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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334205/tetrahymena-phagocytic-vesicles-as-ecological-micro-niches-of-phage-transfer
#1
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
The microbial communities in natural environments such as soil, pond water, or animal rumens are comprised of a diverse mixture of bacteria and protozoa including ciliates or flagellates. In such microbiomes, a major source of bacterial mortality is grazing by phagocytic protists. Many protists are omnivorous heterotrophs, feeding on a range of different bacterial species. Due to this indiscriminate feeding, different bacterial species can assemble together in the same phagocytic vesicles where can they potentially exchange genetic material...
March 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323394/feeding-preference-as-a-main-determinant-of-microscale-patchiness-among-terrestrial-nematodes
#2
Casper W Quist, Gerrit Gort, Christian Mulder, Ruud H P Wilbers, Aad J Termorshuizen, Jaap Bakker, Johannes Helder
Soil biota are responsible for essential ecosystem services such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and water retention. However, assessment of the condition of soil biota is hampered by an overwhelming level of diversity. With representatives in all trophic levels of the food web, nematode communities can be used as bio-indicators. Accurate assessment of nematode assemblages requires insight in the distribution of specimens with distinct food preferences. With the availability of taxon-specific quantitative-PCR assays, distribution patterns of multiple nematode groups can be investigated simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321334/the-interpretation-of-cholesterol-balance-derived-synthesis-data-and-surrogate-noncholesterol-plasma-markers-for-cholesterol-synthesis-under-lipid-lowering-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Frans Stellaard, Dieter Lütjohann
The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath) as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin...
2017: Cholesterol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315055/determination-of-heavy-metals-in-muscle-tissue-of-six-fish-species-with-different-feeding-habits-from-the-danube-river-belgrade-public-health-and-environmental-risk-assessment
#4
Dragoljub A Jovanović, Radmila V Marković, Vlado B Teodorović, Dragan S Šefer, Milena P Krstić, Stamen B Radulović, Jelena S Ivanović Ćirić, Jelena M Janjić, Milan Ž Baltić
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of heavy metals/metalloids (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe, Zn, As) in the muscle tissue of fish from the Danube River (two locations: Zemun and Grocka). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish muscle, 120 samples of six different fish species, Prussian carp, barbel, bream, carp, pike perch, and catfish were collected. For determining heavy metals, we used microwave oven digestion and atomic absorption spectrometer methods. The highest average content of Pb (0...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314130/the-effects-of-vegetation-cover-on-soil-nematode-communities-in-various-biotopes-disturbed-by-industrial-emissions
#5
Peter Šalamún, Vladimíra Hanzelová, Dana Miklisová, Oľga Šestinová, Lenka Findoráková, Peter Kováčik
Better understanding of interactions among belowground and aboveground components in biotopes may improve our knowledge about soil ecosystem, and is necessary in environment assessment using indigenous soil organisms. In this study, we proposed that in disturbed biotopes, vegetation play important role in the buffering of contamination impact on soil communities and decrease the ecological pressure on soil biota. To assess the effects of these interactions we compared nematode communities, known for their bioindication abilities, from four types of disturbed and undisturbed biotopes (coniferous forest, permanent grassland, agricultural field, clearings), where the main stress agent was represented by long-term acidic industrial emissions containing heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb)...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293225/bacterial-composition-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-fecal-samples-from-individuals-consuming-omnivorous-or-vegetarian-diets
#6
Ermanno Federici, Roberta Prete, Camilla Lazzi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Massimo Moretti, Aldo Corsetti, Giovanni Cenci
This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280715/enterotype-may-drive-the-dietary-associated-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#7
Ana C F de Moraes, Gabriel R Fernandes, Isis T da Silva, Bianca Almeida-Pititto, Everton P Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra R G Ferreira
Analyses of typical bacterial clusters in humans named enterotypes may facilitate understanding the host differences in the cardiometabolic profile. It stills unknown whether the three previously described enterotypes were present in populations living below the equator. We examined how the identification of enterotypes could be useful to explain the dietary associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilian subjects. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 268 adults (54.2% women) reported their dietary habits and had clinical and biological samples collected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280563/body-size-trophic-position-relationships-among-fishes-of-the-lower-mekong-basin
#8
Chouly Ou, Carmen G Montaña, Kirk O Winemiller
Body size is frequently claimed to be a major determinant of animal trophic interactions, yet few studies have explored relationships between body size and trophic interactions in rivers, especially within the tropics. We examined relationships between body size and trophic position (TP) within fish assemblages in four lowland rivers of the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia. Stable isotope analysis (based on δ(15)N) was used to estimate TP of common fish species in each river, and species were classified according to occupation of benthic versus pelagic habitats and major feeding guilds...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274187/bioaugmentation-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-by-dungs-of-herbivore-carnivore-and-omnivore-zoo-animals
