keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Omnivore

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450888/spatiotemporal-heterogeneity-in-prey-abundance-and-vulnerability-shapes-the-foraging-tactics-of-an-omnivore
#1
Nathaniel D Rayl, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, John F Organ, Matthew A Mumma, Shane P Mahoney, Colleen E Soulliere, Keith P Lewis, Robert D Otto, Dennis L Murray, Lisette P Waits, Todd K Fuller
1.Prey abundance and prey vulnerability vary across space and time, but we know little about how they mediate predator-prey interactions and predator foraging tactics. To evaluate the interplay between prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and predator space use, we examined patterns of black bear (Ursus americanus) predation of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) neonates in Newfoundland, Canada using data from 317 collared individuals (9 bears, 34 adult female caribou, 274 caribou calves). 2.During the caribou calving season, we predicted that landscape features would influence calf vulnerability to bear predation, and that bears would actively hunt calves by selecting areas associated with increased calf vulnerability...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427539/cholesterol-absorption-and-synthesis-in-vegetarians-and-omnivores
#2
Dieter Lütjohann, Sven Meyer, Klaus von Bergmann, Frans Stellaard
SCOPE: Vegetarian diets are considered health promoting, however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigated the link between vegetarian diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption and fecal sterol excretion were measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414859/the-assessment-of-bone-regulatory-pathways-bone-turnover-and-bone-mineral-density-in-vegetarian-and-omnivorous-children
#3
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Magdalena Chełchowska, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Grażyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Małgorzata Strucińska, Joanna Gajewska
Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
February 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409556/effect-of-default-menus-on-food-selection-and-consumption-in-a-college-dining-hall-simulation-study
#4
Cynthia Radnitz, Katharine L Loeb, Kathleen L Keller, Kerri Boutelle, Marlene B Schwartz, Lauren Todd, Sue Marcus
OBJECTIVE: To test an obesity prevention strategy derived from behavioural economics (optimal defaults plus delay), focused on changing the college dining hall service method. DESIGN: After a uniform pre-load, participants attended an experimental lunch in groups randomized to one of three conditions: a nutrient-dense, lower-fat/energy lunch as an optimal default (OD); a less-nutrient-dense, higher-fat/energy lunch as a suboptimal default (SD); or a free array (FA) lunch...
February 7, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391488/age-associated-microbiome-shows-the-giant-panda-lives-on-hemicelluloses-not-on-cellulose
#5
Wenping Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Rong Hou, Liang Zhang, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Huaibo Sun, Junjin Xie, Yunfei Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Lifeng Li, Bisong Yue, He Huang, Hairui Wang, Fujun Shen, Zhihe Zhang
The giant panda feeds almost exclusively on bamboo, a diet highly enriched in lignin and cellulose, but is characterized by a digestive tract similar to carnivores. It is still large unknown if and how the giant panda gut microbiota contributes to lignin and cellulose degradation. Here we show the giant pandas' gut microbiota does not significantly contribute to cellulose and lignin degradation. We found that no operational taxonomic unit had a nearest neighbor identified as a cellulolytic species or strain with a significant higher abundance in juvenile than cubs, a very low abundance of putative lignin and cellulose genes existed in part of analyzing samples but a significant higher abundance of genes involved in starch and hemicellulose degradation in juveniles than cubs...
