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Aleksandra Cybulska, Rafał Skopek, Aleksandra Kornacka, Marcin Popiołek, Agnieszka Piróg, Zdzisław Laskowski, Bożena Moskwa
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a North American carnivore introduced to Europe in the 20th Century. Raccoons are believed to be the potential hosts of many parasites, or to be involved in their transmission to other animals. Nematodes of the genus Trichinella can infect many carnivorous and omnivorous animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Trichinella spp. infection in raccoons in Central Europe. Muscle samples were collected from various regions of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany during the years 2012-2016...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Aleksandra Niemyjska, Katarzyna Cantarero, Katarzyna Byrka, Michał Bilewicz
People who exclude meat from their diets are not only devoid of situational pressures to disengage morally and deny humanlike mental states to animals but also they may be dispositionally more inclined to ascribe human-like qualities to non-human animals than omnivores. The aim of this research was to test whether individual differences in anthropomorphism are related to empathic connection with non-human animals and hence decreased meat consumption. In two studies (N = 588) we confirmed that decreased meat consumption was associated with both increased recognition of human features of animals and increased empathy to animals...
April 12, 2018: Appetite
Tue H Hansen, Timo Kern, Emilie G Bak, Alireza Kashani, Kristine H Allin, Trine Nielsen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen
Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ricardo J Miranda, José de Anchieta C C Nunes, Eduardo Mariano-Neto, James Z Sippo, Francisco Barros
Understanding how invasive species affect key ecological interactions and ecosystem processes is imperative for the management of invasions. We evaluated the effects of invasive corals (Tubastraea spp.) on fish trophic interactions in an Atlantic coral reef. Remote underwater video cameras were used to examine fish foraging activity (bite rates and food preferences) on invasive cover levels. Using a model selection approach, we found that fish feeding rates declined with increased invasive cover. For Roving Herbivores (RH) and Sessile Invertivores (SI), an abrupt reduction of fish feeding rates corresponded with higher invasive cover, while feeding rates of Territorial Herbivores (TH) and Mobile Invertivores (MI) decreased linearly with cover increase...
March 29, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Ignacio Gisbert Algaba, Bavo Verhaegen, Malgorzata Jennes, Mizanur Rahman, Wim Coucke, Eric Cox, Pierre Dorny, Katelijne Dierick, Stéphane De Craeye
Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which can infect any warm-blooded animal including humans. Humans and carnivores/omnivores can also become infected by consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat containing muscle cysts. This route of transmission is considered to account for at least 30% of human toxoplasmosis cases. To better assess the role of pork as a source of infection for humans, the parasite burden resulting from experimental infection with different parasite stages and different strains of T...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Chang Tan, Yudi Zhao, Suqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether a vegetarian diet is appropriate for pregnancy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between vegetarian diet during pregnancy and various maternal-fetal outcomes. METHOD: PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant articles published by August 30, 2017. Quantitative data were analyzed by a random-effects model with pooled odds ratios or weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval as aggregate estimations...
April 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Erik Kleyheeg, Mascha Claessens, Merel B Soons
Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion...
2018: PloS One
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Magdalena Chełchowska, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Grażyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Małgorzata Strucińska, Joanna Gajewska
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jesús Rodríguez, Ana Mateos
Carrying capacity, the maximum biomass that an ecosystem can sustain over the long term, strongly influences several ecological processes and it is also one of the main determinants of biodiversity. Here, we estimate the carrying capacity (CC) of the late Early and early Middle Pleistocene ecosystems of Europe, using equations describing the relationship between CC and climatic variables observed in the present, as well as maps of inferred paleotemperature and paleoprecipitation. Maps of paleoclimate values were interpolated from the composite benthic stable oxygen isotope ratios and a transfer function was used to estimate ungulate carrying capacity (CCU ) from the interpolated mean annual temperature and annual precipitation values...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Arthur C Benke
The majority of food web studies are based on connectivity, top-down impacts, bottom-up flows, or trophic position (TP), and ecologists have argued for decades which is best. Rarely have any two been considered simultaneously. The present study uses a procedure that integrates the last three approaches based on taxon-specific secondary production and gut analyses. Ingestion flows are quantified to create a flow web and the same data are used to quantify TP for all taxa. An individual predator's impacts also are estimated using the ratio of its ingestion (I) of each prey to prey production (P) to create an I/P web...
March 31, 2018: Ecology
Catherine A Forestell, John B Nezlek
This study investigated whether vegetarians and omnivores differ in their personality characteristics. We measured the five factor model of personality and depressive symptoms in vegetarians, who avoided meat and fish (n = 276); semi-vegetarians, who ate some meat and/or fish (n = 1191); and omnivores (n = 4955). Although vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were more open to new experiences, they were more neurotic and depressed than omnivores. Neither conscientiousness nor agreeableness varied as a function of dietary habits...
