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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643449/morphology-of-the-tongue-of-vermilingua-xenarthra-pilosa-and-evolutionary-considerations
#1
Daniel M Casali, Elisângela Martins-Santos, André L Q Santos, Flávia R Miranda, Germán A B Mahecha, Fernando A Perini
The tongue of anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Vermilingua) is a highly specialized for myrmecophagy. Here, we describe the topography and histology of the tongue, and compare it to that of other xenarthrans and other myrmecophagous eutherian mammals. The tongue of Vermilingua is long and slender, with an apical protuberance, which differs between Myrmecophagidae and Cyclopes didactylus. In the former, the rostral region is conical, and in the latter, it is dorsoventrally compressed, as observed in sloths. The tongue of Vermilingua has filiform and circumvallate papillae on the surface; foliate and fungiform papillae are absent...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627066/little-differences-in-digestive-efficiency-for-protein-and-fat-in-mammals-of-different-trophic-guilds-and-digestive-strategies-data-constraints-or-fundamental-functional-similarity
#2
O K Richard, D Codron, K B Hagen, K-H Südekum, M Clauss
Carnivores do not vary markedly in their digestive efficiency for protein and fat, but whether they resemble other trophic guilds (omnivores and herbivores) in this respect has not been evaluated. We collated data on apparent crude protein (CP) and crude fat (ether extracts, EE) digestibility in 157 mammal species, applying the Lucas principle of regressing digestible nutrient content against nutrient content, where the slope of the regression equation represents the true digestibility and the intercept the metabolic losses per unit dry matter intake...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626611/discrimination-factors-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotopes-in-meerkat-feces
#3
Shaena Montanari
Stable isotope analysis of feces can provide a non-invasive method for tracking the dietary habits of nearly any mammalian species. While fecal samples are often collected for macroscopic and genetic study, stable isotope analysis can also be applied to expand the knowledge of species-specific dietary ecology. It is somewhat unclear how digestion changes the isotope ratios of animals' diets, so more controlled diet studies are needed. To date, most diet-to-feces controlled stable isotope experiments have been performed on herbivores, so in this study I analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in the diet and feces of the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a small omnivorous mammal...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623506/bio-transfer-factors-and-temporal-variation-of-heavy-metals-in-different-sexes-of-three-species-of-edible-brackish-water-fish
#4
Ranil Kavindra Asela Kularatne, Jalaldeen Mohamed Harris, Periyathamby Vinobaba, Champika Ellawala Kankanamge
This article discusses bioaccumulation and temporal variation of heavy metals in three edible lagoon fish species with references to gender. Cd and As were undetected in the three fish species (i.e., below the method detection limits of 1 μg Cd/kg wet weight and 2 μg As/kg wet weight) irrespective of the periods, and Cd was undetected in the water too (i.e., below the detection limit of 0.0003 mg/L). Except for Zn (which was mainly available as Zn(2+) in the water), Pb was present largely as low labile metal-chloride complexes and As as HAsO4(2-) as per Visual MINTEQ, version 3...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620988/when-do-predatory-mites-phytoseiidae-attack-understanding-their-diel-and-seasonal-predation-patterns
#5
Consuelo Pérez-Sayas, Ernestina Aguilar-Fenollosa, Mónica A Hurtado, Josep A Jaques, Tatiana Pina
Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are considered one of the most important groups of natural enemies used in biological control. The behavioral patterns of arthropods can differ greatly daily and seasonally; however, there is a lack of literature related to Phytoseiidae diel and seasonal predation patterns. The predatory activity of three phytoseiid species (two Tetranychidae-specialists, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, and one omnivore, Euseius stipulatus) that occur naturally in Spanish citrus orchards was observed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer...
