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Francesca De Filippis, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Luca Laghi, Marco Gobbetti, Danilo Ercolini
BACKGROUND: Diet has a recognized effect in shaping gut microbiota. Many studies link an increase in Prevotella to high-fibre diet, while Bacteroides abundance is usually associated with the consumption of animal fat and protein-rich diets. Nevertheless, closely related species and strains may harbour different genetic pools; therefore, further studies should aim to understand whether species of the same genus are consistently linked to dietary patterns or equally responsive to diet variations...
October 21, 2016: Microbiome
Krishnendu Ray
The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. For instance, although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Saravanan Devendran, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Anton F Evans, Michael Iakiviak, In Hyuk Kwon, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gaurav V Sanghvi, Praveen Baskaran, Waltraud Röseler, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Christian Rödelsperger, Ralf J Sommer
Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey...
2016: PloS One
Yi-Ru Yang, Xiao-Gang Li, Zhi-Gao Zhou, Tao-Lin Zhang, Xing-Xiang Wang
Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Freya E Rowland, Madelyn B Rawlings, Raymond D Semlitsch
Primary production can be controlled through bottom-up (e.g., resources) or top-down (e.g., predators) constraints. Two key bottom-up resources in small aquatic systems are light and nutrients, and forest canopy cover heavily influences these factors, whereas amphibian and invertebrate colonizers exert top-down pressure as grazers and predators. We designed our experiment to specifically manipulate two different top-down and bottom-up factors. We manipulated resources by altering light (low/high) and nutrient (low/high) availability; omnivores with the presence/absence of southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus); and predators with the presence/absence of spotted salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum) in a full-factorial experiment conducted over 14 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Oecologia
Anna-Sara Liman, Peter Dalin, Christer Björkman
Plant traits can mediate the strength of interactions between omnivorous predators and their prey through density effects and changes in the omnivores' trophic behavior. In this study, we explored the established assumption that enhanced nutrient status in host plants strengthens the buffering effect of plant feeding for omnivorous predators, i.e., prevents rapid negative population growth during prey density decline and thereby increases and stabilizes omnivore population density. We analyzed 13 years of field data on population densities of a heteropteran omnivore on Salix cinerea stands, arranged along a measured leaf nitrogen gradient and found a 195 % increase in omnivore population density and a 63 % decrease in population variability with an increase in leaf nitrogen status from 26 to 40 mgN × g(-1)...
October 7, 2016: Oecologia
Hélène Volkoff, Rafael Esatevan Sabioni, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino
The pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is an omnivorous fish considered a promising species for aquaculture. Little is known about the endocrine regulation of feeding in this species. In this study, transcripts for orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin were isolated in pacu. Orexin, CCK and leptin have widespread mRNA distributions in brain and periphery, CART is limited to the brain. To examine the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding and energy status, mRNA expression levels were compared between fed and fasted fish and around feeding time...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Benjamin Weiss, Martin Kaltenpoth
Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nicola Schiel, Antonio Souto
Callithrix jacchus are small-bodied Neotropical primates popularly known as common marmosets. They are endemic to Northeast Brazil and occur in contrasting environments such as the humid Atlantic Forest and the dry scrub forest of the Caatinga. Common marmosets live in social groups, usually containing only one breeding pair. These primates have a parental care system in which individuals help by providing assistance to the infants even when they are not related to them. Free-ranging groups use relatively small home ranges (0...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Aleksandra Cybulska, Aleksandra Kornacka, Justyna Bień, Katarzyna Goździk, Elżbieta Kalisińska, Natalia Łanocha-Arendarczyk, Halina Budis, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Władysław Cabaj, Bożena Moskwa
Trichinellosis is one of the most widespread parasitic zoonoses. Trichinella Owen, 1835 nematodes are found in pigs, horses, and humans in the domestic cycle, and in many carnivores and omnivores in the sylvatic cycle, such as wild boars, red foxes, raccoon dogs, and wolves. Carnivores are known to be involved in the circulation of Trichinella nematodes and they act as a reservoir in the sylvatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes in Poland...