March 29, 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Guorui Xu, Shuang Zhang, Yuxin Zhang, Keming Ma
Elevational richness patterns and underlying environmental correlates have contributed greatly to a range of general theories of biodiversity. However, the mechanisms underlying elevational abundance and biomass patterns across several trophic levels in belowground food webs remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to disentangle the relationships between the elevational patterns of different trophic levels of litter invertebrates and their underlying environmental correlates for two contrasting ecosystems separated by the treeline...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dung Quang Le, Behara Satyanarayana, Siau Yin Fui, Kotaro Shirai
The present study, aimed at observing the total concentration of mercury (Hg) in edible finfish species with an implication to human health risk, was carried out from the Setiu mangrove wetlands on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Out of 20 species observed, the highest Hg concentrations were found among carnivores-fish/invertebrate-feeders, followed by omnivores and carnivores-invertebrate-feeders, while the lowest concentrations in herbivores. The Hg concentrations varied widely with fish species and body size, from 0...
March 26, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Bastian Kochlik, Christiana Gerbracht, Tilman Grune, Daniela Weber
SCOPE: 3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) as a potential biomarker for muscle protein turnover is influenced by meat intake but data on the impact of meat on plasma 3-MH are scarce. We determined the association of plasma 3-MH, 1-methylhistidine (1-MH) and creatinine (Crea) with dietary habits and assessed the impact of a single white meat intervention during a meat-free period. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma 3-MH, 1-MH and creatinine concentrations of healthy young omnivores (n = 19) and vegetarians (n = 16) were analyzed together with data on anthropometry, body composition, grip strength and nutrition...
March 23, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Laura Blancquaert, Audrey Baguet, Tine Bex, Anneke Volkaert, Inge Everaert, Joris Delanghe, Mirko Petrovic, Chris Vervaet, Stefaan De Henauw, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Paul Greenhaff, Wim Derave
Balanced vegetarian diets are popular, although they are nearly absent in creatine and carnosine and contain considerably less carnitine than non-vegetarian diets. Few longitudinal intervention studies investigating the effect of a vegetarian diet on the availability of these compounds currently exist. We aimed to investigate the effect of transiently switching omnivores onto a vegetarian diet for 6 months on muscle and plasma creatine, carnitine and carnosine homeostasis. In a 6-month intervention, forty omnivorous women were ascribed to three groups: continued omnivorous diet (control, n 10), vegetarian diet without supplementation (Veg+Pla, n 15) and vegetarian diet combined with daily β-alanine (0·8-0·4 g/d) and creatine supplementation (1 g creatine monohydrate/d) (Veg+Suppl, n 15)...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Laura Johnson, Zoi Toumpakari, Angeliki Papadaki
An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) for the first time. Data came from participants ( n = 4636 children and n = 4738 adults) with 4-day food diaries in NDNS 2008-2014. Reduced rank regression was applied to 51 food groups to explain variation in energy density, fibre and fat intake...
March 22, 2018: Nutrients
Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Tomas Cajka, Jennifer A Buffa, Ina Nemet, Alex G Hurd, Xiaodong Gu, Sarah M Skye, Adam B Roberts, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Christopher J Shahen, Matthew A Wagner, Jaana A Hartiala, Robert L Kerby, Kymberleigh A Romano, Yi Han, Slayman Obeid, Thomas F Lüscher, Hooman Allayee, Federico E Rey, Joseph A DiDonato, Oliver Fiehn, W H Wilson Tang, Stanley L Hazen
Using an untargeted metabolomics approach in initial (N = 99 subjects) and replication cohorts (N = 1,162), we discovered and structurally identified a plasma metabolite associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks, N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine (trimethyllysine, TML). Stable-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry analyses of an independent validation cohort (N = 2,140) confirmed TML levels are independently associated with incident (3-year) major adverse cardiovascular event risks (hazards ratio [HR], 2...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Martin A Stapanian, Charles P Madenjian, Stuart A Batterman, Sergei M Chernyak, William H Edwards, Peter B McIntyre
We tested the hypothesis of the proportion of higher chlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners increasing with increasing trophic level by comparing the respective PCB homologue distributions in an omnivore, white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni), and a top predator, coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch), from Lake Michigan. Adult females had the same congener and homologue proportions of total PCB concentration (ΣPCB) as adult males in both species. Hexachlorinated congeners comprised the largest proportion (32%) found in white sucker, followed by heptachlorinated (21%) and octochlorinated (18%) congeners...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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