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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515875/seasonal-abundance-and-habitat-use-of-bird-species-in-and-around-wondo-genet-forest-south-central-ethiopia
#1
Zerihun Girma, Yosef Mamo, Girma Mengesha, Ashok Verma, Tsyon Asfaw
The habitat use and seasonal migratory pattern of birds in Ethiopia is less explored as compared to diversity studies. To this end, this study aimed at investigating the patterns of distribution related to seasonality and the effect of habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, and average vegetation height) on habitat use of birds of Wondo Genet Forest Patch. A stratified random sampling design was used to assess the avian fauna across the four dominant habitat types found in the study area: natural forest, wooded grassland, grassland, and agroforestry land...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511731/dietary-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-evolution-of-a-new-nutrient
#2
Ann Ashworth, Raul Bescos
Dietary nitrate is mainly obtained from vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and beetroot. As a result of early research, dietary nitrate is currently viewed as a contaminant linked to increased risks of stomach cancer and methaemoglobinaemia. Consequently, nitrate levels are restricted in certain vegetables and in water supplies to ensure exposure levels remain below an acceptable daily intake of 3·7 mg/kg per d. The average nitrate intake in the UK is approximately 70 mg/d, although some population groups, such as vegetarians, may consume three times that amount...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509951/costs-and-benefits-of-omnivore-mediated-plant-protection-effects-of-plant-feeding-on-salix-growth-more-detrimental-than-expected
#3
Adriana Puentes, Christer Björkman
Predators can decrease herbivore damage to plants, and this is often assumed to be beneficial to plant growth/reproduction without actual quantification. Moreover, previous studies have been biased towards strict carnivores and neglected the role of omnivorous predators in prey-suppression. Here, we examined the costs (reduction in growth) and benefits (increase in growth) of enemy-mediated plant protection via the omnivorous (prey and plant-feeding) Orthotylus marginalis, relative to herbivory by a detrimental insect pest of Salix spp...
May 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509910/convergence-of-gut-microbiotas-in-the-adaptive-radiations-of-african-cichlid-fishes
#4
Laura Baldo, Joan Lluís Pretus, Joan Lluís Riera, Zuzana Musilova, Arnold Roger Bitja Nyom, Walter Salzburger
Ecoevolutionary dynamics of the gut microbiota at the macroscale level, that is, in across-species comparisons, are largely driven by ecological variables and host genotype. The repeated explosive radiations of African cichlid fishes in distinct lakes, following a dietary diversification in a context of reduced genetic diversity, provide a natural setup to explore convergence, divergence and repeatability in patterns of microbiota dynamics as a function of the host diet, phylogeny and environment. Here we characterized by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing the gut microbiota of 29 cichlid species from two distinct lakes/radiations (Tanganyika and Barombi Mbo) and across a broad dietary and phylogenetic range...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493980/characterization-of-the-juvenile-green-turtle-chelonia-mydas-microbiome-throughout-an-ontogenetic-shift-from-pelagic-to-neritic-habitats
#5
James T Price, Frank V Paladino, Margaret M Lamont, Blair E Witherington, Scott T Bates, Tanya Soule
The gut microbiome of herbivorous animals consists of organisms that efficiently digest the structural carbohydrates of ingested plant material. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) provide an interesting model of change in these microbial communities because they undergo a pronounced shift from a surface-pelagic distribution and omnivorous diet to a neritic distribution and herbivorous diet. As an alternative to direct sampling of the gut, we investigated the cloacal microbiomes of juvenile green turtles before and after recruitment to neritic waters to observe any changes in their microbial community structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489201/water-temperature-body-mass-and-fasting-heat-production-of-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#6
Fredy A A Aguilar, Thaline M P DA Cruz, Gerson B Mourão, José Eurico P Cyrino
Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C...
