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Marco Romano, Neil Brocklehurst, Jörg Fröbisch
The relationship between diversity and disparity during the evolutionary history of a clade provides unique insights into evolutionary radiations and the biological response to bottlenecks and to extinctions. Here we present the first comprehensive comparison of diversity and disparity of captorhinids, a group of basal amniotes that is important for understanding the early evolution of high-fiber herbivory. A new fully resolved phylogeny is presented, obtained by the inclusion of 31 morphometric characters...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christian Lahger, Matthias Laska
The odor of blood may have both aversive and attractive properties for mammals, depending on the species of the odor donor and the species perceiving the odor. To better understand the informational content of blood odor for a prey species we assessed behavioral responses of male CD-1 mice (n=60) to the odor of blood of same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics, of a natural predator of mice (cat), and of a herbivore (horse) and an omnivore (human) non-predator of mice. Further, we assessed their behavior towards the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal which recent studies have shown to be as attractive to mammalian predators as the odor of real blood...
December 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Benjamin Goldstein, Rebekah Moses, Norman Sammons, Morten Birkved
The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources...
2017: PloS One
Graham C Burdge, Sze-Yen Tan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Vegetarian diets have been associated with health benefits, but paradoxically are low in EPA and DHA which are important for development, particularly of the central nervous system, and for health. Humans have limited capacity for synthesis of EPA and DHA from α-linolenic acid, although this is greater in women than men. Oily fish and, to a lesser extent, dairy foods and meat are the primary sources of EPA and DHA in the diet. Exclusion of these foods from the diet by vegetarians is associated consistently with lower EPA and DHA status in vegetarian women compared with omnivores...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
Kelli L Hughes, John P Whiteman, Seth D Newsome
Seasonal reductions in food availability may cause animals to catabolize endogenous tissue and the resulting loss of lean mass can hinder their ability to forage and reproduce. While several studies have considered nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) as an indicator of catabolism, relationships between protein intake, body condition, and tissue δ15N have not been assessed simultaneously in controlled conditions. We conducted a feeding experiment on laboratory mice (Mus musculus) to test the effects of low (5%) versus high (30-40%) dietary protein content on lean mass, fat mass, and tissue δ15N...
November 30, 2017: Oecologia
Ana M Pinto, Thomas A B Sanders, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou, Robert Gray, Haya Al-Khatib, Wendy L Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Nina Xiaoning Zhang, Gerben J Messelink, Juan M Alba, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant, Arne Janssen
Unfortunately, the citation of one of the papers was published erroneously in the original version and corrected here by this Erratum. The original article was corrected.
November 27, 2017: Oecologia
L F Böswald, B Dobenecker, M Clauss, E Kienzle
To investigate the relationship between faecal calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) excretion in different mammalian species, a meta-analysis on digestibility data derived from the literature was conducted. Seventy-three studies on carnivores, omnivores, large and small hindgut fermenters, ruminants and hippos (a total of 21 mammalian species, precondition for inclusion dietary Ca/P ratio 1.5/1 - 3.0/1) were analysed for Ca and P digestibility. Dietary Ca/P ratios were lower than faecal Ca/P ratios in carnivores, omnivores, ruminants and hippos...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Xiaohui Liu, Shaoyong Lu, Wei Meng, Binghui Zheng
The contamination level of 12 antibiotics in 8 species of fish and shrimp from the Dongting Lake, China, was firstly studied. In total, the concentrations of antibiotics in fish and shrimp were lower, which were far lower than the maximum residue limits. The most abundant compound was enrofloxacin followed by sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, sarafloxacin, and sulfadimidine with the highest content from 0.37 to 1.06 ng g-1. The concentrations in Silurus asotus, Cyprinus carpio, and Palinuridae were higher. Concentrations in fish and shrimp from different water layers showed spatial difference, with the order of benthos and middle-lower species > middle-upper species...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ignacy Kitowski, Dariusz Jakubas, Piotr Indykiewicz, Dariusz Wiącek
Avian eggshells are convenient samples in biomonitoring studies, because they are easily accessible, especially from colonially or semicolonially breeding birds. In the present study, concentrations of 17 elements, including heavy metals and essential elements in post-hatch eggshells, were compared among three species of waterbirds of differing strategies for gaining reserves for egg production and diet: mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (ML, a capital breeder, mainly herbivorous), common tern, Sterna hirundo (CT, an income breeder, piscivorous) and black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (BHG, mixed strategy, omnivorous) and breeding sympatrically in three sites in North Poland...
