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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432153/comparison-of-functional-and-anatomical-estimations-of-visual-acuity-in-two-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#2
Amira N Parker, Kerstin A Fritsches, Cait Newport, Guy Wallis, Ulrike E Siebeck
The high contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. In this study, we study the visual acuity of two species of reef fish using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species in question share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator vs...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426416/how-does-host-ecology-influence-sampling-effort-in-parasite-diversity-estimates-a-case-study-using-neotropical-freshwater-fishes
#3
Fábio Hideki Yamada, Ricardo Massato Takemoto
Accurately estimating biodiversity is fundamental to ecological understanding and prediction. Helminthes are often neglected in biodiversity estimates and when included are often underestimated. Here we examine how sampling effort affects estimates of parasite diversity in an assemblage of freshwater fish from a floodplain in Brazil. We also examine how ecological and behavioral factors influence the sampling effort necessary to accurately estimate the parasite diversity associated with a fish species. We use our dataset to suggest that host species with wide geographic distribution (i...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417511/algal-supplementation-of-vegetarian-eating-patterns-improves-plasma-and-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-and-omega-3-indices-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
J C Craddock, E P Neale, Y C Probst, G E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405296/consumptive-and-nonconsumptive-effect-ratios-depend-on-interaction-between-plant-quality-and-hunting-behavior-of-omnivorous-predators
#5
Jörg G Stephan, Johan A Stenberg, Christer Björkman
Predators not only consume prey but exert nonconsumptive effects in form of scaring, consequently disturbing feeding or reproduction. However, how alternative food sources and hunting mode interactively affect consumptive and nonconsumptive effects with implications for prey fitness have not been addressed, impending functional understanding of such tritrophic interactions. With a herbivorous beetle, two omnivorous predatory bugs (plant sap as alternative food, contrasting hunting modes), and four willow genotypes (contrasting suitability for beetle/omnivore), we investigated direct and indirect effects of plant quality on the beetles key reproductive traits (oviposition rate, clutch size)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405269/the-trade-off-between-fecundity-and-egg-size-in-a-polymorphic-population-of-arctic-charr-salvelinus-alpinus-l-in-skogsfjordvatn-subarctic-norway
#6
Aslak Smalås, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen
Reproductive traits differ between intralacustrine Arctic charr morphs. Here, we examine three sympatric lacustrine Arctic charr morphs with respect to fecundity, egg size and spawning time/site to assess reproductive investments and trade-offs, and possible fitness consequences. The littoral omnivore morph (LO-morph) utilizes the upper water for feeding and reproduction and spawn early in October. The large profundal piscivore morph (PP-morph) and the small profundal benthivore morph (PB-morph) utilize the profundal habitat for feeding and reproduction and spawn in December and November, respectively...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404992/impacts-of-alpine-wetland-degradation-on-the-composition-diversity-and-trophic-structure-of-soil-nematodes-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#7
Pengfei Wu, Hongzhi Zhang, Liwei Cui, Kyle Wickings, Shenglei Fu, Changting Wang
Alpine wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are undergoing degradation. However, little is known regarding the response of soil nematodes to this degradation. We conducted investigations in a wet meadow (WM), a grassland meadow (GM), a moderately degraded meadow (MDM) and a severely degraded meadow (SDM) from April to October 2011. The nematode community taxonomic composition was similar in the WM, GM and MDM and differed from that in the SDM. The abundance declined significantly from the WM to the SDM. The taxonomic richness and Shannon index were comparable between the WM and MDM but were significantly lower in the SDM, and the Pielou evenness showed the opposite pattern...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396869/bioaccumulation-of-some-heavy-metals-analysis-and-comparison-of-cyprinus-carpio-and-labeo-rohita-from-sardaryab-khyber-pakhtunkhwa
#8
Ali Muhammad Yousafzai, Farhad Ullah, Fathul Bari, Sumayya Raziq, Mehreen Riaz, Khalid Khan, Umar Nishan, Iram Alam Sthanadar, Baseerat Shaheen, Mussarrat Shaheen, Habib Ahmad
We examined and compared heavy metals bioaccumulation in Cyprinus carpio and Labeo rohita netted from Sardaryab, a tributary of River Kabul. By using atomic absorption spectrometry we assessed different organs including livers, gills, and muscles. Metals studied were chromium, iron, zinc, lead, and copper. Livers of both species showed higher concentrations of metals while muscles showed the least amount. Chromium and iron were the highly concentrated metals in the gills and livers of both species. A quantity of 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392424/vegetarianism-and-meat-consumption-a-comparison-of-attitudes-and-beliefs-between-vegetarian-semi-vegetarian-and-omnivorous-subjects-in-belgium
#9
Amy Mullee, Leen Vermeire, Barbara Vanaelst, Patrick Mullie, Peter Deriemaeker, Tobias Leenaert, Stefaan De Henauw, Aoibheann Dunne, Marc J Gunter, Peter Clarys, Inge Huybrechts
High levels of meat consumption in Belgium may be contributing to increased risk of non-communicable diseases in this population. The objective of this study is to investigate the attitudes and beliefs about vegetarianism and meat consumption among the Belgian population, ultimately to better understand the motivations underlying these dietary behaviours. This cross-sectional study was initiated in March 2011. A total of 2436 individuals from a representative consumer panel from the Flemish and Brussels communities participated...