April 27, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464483/occurrence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-faecal-dna-of-healthy-omnivores-ovo-lacto-vegetarians-and-vegans
#7
Vesna Milanović, Andrea Osimani, Lucia Aquilanti, Stefano Tavoletti, Cristiana Garofalo, Serena Polverigiani, Alice Litta-Mulondo, Luca Cocolin, Ilario Ferrocino, Raffaella Di Cagno, Silvia Turroni, Camilla Lazzi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Francesca Clementi
SCOPE: The effects of long-term omnivore, ovo-lacto vegetarian and vegan diets on the occurrence of 12 antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in the human gut was studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: The faeces of 144 healthy volunteers recruited from Turin, Bari, Bologna and Parma were screened for the occurrence of genes conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, vancomycin and β-lactams. Overall, erm(B), tet(W) and tet(M) were detected at the highest frequency...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462705/the-food-gut-human-axis-the-effects-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-and-metabolome
#8
Maria De Angelis, Gabriella Garruti, Fabio Minervini, Leonilde Bonfrate, Piero Portincasac, Marco Gobbetti
Gut microbiota, the largest symbiont community hosted in human organism, is emerging as a pivotal player in the relationship between dietary habits and health. Oral and, especially, intestinal microbes metabolize dietary components, affecting human health by producing harmful or beneficial metabolites, which are involved in the incidence and progression of several intestinal related and non-related diseases. Habitual diet (Western, Agrarian and Mediterranean omnivore diets, vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free diets) drives the composition of the gut microbiota and metabolome...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462088/partial-molecular-characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-of-baylisascaris-columnaris-and-prevalence-of-infection-in-a-wild-population-of-striped-skunks
#9
Youna Choi, Sara Mason, Michael Ahlborn, Brook Zscheile, Eric Wilson
Members of the genus Baylisascaris utilize omnivores or carnivores as their definitive hosts. The best known member of this genus is Baylisascaris procyonis, which is an intestinal parasite of raccoons. The closest relative of B. procyonis is B. columnaris, which utilizes the common skunk as its definitive host. Although B. procyonis has been extensively studied, relatively little is known of B. columnaris. For example, the mitochondrial genome of B. procyonis has been sequenced in its entirety. Conversely, the mitochondrial genome of B...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432153/comparison-of-functional-and-anatomical-estimations-of-visual-acuity-in-two-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#11
Amira N Parker, Kerstin A Fritsches, Cait Newport, Guy Wallis, Ulrike E Siebeck
The high contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. In this study, we study the visual acuity of two species of reef fish using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species in question share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator vs...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426416/how-does-host-ecology-influence-sampling-effort-in-parasite-diversity-estimates-a-case-study-using-neotropical-freshwater-fishes
#12
Fábio Hideki Yamada, Ricardo Massato Takemoto
Accurately estimating biodiversity is fundamental to ecological understanding and prediction. Helminthes are often neglected in biodiversity estimates and when included are often underestimated. Here we examine how sampling effort affects estimates of parasite diversity in an assemblage of freshwater fish from a floodplain in Brazil. We also examine how ecological and behavioral factors influence the sampling effort necessary to accurately estimate the parasite diversity associated with a fish species. We use our dataset to suggest that host species with wide geographic distribution (i...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417511/algal-supplementation-of-vegetarian-eating-patterns-improves-plasma-and-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-and-omega-3-indices-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
J C Craddock, E P Neale, Y C Probst, G E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405296/consumptive-and-nonconsumptive-effect-ratios-depend-on-interaction-between-plant-quality-and-hunting-behavior-of-omnivorous-predators
#14
Jörg G Stephan, Johan A Stenberg, Christer Björkman
Predators not only consume prey but exert nonconsumptive effects in form of scaring, consequently disturbing feeding or reproduction. However, how alternative food sources and hunting mode interactively affect consumptive and nonconsumptive effects with implications for prey fitness have not been addressed, impending functional understanding of such tritrophic interactions. With a herbivorous beetle, two omnivorous predatory bugs (plant sap as alternative food, contrasting hunting modes), and four willow genotypes (contrasting suitability for beetle/omnivore), we investigated direct and indirect effects of plant quality on the beetles key reproductive traits (oviposition rate, clutch size)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405269/the-trade-off-between-fecundity-and-egg-size-in-a-polymorphic-population-of-arctic-charr-salvelinus-alpinus-l-in-skogsfjordvatn-subarctic-norway
