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Maria C Picasso, Jessica A Lo-Tayraco, Juselly M Ramos-Villanueva, Vinay Pasupuleti, Adrian V Hernandez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have examined the effect of vegetarian diets (VD) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the association between VD and MetS or its components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], fasting glucose triglycerides, waist circumference [WC], HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)) in adults...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Francisco Antonio Helfenstein Fonseca, Maria Cristina de Oliveira Izar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Julio Cesar Acosta Navarro, Luiza Antoniazzi, Adriana Midori Oki, Maria Carlos Bonfim, Valeria Hong, Luiz Aparecido Bortolotto, Pedro Acosta-Cardenas, Valeria Sandrim, Marcio Hiroshi Miname, Raul Dias Dos Santos Filho
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in vegetarians (VEG) despite the inconclusive evidence from others. OBJECTIVE: To verify the association between diet and other lifestyle characteristics and the prevalence of MSyn, cardiovascular risk factors (CRF), and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in apparently healthy VEG and omnivorous (OMN) men. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 88 apparently healthy men ≥ 35 years, 44 VEG and 44 OMN, were assessed for anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and FRS...
May 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Benjamin Buttlar, Eva Walther
Meat consumption elicits highly ambivalent feelings. On the one hand, it is associated with sensory pleasure and tradition; on the other hand, it is linked to moral, ecological, and health-related issues. This conflict is referred to as the meat paradox and it is hypothesized that people who experience the meat paradox resolve resulting discomfort by moral disengagement. However, ambivalence-a central process variable underlying the meat paradox-has never been measured directly, and theorizing on the meat paradox, so far, remains rather elusive...
June 6, 2018: Appetite
Jian Li, Yulian Yan, Nannan Yue, Qiyong Luo, Wanjun Li, Xiaojun Xie
The concentrations of lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury were analyzed in the muscle and liver (hepatopancreas) of three fish species (Silurus asotus, Cyprinus carpio, and Carassius auratus auratus) from the Jinsha and Tuo Rivers. The above mentioned metal concentrations in the muscles of the three fish species were below the permissible limits, indicating that these fishes are safe for human consumption. The concentration of mercury in the carnivorous fishes was higher than that in the omnivorous fishes...
June 6, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Nianzhang Zhang, Wenhui Li, Baoquan Fu
Trichinella spiralis, the causative agent of trichinellosis, is able to infect a wide range of carnivores and omnivores including human beings. In the past 30 years, a mass of vaccination efforts has been performed to control T. spiralis infection with the purpose of reduction in worm fecundity or decrease in muscle larval and adult burdens. Here, we summarize the development of veterinary vaccines against T. spiralis infection. During recent years, increasing numbers of new vaccine candidates have been developed on the protective immunity against T...
June 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Xiaoxia Sun, Tao Liu, Mingliang Zhu, Junhua Liang, Yongfang Zhao, Bo Zhang
The ubiquitous presence and persistence of microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments have become of particular concern in recent years. Biological interactions are among the key processes that affect the impact and fate of MPs in the oceans. Zooplankton is one of the most sensitive taxa because their prey is approximately the same size as MPs. However, the status of MPs in zooplankton within natural marine environments remains largely unknown. By focusing on zooplankton in the East China Sea, the characteristics, bioaccumulated concentration, and retention of MPs for 10 zooplankton groups were systematically studied...
May 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuka Ono, Souta Sugiyama, Mayu Matsushita, Takio Kitazawa, Tomoko Amano, Yasuhiro Uno, Shinichi Ikushiro, Hiroki Teraoka
1. Compared to information for herbivores and omnivores, knowledge on xenobiotic metabolism in carnivores is limited. The cytochrome P450 2C (CYP2C) subfamily is recognized as one of the most important CYP groups in human and dog. We identified and characterized CYP2C isoforms and variants in cat, which are an obligate carnivore. 2. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis were carried out to evaluate the expression of CYP2C in the liver and small intestine. A functional CYP2C isoform was heterologously expressed in yeast microsomes to determine the enzymatic activity...
May 31, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Sheng-Xiang Sun, Xue-Ming Hua, Yun-Yun Deng, Yun-Ni Zhang, Jia-Min Li, Zhao Wu, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Da-Sheng Lu, Hao-Wen Yin, Guo-Quan Wang, Rune Waagbø, Frøyland Livar, Mei-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Yu Du
Dietary fish oil used in aquafeed transfers marine pollutants to farmed fish. However, the entire transfer route of marine pollutants in dietary fish oil from ocean to table fish has not been tracked quantitatively. To track the entire transfer route of marine pollutants from wild fish to farmed fish through dietary fish oil and evaluate the related human health risks, we obtained crude and refined fish oils originating from the same batch of wild ocean anchovy and prepared fish oil-containing purified aquafeeds to feed omnivorous lean Nile tilapia and carnivorous fatty yellow catfish for eight weeks...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alan J Medlar, Petri Törönen, Liisa Holm
We present AAI-profiler, a web server for exploratory analysis and quality control in comparative genomics. AAI-profiler summarizes proteome-wide sequence search results to identify novel species, assess the need for taxonomic reclassification and detect multi-isolate and contaminated samples. AAI-profiler visualises results using a scatterplot that shows the Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI) from the query proteome to all similar species in the sequence database. Taxonomic groups are indicated by colour and marker styles, making outliers easy to spot...