April 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369906/the-effects-of-ant-nests-on-soil-fertility-and-plant-performance-a-meta-analysis
#10
Alejandro G Farji-Brener, Victoria Werenkraut
Ants are recognized as one of the major sources of soil disturbance worldwide. However, this view is largely based on isolated studies and qualitative reviews. Here, for the first time, we quantitatively determined whether ant nests affect soil fertility and plant performance, and identified the possible sources of variation of these effects. Using Bayesian mixed-models meta-analysis we tested the hypotheses that ant effects on soil fertility and plant performance depend on the substrate sampled, ant feeding type, latitude, habitat and the plant response variable measured...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369715/robustness-of-metacommunities-with-omnivory-to-habitat-destruction-disentangling-patch-fragmentation-from-patch-loss
#11
Jinbao Liao, Daniel Bearup, Yeqiao Wang, Ivan Nijs, Dries Bonte, Yuanheng Li, Ulrich Brose, Shaopeng Wang, Bernd Blasius
Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a major driving force of species extinction, and understanding its mechanisms has become a central issue in biodiversity conservation. Numerous studies have explored the effect of patch loss on food web dynamics, but ignored the critical role of patch fragmentation. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model for a tri-trophic omnivory system with trophic-dependent dispersal in fragmented landscapes. We found that species display different vulnerabilities to both patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366178/a-comparison-of-heart-rate-variability-n-3-pufa-status-and-lipid-mediator-profile-in-age-and-bmi-matched-middle-aged-vegans-and-omnivores
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ana M Pinto, Thomas A B Sanders, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou, Robert Gray, Haya Al-Khatib, Wendy L Hall
Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362311/quantitative-analysis-of-glutathione-and-cysteine-s-conjugates-of-microcystin-lr-in-the-liver-kidney-and-muscle-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-in-lake-taihu
#13
Laiyan Wu, Songbo Wang, Min Tao, Ping Xie, Jun Chen
Tissue distribution of microcystin (MC)-LR-GSH, MC-LR-Cys and MC-LR of omnivorous fish in Lake Taihu was investigated. MC-LR and MC-LR-Cys were detected in liver, kidney and muscle. The concentration of MC-LR in liver and kidney was 0.052 μg g(-1) DW and 0.067 μg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-Cys appeared to be an important metabolite with average contents of 1.104 μg g(-1) DW and 0.724 μg g(-1) DW in liver and kidney, and the MC-LR-Cys/MC-LR ratio in liver and kidney reaching as high as 21.4 and 10.8. High MC-LR-Cys/MC-LR ratio and a significant correlation between MC-LR-Cys and MC-LR concentration in liver, suggest that liver is more active in detoxification of MC-LR by formation of MC-LR-Cys for omnivorous fish...