February 1, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390017/different-transfer-pathways-of-an-organochlorine-pesticide-across-marine-tropical-food-webs-assessed-with-stable-isotope-analysis
#6
Charlotte R Dromard, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Sébastien Cordonnier, Mathilde Guéné, Mireille Harmelin-Vivien, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide used in the banana fields of the French West Indies from 1972 to 1993. Three marine habitats (mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs) of two study sites located downstream contaminated rivers were chosen to evaluate the level of contamination of marine food webs. On each habitat, the food chain collected included suspended organic matter, primary producers (macroalgae, algal turf, seagrass), zooplankton, symbiotic organisms (corals, sea anemones), primary consumers (herbivores, suspension feeders, biofilm feeders), omnivores and detritivores (lobsters, fish), secondary consumers (carnivores 1: invertebrate feeders, planktivores) and tertiary consumers (carnivores 2: invertebrate and fish feeders, piscivores)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389939/the-role-of-human-outdoor-recreation-in-shaping-patterns-of-grizzly-bear-black-bear-co-occurrence
#7
Andrew Ladle, Robin Steenweg, Brenda Shepherd, Mark S Boyce
Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b) occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c) temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386563/characterization-of-soil-nematode-communities-in-three-cropping-systems-through-morphological-and-dna-metabarcoding-approaches
#8
Amy M Treonis, Samantha K Unangst, Ryan M Kepler, Jeffrey S Buyer, Michel A Cavigelli, Steven B Mirsky, Jude E Maul
We used complementary morphological and DNA metabarcoding approaches to characterize soil nematode communities in three cropping systems, conventional till (CT), no-till (NT) and organic (ORG), from a long-term field experiment. We hypothesized that organic inputs to the ORG system would promote a more abundant nematode community, and that the NT system would show a more structured trophic system (higher Bongers MI) than CT due to decreased soil disturbance. The abundance of Tylenchidae and Cephalobidae both showed positive correlations to soil organic carbon and nitrogen, which were highest in the ORG system...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383501/parasites-of-small-indian-mongoose-herpestes-auropunctatus-on-st-kitts-west-indies
#9
Trista Cheng, Brandon Halper, Jennifer Siebert, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Aspinas Chapwanya, Patrick Kelly, Jennifer K Ketzis, Jeffrey Vessell, Liza Köster, Chaoqun Yao
Herpestes auropunctatus, the small Indian mongoose, is an invasive omnivore introduced to the Caribbean, including the island of St. Kitts over 150 years ago. It has played a role in changing native fauna and can carry zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of parasites harbored by mongooses. In total, 87 mongooses trapped from April to July 2015 were examined for parasites using (1) hair plucks (N = 79), ear swabs (N = 79), and general coat and skin examination (N = 87) for mites, ticks, lice, and fleas; (2) dissection of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs for lungworms and flukes (N = 76); (3) a double centrifugation fecal flotation method for parasites of the gastrointestinal tract (N = 75); and (4) PCR of heart homogenates for Toxoplasma gondii (N = 60)...
January 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381764/potential-disruption-of-seed-dispersal-in-the-absence-of-a-native-kauai-thrush
#10
Monica Kaushik, Liba Pejchar, Lisa H Crampton
Hawaii has experienced a catastrophic decline in frugivorous native birds coupled with the introduction of non-native species. Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a critically endangered thrush, is the sole extant native songbird capable of dispersing fleshy fruited plants in the rainforest of Kauai island, Hawaii. As this species has declined to occupy a small proportion of its original range, a suite of largely omnivorous non-native birds have been introduced to this region, including the common and widespread Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362949/chemical-ecology-of-chemosensation-in-asteroidea-insights-towards-management-strategies-of-pest-species
#11
REVIEW
Cherie A Motti, Utpal Bose, Rebecca E Roberts, Carmel McDougall, Meaghan K Smith, Michael R Hall, Scott F Cummins
Within the Phylum Echinodermata, the class Asteroidea, commonly known as starfish and sea stars, encompasses a large number of benthos inhabiting genera and species with various feeding modalities including herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and detritivores. The Asteroidea rely on chemosensation throughout their life histories including hunting prey, avoiding or deterring predators, in the formation of spawning aggregations, synchronizing gamete release and targeting appropriate locations for larval settlement...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362456/bone-turnover-calcium-homeostasis-and-vitamin-d-status-in-danish-vegans
#12
Tue H Hansen, Marie T B Madsen, Niklas R Jørgensen, Arieh S Cohen, Torben Hansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Oluf Pedersen, Kristine H Allin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362395/chitin-digestibility-is-dependent-on-feeding-behaviors-which-determine-acidic-chitinase-mrna-levels-in-mammalian-and-poultry-stomachs
#13
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Azusa Kikuchi, Hiromasa Masuda, Ryo Miyahara, Yusuke Hiruma, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), functions as a major structural component in chitin-containing organism including crustaceans, insects and fungi. Recently, we reported that acidic chitinase (Chia) is highly expressed in mouse, chicken and pig stomach tissues and that it can digest chitin in the respective gastrointestinal tracts (GIT). In this study, we focus on major livestock and domestic animals and show that the levels of Chia mRNA in their stomach tissues are governed by the feeding behavior...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330818/trace-elements-in-four-freshwater-fish-from-a-mine-impacted-river-spatial-distribution-species-specific-accumulation-and-risk-assessment
#14
Yuyu Jia, Lin Wang, Junfei Cao, Shan Li, Zhaoguang Yang