June 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619994/simultaneous-stimulation-of-glycolysis-and-gluconeogenesis-by-feeding-in-the-anterior-intestine-of-the-omnivorous-gift-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#6
Yong-Jun Chen, Ti-Yin Zhang, Hai-Yan Chen, Shi-Mei Lin, Li Luo, De-Shou Wang
The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Sub-adult fish (about 173 g) were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF) after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h), the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612385/genetic-accommodation-in-the-wild-evolution-of-gene-expression-plasticity-during-character-displacement
#7
Nicholas A Levis, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David W Pfennig
Ecological character displacement is considered crucial in promoting diversification, yet relatively little is known of its underlying mechanisms. We examined whether evolutionary shifts in gene expression plasticity ('genetic accommodation') mediate character displacement in spadefoot toads. Where Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata occur separately in allopatry (the ancestral condition), each produces alternative, diet-induced, larval ecomorphs: omnivores, which eat detritus, and carnivores, which specialize on shrimp...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609914/a-new-caprellid-species-crustacea-amphipoda-senticaudata-from-brazil
#8
Macarena Ros, Mariana B Lacerda, José M Guerra-García
A new species of caprellid, Pseudaeginella arraialensis, is described from Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Abundant material was collected in Praia do Forno, associated to hydroids and algae of natural rocky substrata and fouling communities of artificial floating structures. The new species can be distinguished easily from the remaining species in the genus mainly by the pattern of dorsal projections, and by the setose antennae and gnathopod 2 in males. The dietary analysis revealed that the species is omnivorous, with a high contribution of small crustaceans in its diet...
May 1, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594953/non-invasive-genetics-outperforms-morphological-methods-in-faecal-dietary-analysis-revealing-wild-boar-as-a-considerable-conservation-concern-for-ground-nesting-birds
#9
Ragne Oja, Egle Soe, Harri Valdmann, Urmas Saarma
Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593647/diets-and-trophic-guilds-of-small-fishes-from-coastal-marine-habitats-in-western-taiwan
#10
J P Egan, U-S Chew, C-H Kuo, V Villarroel-Diaz, P J Hundt, N G Iwinski, M P Hammer, A M Simons
The diets and trophic guilds of small fishes were examined along marine sandy beaches and in estuaries at depths <1·5 m in western Taiwan, Republic of China. Copepods were the most frequently identified item in fish guts, indicating they are key prey for the fish assemblages studied. Piscivore, crustacivore, detritivore, omnivore, zooplanktivore and terrestrial invertivore trophic guilds were identified. The zooplanktivore guild contained the most fish species. Maximum prey size consumption was positively correlated with standard length (LS ) in seven species and at the assemblage level and negatively correlated with LS in a single detritivorous species...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585258/masticatory-muscle-architecture-in-a-water-rat-from-australasia-murinae-hydromys-and-its-implication-for-the-evolution-of-carnivory-in-rodents
#11
P-H Fabre, A Herrel, Y Fitriana, L Meslin, L Hautier
Murines are well known for their generalist diet, but several of them display specializations towards a carnivorous diet such as the amphibious Indo-Pacific water-rats. Despite the fact that carnivory evolved repeatedly in this group, few studies have investigated associated changes in jaw muscle anatomy and biomechanics. Here, we describe the jaw muscles and cranial anatomy of a carnivorous water-rat, Hydromys chrysogaster. The architecture of the jaw musculature of six specimens captured both on Obi and Papua were studied and described using dissections...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578461/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-invasive-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-central-europe
#12
M Heddergott, A C Frantz, M Stubbe, A Stubbe, H Ansorge, N Osten-Sacken
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes toxoplasmosis in warm-blooded animals. Most mammals, including humans, can become intermediate host, resulting in subclinical infection or even death. Generally, there is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii of game species in Germany. As omnivores, raccoons, which are particularly widespread and abundant in Germany, are particularly exposed to infection the parasite. Here, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies from 15 study sites located in Luxembourg and Germany...