#15
Aslak Smalås, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen
Reproductive traits differ between intralacustrine Arctic charr morphs. Here, we examine three sympatric lacustrine Arctic charr morphs with respect to fecundity, egg size and spawning time/site to assess reproductive investments and trade-offs, and possible fitness consequences. The littoral omnivore morph (LO-morph) utilizes the upper water for feeding and reproduction and spawn early in October. The large profundal piscivore morph (PP-morph) and the small profundal benthivore morph (PB-morph) utilize the profundal habitat for feeding and reproduction and spawn in December and November, respectively...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404992/impacts-of-alpine-wetland-degradation-on-the-composition-diversity-and-trophic-structure-of-soil-nematodes-on-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#16
Pengfei Wu, Hongzhi Zhang, Liwei Cui, Kyle Wickings, Shenglei Fu, Changting Wang
Alpine wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are undergoing degradation. However, little is known regarding the response of soil nematodes to this degradation. We conducted investigations in a wet meadow (WM), a grassland meadow (GM), a moderately degraded meadow (MDM) and a severely degraded meadow (SDM) from April to October 2011. The nematode community taxonomic composition was similar in the WM, GM and MDM and differed from that in the SDM. The abundance declined significantly from the WM to the SDM. The taxonomic richness and Shannon index were comparable between the WM and MDM but were significantly lower in the SDM, and the Pielou evenness showed the opposite pattern...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396869/bioaccumulation-of-some-heavy-metals-analysis-and-comparison-of-cyprinus-carpio-and-labeo-rohita-from-sardaryab-khyber-pakhtunkhwa
#17
Ali Muhammad Yousafzai, Farhad Ullah, Fathul Bari, Sumayya Raziq, Mehreen Riaz, Khalid Khan, Umar Nishan, Iram Alam Sthanadar, Baseerat Shaheen, Mussarrat Shaheen, Habib Ahmad
We examined and compared heavy metals bioaccumulation in Cyprinus carpio and Labeo rohita netted from Sardaryab, a tributary of River Kabul. By using atomic absorption spectrometry we assessed different organs including livers, gills, and muscles. Metals studied were chromium, iron, zinc, lead, and copper. Livers of both species showed higher concentrations of metals while muscles showed the least amount. Chromium and iron were the highly concentrated metals in the gills and livers of both species. A quantity of 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392424/vegetarianism-and-meat-consumption-a-comparison-of-attitudes-and-beliefs-between-vegetarian-semi-vegetarian-and-omnivorous-subjects-in-belgium
#18
Amy Mullee, Leen Vermeire, Barbara Vanaelst, Patrick Mullie, Peter Deriemaeker, Tobias Leenaert, Stefaan De Henauw, Aoibheann Dunne, Marc J Gunter, Peter Clarys, Inge Huybrechts
High levels of meat consumption in Belgium may be contributing to increased risk of non-communicable diseases in this population. The objective of this study is to investigate the attitudes and beliefs about vegetarianism and meat consumption among the Belgian population, ultimately to better understand the motivations underlying these dietary behaviours. This cross-sectional study was initiated in March 2011. A total of 2436 individuals from a representative consumer panel from the Flemish and Brussels communities participated...
April 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369906/the-effects-of-ant-nests-on-soil-fertility-and-plant-performance-a-meta-analysis
#19
Alejandro G Farji-Brener, Victoria Werenkraut
Ants are recognized as one of the major sources of soil disturbance worldwide. However, this view is largely based on isolated studies and qualitative reviews. Here, for the first time, we quantitatively determined whether ant nests affect soil fertility and plant performance, and identified the possible sources of variation of these effects. Using Bayesian mixed-models meta-analysis we tested the hypotheses that ant effects on soil fertility and plant performance depend on the substrate sampled, ant feeding type, latitude, habitat and the plant response variable measured...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369715/robustness-of-metacommunities-with-omnivory-to-habitat-destruction-disentangling-patch-fragmentation-from-patch-loss
#20
Jinbao Liao, Daniel Bearup, Yeqiao Wang, Ivan Nijs, Dries Bonte, Yuanheng Li, Ulrich Brose, Shaopeng Wang, Bernd Blasius
Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a major driving force of species extinction, and understanding its mechanisms has become a central issue in biodiversity conservation. Numerous studies have explored the effect of patch loss on food web dynamics, but ignored the critical role of patch fragmentation. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model for a tri-trophic omnivory system with trophic-dependent dispersal in fragmented landscapes. We found that species display different vulnerabilities to both patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
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