November 23, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S Mukaratirwa, L J La Grange, M P Malatji, B Reininghaus, J Lamb
Trichinella species are widely distributed on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, although the full spectrum of Trichinella species found in sub-Saharan African countries, and their hosts, has not been fully documented. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trichinella in wildlife from the Greater Kruger National Park (GKNP) and adjacent areas located in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa, and to identify the species and/or genotypes of Trichinella larvae isolated from muscle tissues, using molecular techniques...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Caitlin J Campbell, David M Nelson, Nanako O Ogawa, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Bats perform important ecosystem services, but it remains difficult to quantify their dietary strategies and trophic position (TP) in situ. We conducted measurements of nitrogen isotopes of individual amino acids (δ (15)NAA) and bulk-tissue carbon (δ (13)Cbulk) and nitrogen (δ (15)Nbulk) isotopes for nine bat species from different feeding guilds (nectarivory, frugivory, sanguivory, piscivory, carnivory, and insectivory). Our objective was to assess the precision of δ (15)NAA-based estimates of TP relative to other approaches...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katrina M Morris, Haylee J Weaver, Denis O'Meally, Marion Desclozeaux, Amber Gillett, Adam Polkinghorne
Bandicoots are omnivorous marsupials of the order Peramelemorphia. Conservation concerns and their unique biological characteristics suggest peramelomorphs are worthy research subjects, but knowledge of their genetics and immunology has lagged behind that of other high-profile marsupials. Here, we characterise the transcriptome of the long-nose bandicoot (Perameles nasuta), the first high-throughput data set from any peramelomorph. We investigate the immune gene repertoire of the bandicoot, with a focus on key immune gene families, and compare to previously characterised marsupial and mammalian species...
November 20, 2017: Immunogenetics
L Mughini-Gras, G Angeloni, C Salata, N Vonesch, W D'Amico, G Campagna, A Natale, F Zuliani, L Ceglie, I Monne, M Vascellari, K Capello, G DI Martino, N Inglese, G Palù, P Tomao, L Bonfanti
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011-2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115)...
November 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Trevor H Worthy, Federico J Degrange, Warren D Handley, Michael S Y Lee
The extinct dromornithids, gastornithids and phorusrhacids are among the most spectacular birds to have ever lived, with some giants exceeding 500 kg. The affinities and evolution of these and other related extinct birds remain contentious, with previous phylogenetic analyses being affected by widespread convergence and limited taxon sampling. We address these problems using both parsimony and tip-dated Bayesian approaches on an expansive taxon set that includes all key extinct flightless and flighted (e...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Miloslav Devetter, Ladislav Háněl, Klára Řeháková, Jiří Doležal
High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities...
2017: PloS One
Xiu Chen, Qin-Yuan Li, Gui-Ding Li, Fang-Ji Xu, Li Han, Yi Jiang, Xue-Shi Huang, Cheng-Lin Jiang
Huge numbers of bacteria reside in the digestive tract of host and these microorganisms play a vital role in the host health, especially in the digestion of food and the development of immune system. Host phylogeny and diet, especially long-term diet, both have great influence on the gut bacterial community. Other aspects of host, such as gender, age, and the geography and weather they lived, are also correlated to their gut bacterial community. Feces are usually used for gut bacteria study and fecal bacteria can represent the distal gut bacteria...
November 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
Nina Xiaoning Zhang, Gerben J Messelink, Juan M Alba, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant, Arne Janssen
Plants possess various inducible defences that result in synthesis of specialized metabolites in response to herbivory, which can interfere with the performance of herbivores of the same and other species. Much less is known of the effects of plant feeding by omnivores. We found that previous feeding of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on sweet pepper plants significantly reduced reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis on the same plants, also on leaves that had not been exposed to the omnivore...
November 9, 2017: Oecologia
Bikash Ranjan Behera, Sanjib Mishra, Deepak Das, Rajesh Gantayat
Even if human beings are the most intelligent among all living beings, they are still not immune to attack from wild animals. Human contact with bears has become more frequent as their habitat is being endangered by frequent deforestation. The sloth bear is one of the few bear species found in India, especially in the hilly areas of Southern Odisha. Bears are highly intelligent and omnivorous animals with long claws coupled with powerful shoulder. Here, we describe the tale of a poor tribal male's encounter with a sloth bear resulting in critical injuries to face, scalp, skull bone, with brain matter fungating-out of the skull...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Rachel C Brown, Andrew R Gray, Siew Ling Tey, Alexandra Chisholm, Victoria Burley, Darren C Greenwood, Janet Cade
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans...
November 6, 2017: Nutrients
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