April 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348838/sequence-based-analysis-of-the-genus-ruminococcus-resolves-its-phylogeny-and-reveals-strong-host-association
#14
Alex J La Reau, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Garret Suen
It has become increasingly clear that the composition of mammalian gut microbial communities is substantially diet driven. These microbiota form intricate mutualisms with their hosts, which have profound implications on overall health. For example, many gut microbes are involved in the conversion of host-ingested dietary polysaccharides into host-usable nutrients. One group of important gut microbial symbionts are bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus. Originally isolated from the bovine rumen, ruminococci have been found in numerous mammalian hosts, including other ruminants, and non-ruminants such as horses, pigs and humans...
December 2016: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342014/serum-hepcidin-and-soluble-transferrin-receptor-in-the-assessment-of-iron-metabolism-in-children-on-a-vegetarian-diet
#15
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Witold Klemarczyk, Joanna Mazur, Joanna Gajewska, Grażyna Rowicka, Małgorzata Strucińska, Magdalena Chełchowska
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p < 0...
March 24, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334205/tetrahymena-phagocytic-vesicles-as-ecological-micro-niches-of-phage-transfer
#16
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
The microbial communities in natural environments such as soil, pond water, or animal rumens are composed of a diverse mixture of bacteria and protozoa including ciliates or flagellates. In such microbiomes, a major source of bacterial mortality is grazing by phagocytic protists. Many protists are omnivorous heterotrophs, feeding on a range of different bacterial species. Due to this indiscriminate feeding, different bacterial species can assemble together in the same phagocytic vesicles where they can potentially exchange genetic material...
April 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323394/feeding-preference-as-a-main-determinant-of-microscale-patchiness-among-terrestrial-nematodes
#17
Casper W Quist, Gerrit Gort, Christian Mulder, Ruud H P Wilbers, Aad J Termorshuizen, Jaap Bakker, Johannes Helder
Soil biota are responsible for essential ecosystem services such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and water retention. However, assessment of the condition of soil biota is hampered by an overwhelming level of diversity. With representatives in all trophic levels of the food web, nematode communities can be used as bio-indicators. Accurate assessment of nematode assemblages requires insight in the distribution of specimens with distinct food preferences. With the availability of taxon-specific quantitative-PCR assays, distribution patterns of multiple nematode groups can be investigated simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321334/the-interpretation-of-cholesterol-balance-derived-synthesis-data-and-surrogate-noncholesterol-plasma-markers-for-cholesterol-synthesis-under-lipid-lowering-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Frans Stellaard, Dieter Lütjohann
The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath) as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin...
2017: Cholesterol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315055/determination-of-heavy-metals-in-muscle-tissue-of-six-fish-species-with-different-feeding-habits-from-the-danube-river-belgrade-public-health-and-environmental-risk-assessment
#19
Dragoljub A Jovanović, Radmila V Marković, Vlado B Teodorović, Dragan S Šefer, Milena P Krstić, Stamen B Radulović, Jelena S Ivanović Ćirić, Jelena M Janjić, Milan Ž Baltić
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of heavy metals/metalloids (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe, Zn, As) in the muscle tissue of fish from the Danube River (two locations: Zemun and Grocka). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish muscle, 120 samples of six different fish species, Prussian carp, barbel, bream, carp, pike perch, and catfish were collected. For determining heavy metals, we used microwave oven digestion and atomic absorption spectrometer methods. The highest average content of Pb (0...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314130/the-effects-of-vegetation-cover-on-soil-nematode-communities-in-various-biotopes-disturbed-by-industrial-emissions
#20
Peter Šalamún, Vladimíra Hanzelová, Dana Miklisová, Oľga Šestinová, Lenka Findoráková, Peter Kováčik
Better understanding of interactions among belowground and aboveground components in biotopes may improve our knowledge about soil ecosystem, and is necessary in environment assessment using indigenous soil organisms. In this study, we proposed that in disturbed biotopes, vegetation play important role in the buffering of contamination impact on soil communities and decrease the ecological pressure on soil biota. To assess the effects of these interactions we compared nematode communities, known for their bioindication abilities, from four types of disturbed and undisturbed biotopes (coniferous forest, permanent grassland, agricultural field, clearings), where the main stress agent was represented by long-term acidic industrial emissions containing heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb)...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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