October 5, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Andrea Carolina Wanumen, Ismael Sánchez-Ramos, Elisa Viñuela, Pilar Medina, Ángeles Adán
Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Aleksandra Kornacka, Aleksandra Cybulska, Justyna Bień, Katarzyna Goździk, Bożena Moskwa
The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of two antibody-based methods, the direct agglutination test (DAT) and enzyme linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA), with that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting anti-Toxoplasma gondii in samples derived from naturally-infected wild animals. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in meat juice samples collected from 129 free- living carnivores and omnivores. T. gondii seroprevalence was confirmed in 73,6% of examined samples when DAT and ELISA were used separately, but in only 88,4% samples when both immunological tests were used in parallel...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Youfang Gu, Xiaolong Wang, Cefan Zhou, Peiying Li, Qianming Xu, Changcheng Zhao, Wei Liu, Wenlong Xu
To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Clayton T Lamb, Garth Mowat, Bruce N McLellan, Scott E Nielsen, Stan Boutin
Habitat choice is an evolutionary product of animals experiencing increased fitness when preferentially occupying high-quality habitat. However, an ecological trap (ET) can occur when an animal is presented with novel conditions and the animal's assessment of habitat quality is poorly matched to its resulting fitness. We tested for an ET for grizzly (brown) bears using demographic and movement data collected in an area with rich food resources and concentrated human settlement. We derived measures of habitat attractiveness from occurrence models of bear food resources and estimated demographic parameters using DNA mark-recapture information collected over 8 years (2006-2013)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Naoki Katayama
Many studies have investigated the benefits of agri-environmental schemes, such as organic farming, on biodiversity conservation in annual systems, but their effectiveness in perennial systems is less well understood, particularly in bird communities in temperate regions of Asia. This study examined the effects of organic farming practices on species richness and abundance of breeding birds in apple orchards in northern Japan. Bird counts were conducted in six pairs of organic and conventional orchards during the breeding season in April and May 2015...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bonnie M Perdue
The field of comparative cognition investigates species' differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia...
2016: Behavioral Sciences
Carol Melody, Bryan Griffiths, Jens Dyckmans, Olaf Schmidt
Soil nematode feeding groups are a long-established trophic categorisation largely based on morphology and are used in ecological indices to monitor and analyse the biological state of soils. Stable isotope ratio analysis ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N, expressed as δ (13)C and δ (15)N) has provided verification of, and novel insights into, the feeding ecology of soil animals such as earthworms and mites. However, isotopic studies of soil nematodes have been limited to date as conventional stable isotope ratio analysis needs impractically large numbers of nematodes (up to 1,000) to achieve required minimum sample weights (typically >100 µg C and N)...
2016: PeerJ
Monika Winder, Alfred Burian, Michael R Landry, David Js Montagnes, Jens M Nielsen
A recent study concluded that omnivorous plankton will shift from predatory to herbivorous feeding with climate warming, as consumers require increased carbon:phosphorous in their food. Although this is an appealing hypothesis, we suggest the conclusion is unfounded, based on the data presented, which seem in places questionable and poorly interpreted.
November 2016: Ecology Letters
Aline D Gomes, Carlos E Tolussi, Iola G Boëchat, Marcelo L M Pompêo, Maíra P T Cortez, Renato M Honji, Renata G Moreira
Eutrophication results in a deficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in aquatic food chains, affecting fish nutrition and physiology. The trophic transfer of FA (fatty acids) to fish species of different feeding habits was investigated in two reservoirs in southeast Brazil-the mesotrophic Ponte Nova Reservoir (PN) and the hypereutrophic Billings Reservoir (Bil). Total FA profile of stomach contents and adipose tissue, triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipids (PL) from liver and muscle of the omnivorous Astyanax fasciatus and the carnivorous Hoplias malabaricus were analyzed by gas chromatography...
October 2016: Lipids
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