, observer-based arrangements. According to the second-person approach, embodied, perceptual, and embedded or interactive capabilities are also required for understanding others, and these are hypothesized to be compromised in ASD. We therefore recorded the dynamics of real-time sensorimotor interaction in pairs of control participants and participants with High-Functioning Autism (HFA), using the minimalistic human-computer interface paradigm known as "perceptual crossing" (PC)...
February 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Ji Y Son, Priscilla Ramos, Melissa DeWolf, William Loftus, James W Stigler
In this article, we begin to lay out a framework and approach for studying how students come to understand complex concepts in rich domains. Grounded in theories of embodied cognition, we advance the view that understanding of complex concepts requires students to practice, over time, the coordination of multiple concepts, and the connection of this system of concepts to situations in the world. Specifically, we explore the role that a teacher's gesture might play in supporting students' coordination of two concepts central to understanding in the domain of statistics: mean and standard deviation...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Johanna K Kaakinen, Ugo Ballenghein, Geoffrey Tissier, Thierry Baccino
The present study utilized a novel methodological combination of eye tracking and postural movement recordings to study task-induced changes in cognitive engagement during expository text reading. Thirty-three participants read an expository text with a specific task in mind while their eye and postural movements were concurrently recorded, and after reading recalled the text from memory. The results showed that readers spent longer total fixation time and had better memory for task-relevant than irrelevant text information...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Talma Hendler, Gal Raz, Solnik Shimrit, Yael Jacob, Tamar Lin, Leor Roseman, Wahid Madah Wahid, Ilana Kremer, Marina Kupchik, Moshe Kotler, Maya Bleich-Cohen
Impairments in social cognition and interactions are core psychopathologies in schizophrenia, often manifesting as an inability to appropriately relate to the intentions and feelings of others. Neuroimaging has helped to demarcate the dynamics of two distinct functional connectivity circuits underlying the social-affective processes related to mentalization (known as Theory of Mind, ToM) and somatic-affiliation (known as Embodied Simulation, ES). While evidence points to abnormal activation patterns within these networks among those suffering from schizophrenia, it is yet unclear however, if these patients exhibit this abnormal functional connectivity in the context of social-affective experiences...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lindsay P Prizer, Sheryl Zimmerman
Background and Objectives: Dementia is accompanied by increasing need for support in activities of daily living (ADLs). This brief report/literature review summarizes the practices to care for early stage, middle stage, and late stage ADL needs (dressing, toileting, and eating/nutrition), and examines commonalities across ADL needs and the extent to which practices are reflected in guidelines and/or evidence. Research Design and Methods: A review of the grey and peer-reviewed literature, using some but not all procedures of a systematic review...
January 18, 2018: Gerontologist
Giacomo Rossettini, Elisa Carlino, Marco Testa
Placebo and nocebo effects are embodied psycho-neurobiological responses capable of modulating pain and producing changes at different neurobiological, body at perceptual and cognitive levels. These modifications are triggered by different contextual factors (CFs) presented in the therapeutic encounter between patient and healthcare providers, such as healing rituals and signs. The CFs directly impact on the quality of the therapeutic outcome: a positive context, that is a context characterized by the presence of positive CFs, can reduce pain by producing placebo effects, while a negative context, characterized by the presence of negative CFs, can aggravate pain by creating nocebo effects...
January 22, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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