The concentrations of 16 elements (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Ba, and Pb) were determined in four fish species (Carassius auratus, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and Silurus asotus) collected in the Xiang River, a mine-impacted river in Southern China. The mean values of the elements analyzed in fish muscles were in the decreasing order of Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Sr > Al > Cu > Mn > Ba > As > Cr > Pb > Ni > V > Co > Cd...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321862/assessing-the-utility-of-metabarcoding-for-diet-analyses-of-the-omnivorous-wild-pig-sus-scrofa
#15
Michael S Robeson, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M Wisely, Michael D White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, Antoinette J Piaggio
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species descended from both domestic swine and Eurasian wild boar that was introduced to North America during the early 1500s. Wild pigs have since become the most abundant free-ranging exotic ungulate in the United States. Large and ever-increasing populations of wild pigs negatively impact agriculture, sport hunting, and native ecosystems with costs estimated to exceed $1.5 billion/year within the United States. Wild pigs are recognized as generalist feeders, able to exploit a broad array of locally available food resources, yet their feeding behaviors remain poorly understood as partially digested material is often unidentifiable through traditional stomach content analyses...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321543/a-new-large-bodied-omnivorous-bat-noctilionoidea-mystacinidae-reveals-lost-morphological-and-ecological-diversity-since-the-miocene-in-new-zealand
#16
Suzanne J Hand, Robin M D Beck, Michael Archer, Nancy B Simmons, Gregg F Gunnell, R Paul Scofield, Alan J D Tennyson, Vanesa L De Pietri, Steven W Salisbury, Trevor H Worthy
A new genus and species of fossil bat is described from New Zealand's only pre-Pleistocene Cenozoic terrestrial fauna, the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island. Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analysis places this new Southern Hemisphere taxon among the burrowing bats (mystacinids) of New Zealand and Australia, although its lower dentition also resembles Africa's endemic sucker-footed bats (myzopodids). As the first new bat genus to be added to New Zealand's fauna in more than 150 years, it provides new insight into the original diversity of chiropterans in Australasia...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319158/effect-of-restriction-vegan-diet-s-on-muscle-mass-oxidative-status-and-myocytes-differentiation-a-pilot-study
#17
D Vanacore, G Messina, S Lama, G Bitti, P Ambrosio, G C Tenore, A Messina, V Monda, S Zappavigna, M Boccellino, E Novellino, M Monda, P Stiuso
This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of three different diets on body composition, metabolic parameters and serum oxidative status. We enrolled three groups of healthy men (omnivores, vegetarians and vegans) with similar age, weight and BMI and we observed a significant decrease in muscle mass index and lean body mass in vegan compared to vegetarian and omnivore groups, and higher serum homocysteine levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores. We studied whether serum from omnivore, vegetarian and vegan subjects affected oxidative stress, growth and differentiation of both cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and H-H9c2 (H9c2 treated with H2 O2 to induce oxidative damage)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260385/characterization-of-n2o-emissions-and-associated-microbial-communities-from-the-ant-mounds-in-soils-of-a-humid-tropical-rainforest
#18
M Z Majeed, E Miambi, I Barois, M Bernoux, A Brauman
Tropical rainforest soils harbor a considerable diversity of soil fauna that contributes to emissions of N2O. Despite their ecological dominance, there is limited information available about the contribution of epigeal ant mounds to N2O emissions in these tropical soils. This study aimed to determine whether ant mounds contribute to local soil N emissions in the tropical humid rainforest. N2O emission was determined in vitro from individual live ants, ant-processed mound soils, and surrounding reference soils for two trophically distinct and abundant ant species: the leaf-cutting Atta mexicana and omnivorous Solenopsis geminata...
December 19, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259277/dental-caries-in-the-fossil-record-a-window-to-the-evolution-of-dietary-plasticity-in-an-extinct-bear
#19
Borja Figueirido, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, Blaine W Schubert, Francisco Serrano, Aisling B Farrell, Francisco J Pastor, Aline A Neves, Alejandro Romero
During the late Pleistocene of North America (≈36,000 to 10,000 years ago), saber-toothed cats, American lions, dire wolves, and coyotes competed for prey resources at Rancho La Brea (RLB). Despite the fact that the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus) was the largest land carnivoran present in the fauna, there is no evidence that it competed with these other carnivores for prey at the site. Here, for the first time, we report carious lesions preserved in specimens of A. simus, recovered from RLB. Our results suggest that the population of A...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250467/incremental-growth-of-therizinosaurian-dental-tissues-implications-for-dietary-transitions-in-theropoda
#20
Khai Button, Hailu You, James I Kirkland, Lindsay Zanno
Previous investigations document functional and phylogenetic signals in the histology of dinosaur teeth. In particular, incremental lines in dentin have been used to determine tooth growth and replacement rates in several dinosaurian clades. However, to date, few studies have investigated the dental microstructure of theropods in the omnivory/herbivory spectrum. Here we examine dental histology of Therizinosauria, a clade of large-bodied theropods bearing significant morphological evidence for herbivory, by examining the teeth of the early-diverging therizinosaurian Falcarius utahensis, and an isolated tooth referred to Suzhousaurus megatherioides, a highly specialized large-bodied representative...
2017: PeerJ
keyword
keyword
20853
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"