May 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Kavita Ranjeeta Lall, Kegan Romelle Jones, Gary Wayne Garcia
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Chenchen Zhang, Andrea Björkman, Kaiye Cai, Guilin Liu, Chunlin Wang, Yin Li, Huihua Xia, Lijun Sun, Karsten Kristiansen, Jun Wang, Jian Han, Lennart Hammarström, Qiang Pan-Hammarström
The dietary pattern can influence the immune system directly, but may also modulate it indirectly by regulating the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated the effect of a 3-months lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on the diversity of gut microbiota and the immune system in healthy omnivorous volunteers, using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The short-term vegetarian diet did not have any major effect on the diversity of the immune system and the overall composition of the metagenome. The prevalence of bacterial genera/species with known beneficial effects on the intestine, including butyrate-producers and probiotic species and the balance of autoimmune-related variable genes/families were, however, altered in the short-term vegetarians...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Abou Kane-Diallo, Bernard Srour, Laury Sellem, Mélanie Deschasaux, Paule Latino-Martel, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Philippine Fassier, Françoise Guéraud, Fabrice H Pierre, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Mathilde Touvier
Diverse plant products (e.g. fruits, vegetables, legumes) are associated with decreased cancer risk at several locations while red and processed meat were found to increase cancer risk. A pro plant-based dietary score reflecting the relative contribution of consumed plant vs animal products was developed, and was associated with lower overall mortality, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, among omnivorous adults. For the first time, we investigated the prospective associations between this pro plant-based dietary score and cancer risk...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Christian S Kessler, Andreas Michalsen, Sophie Holler, Vijayendra S Murthy, Holger Cramer
The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p < 0.001), physical health (p = 0.017) and food taste (p = 0.001) as more and love of animals as less important (p < 0...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Aliakbar Shamsian, Edoardo Pozio, Abdolmajid Fata, Zahra Navi, Elham Moghaddas
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites causing trichinellosis. In Iran, these parasites occur in several animal species and rare cases have been recorded in humans. To monitor the epidemiological pattern of these parasites in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Northeastern Iran, muscle tissues were collected from the tongues of roadkill animals between 2016 and 2017: 295 stray dogs, one red fox (Vulpes vulpes), 12 golden jackals (Canis aureus), and one wild boar (Sus scrofa). Trichinella spp...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Hong Yang Zhou, Dan Ju Zhang, Jie Zhang, Yan Bo Zhao, Bo Zhao, Da Ping Wei, Jian Zhang
In order to understand the effects of canopy density on the functional group characteristics of soil macrofauna in Pinus massoniana plantations, we divided the captured soil fauna into five types including xylophages, predators, saprophages, omnivores and fungal feeders. The results showed that 1) Saprozoic feeders had the highest percentage of total individuals, and the omnivores and xylophages occupied higher percentages of total taxa. 2) The individual and group number of the predators, and the group number of xylophages did not change significantly under 0...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhan Yan Chen, Hai Tao Wu, Yun Biao Wang, Xian Guo Lyu
The trophic dynamics of wetland organisms is the basis of assessing wetland structure and function. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have been widely applied to identify trophic relationships in food source, food composition and food web transport in wetland ecosystem studies. This paper provided an overall review about the current methodology of isotope mixing model and trophic level in wetland ecosystems, and discussed the standards of trophic fractionation and baseline. Moreover, we characterized the typical food sources and isotopic compositions of wetland ecosystems, summarized the food sources in different trophic levels of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores based on stable isotopic analyses...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sen Du, Yan Yan Zhou, Li Zhang
The Daya Bay is a typical subtropical bay in Southern China, and chronically stressed by heavy metal pollution. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Daya Bay ecosystem is still unclear. In this study, heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb) and stable isotopes (δ13 C and δ15 N) were analyzed in seawater, sediment, and organisms (planktons, benthos and nektons) sampled from Daya Bay in June and December of 2015, in order to illuminate the influences of heavy metals to Daya Bay ecosystem and the basic information of environmental monitoring and risk assessment...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Alice Moreira Neves Pedrão, Leslie Andrews Portes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Fernanda Cristina Figueira Teixeira, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Natalia Cristina de Oliveira
PURPOSE: Evidence exists which suggests that a vegetarian diet is a predisposing factor to erosive tooth wear. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary pattern (vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian and omnivore) on erosive tooth wear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seven subjects (29 vegetarians, 96 lacto-ovo vegetarians and 82 omnivores) underwent an oral assessment and were asked to answer questionnaires about diet and oral care. RESULTS: Individuals who followed vegetarian and lacto-ovo vegetarian diets had statistically significantly more erosive tooth wear than did omnivores (p = 0...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Simon Pouil, Jean-Louis Teyssié, Scott W Fowler, Marc Metian, Michel Warnau
The trophic transfer of radiocesium (134 Cs) was investigated in two tropical fish, the silver moony Monodactylus argenteus and the spotted scat Scatophagus argus. Juveniles of both species were exposed to dietary 134 Cs using the pulse-chase feeding methodology. The food was brine shrimp (Artemia salina) previously exposed to the dissolved radiotracer. Depuration kinetics of 134 Cs were followed for 45 d. Results showed that Cs was similarly efficiently assimilated by both species (AE > 50%). The estimated trophic transfer factors in the two species ranked from 1 to 2, suggesting that 134 Cs could be biomagnified in both omnivorous species...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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