June 4, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572496/effect-of-age-diet-and-tissue-type-on-pcr-response-to-creatine-supplementation
#13
Marina Yazigi Solis, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Maria Concepción García Otaduy, Cláudia da Costa Leite, Walquiria Arruda, Raquel Ramos Veiga, Bruno Gualano
Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g•kg(-1)•day(-1)) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in muscle and brain...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568975/stable-isotopes-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-as-markers-of-dietary-variation-among-sociocultural-subgroups-of-inuit-in-greenland
#14
Peter Bjerregaard, Christina V L Larsen, Inger K Dahl-Petersen, Bjørn Buchardt
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. METHODS: As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland during 2005-2010, we analyzed the isotope composition of toenails from 1025 adult Inuit and meat of common species hunted for food. Information on diet and sociocultural variables was collected by interviews...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558934/variation-in-rhinarium-temperature-indicates-sensory-specializations-in-placental-mammals
#15
Nele Gläser, Ronald H H Kröger
The rhinarium, a specialized nose-tip characterized by an area of naked and wet skin around the nostrils, is a typical mammalian structure. The type and amount of innervation suggests a sensory role and morphological diversity implies so far unidentified species-specific functional specializations. Rhinaria also vary in temperature and this may be related to the functions of these sensory organs. We performed a comparative study on rhinarium temperature in order to learn more about possible correlations with phylogeny and ecology...
July 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552665/functional-morphology-of-comminuting-feeding-structures-of-trichodactylus-borellianus-brachyura-decapoda-trichodactylidae-an-omnivorous-freshwater-crab
#16
Débora de Azevedo Carvalho, Maria Florencia Viozzi, Pablo Agustín Collins, Verónica Williner
Crustaceans exhibit great diversity of feeding structures with morphological traits that are useful to infer the general trophic habits of species. In this study, we analyzed the functional morphology of comminuting feeding structures (mandibles, chelipeds, gastric mill) of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus directly related with the food fragmentation. The heterochely and mechanical advantage (MA) of the chelae were also studied. In both analysis, we considered the relationship between morphology and the natural diet...
May 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540596/the-effect-of-growth-rate-and-ageing-on-colour-variation-of-european-pond-turtles
#17
Alejandro Ibáñez, José Martín, Alfonso Marzal, Albert Bertolero
Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515875/seasonal-abundance-and-habitat-use-of-bird-species-in-and-around-wondo-genet-forest-south-central-ethiopia
#18
Zerihun Girma, Yosef Mamo, Girma Mengesha, Ashok Verma, Tsyon Asfaw
The habitat use and seasonal migratory pattern of birds in Ethiopia is less explored as compared to diversity studies. To this end, this study aimed at investigating the patterns of distribution related to seasonality and the effect of habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, and average vegetation height) on habitat use of birds of Wondo Genet Forest Patch. A stratified random sampling design was used to assess the avian fauna across the four dominant habitat types found in the study area: natural forest, wooded grassland, grassland, and agroforestry land...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511731/dietary-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-evolution-of-a-new-nutrient
#19
Ann Ashworth, Raul Bescos
Dietary nitrate is mainly obtained from vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and beetroot. As a result of early research, dietary nitrate is currently viewed as a contaminant linked to increased risks of stomach cancer and methaemoglobinaemia. Consequently, nitrate levels are restricted in certain vegetables and in water supplies to ensure exposure levels remain below an acceptable daily intake of 3·7 mg/kg per d. The average nitrate intake in the UK is approximately 70 mg/d, although some population groups, such as vegetarians, may consume three times that amount...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509951/costs-and-benefits-of-omnivore-mediated-plant-protection-effects-of-plant-feeding-on-salix-growth-more-detrimental-than-expected
#20
Adriana Puentes, Christer Björkman
Predators can decrease herbivore damage to plants, and this is often assumed to be beneficial to plant growth/reproduction without actual quantification. Moreover, previous studies have been biased towards strict carnivores and neglected the role of omnivorous predators in prey-suppression. Here, we examined the costs (reduction in growth) and benefits (increase in growth) of enemy-mediated plant protection via the omnivorous (prey and plant-feeding) Orthotylus marginalis, relative to herbivory by a detrimental insect pest of Salix spp...
June 2017: Oecologia
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