#9
Javkhlan Ariunbaatar, Onur Ozcan, Robert Bair, Giovanni Esposito, Ray Ball, Piet N L Lens, Daniel H Yeh
The potential improvement of biomethanation of food waste (FW) by adding dung of herbivore (giraffe, llama, koala), carnivore (tiger) and omnivore (sloth bear) animals to anaerobic sludge (AnS) was investigated. Adding 30% giraffe, sloth bear or koala dung to the AnS inoculum yielded, respectively, a 11.17 (± 4.51), 10.10 (± 1.23), and 1.41 (± 0.56) % higher biomethane production, as compared to the control (FW with solely AnS). The highest biomethane production of 564.00 (± 3.88) ml CH4/gVSadded obtained with 30% giraffe dung and 70% AnS was attributed to a higher solubilization of proteins (6...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265518/digital-reconstruction-of-the-mandible-of-an-adult-lesothosaurus-diagnosticus-with-insight-into-the-tooth-replacement-process-and-diet
#10
Lara Sciscio, Fabien Knoll, Emese M Bordy, Michiel O de Kock, Ragna Redelstorff
Fragmentary caudal ends of the left and right mandible assigned to Lesothosaurus diagnosticus, an early ornithischian, was recently discovered in the continental red bed succession of the upper Elliot Formation (Lower Jurassic) at Likhoele Mountain (Mafeteng District) in Lesotho. Using micro-CT scanning, this mandible could be digitally reconstructed in 3D. The replacement teeth within the better preserved (left) dentary were visualised. The computed tomography dataset suggests asynchronous tooth replacement in an individual identified as an adult on the basis of bone histology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263528/ecological-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-m-fario-from-the-military-training-area-boletice-czech-republic
#11
Petr Dvořák, Jaroslav Andreji, Jan Mráz, Zuzana Dvořáková-Líšková, Renata Klufová
OBJECTIVES: This study to assess the environmental pollution status in streams (Loutecky, Spicak, Olsina, Trebovicky, Polecnicky and Luzny) from the Boletice area. DESIGN: Were determined of some metal (Hg, Pb, Cd) concentrations in the muscle and correlations among selected metals as well as standard length and total weight in brown trouth - Salmo trutta morpha fario. RESULTS: The contents of the analyzed metals in muscles were Hg 0.19-0...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261449/happy-to-breed-in-the-city-urban-food-resources-limit-reproductive-output-in-western-jackdaws
#12
Eva Meyrier, Lukas Jenni, Yves Bötsch, Stephan Strebel, Bruno Erne, Zulima Tablado
Urban areas expand worldwide, transforming landscapes and creating new challenging habitats. Some bird species, mainly omnivorous feeding on human waste and cavity nesters, commonly breed in these habitats and are, therefore, regarded as urban-adapted. Although urban areas may provide new nesting sites and abundant human waste, the low breeding success found in some of these species suggests that the poor protein content in human waste might limit breeding parameters. We investigated whether the breeding success of a cavity nester and omnivorous species commonly breeding in urban areas, the Western Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), depended on the availability of good-quality non-urban food...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213674/microcystin-bioaccumulation-in-freshwater-fish-at-different-trophic-levels-from-the-eutrophic-lake-chaohu-china
#13
Yan Jiang, Yunmeng Yang, Yuling Wu, Jianbin Tao, Bo Cheng
The spatial and temporal variations of microcystins (MCs) in fishes with different trophic levels were studied monthly in Lake Chaohu in 2014. MCs content in muscle was highest in phytoplanktivorous Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (H. molitrix), followed by omnivorous Carassius auratus (C. auratus), and was lowest in herbivorous Parabramis pekinensis (P. pekinensis) and carnivorous Coilia ectenes (C. ectenes). MCs concentration in liver was highest in C. auratus, followed by H. molitrix, and was lowest in P. pekinensis and C...
February 17, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182578/review-of-heavy-metal-accumulation-on-aquatic-environment-in-northern-east-mediterrenean-sea-part-i-some-essential-metals
#14
Ayşe Bahar Yılmaz, Alper Yanar, Ela Nur Alkan
All pollutants can reach the aquatic environments and the levels of heavy metals in upper members of the food web like fish can reach values many times higher than those found in aquatic environment or in sediments. Although heavy metals are essential or non-essential, all heavy metals are potentially harmful to humans and most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Marine organisms are good indicators for long-term monitoring of metal accumulation. The present review study is for evaluation of the data from previous studies about the toxic effects of selected heavy metals, like essential metals (copper, zinc, iron, chromium, and manganese), on seawater, sediment, and in different tissues of aquatic animals (demersal and bentic fish, invertabres) collected from different areas in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea since the 1990s...
March 1, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181377/evolution-of-the-hypercarnivorous-dentition-in-mammals-metatheria-eutheria-and-its-bearing-on-the-development-of-tribosphenic-molars
#15
Floréal Solé, Sandrine Ladevèze
One major innovation of mammals is the tribosphenic molar, characterized by the evolution of a neomorphic upper cusp (=protocone) and a lower basin (=talonid) that occlude and provide shearing and crushing functions. This type of molar is an evolutionarily flexible structure that enabled mammals to achieve complex dental adaptations. Among carnivorous mammals, hypercarnivory is a common trend that evolved several times among therians (marsupials, placentals, and stem relatives). Hypercarnivory involves an important simplification of the carnassial molar pattern from the ancestral tribosphenic molar pattern, with the modification of the triangular tooth crown, and the loss of several cusps and cuspids typical of the tribosphenic molar...
February 9, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170088/testing-the-niche-variation-hypothesis-in-a-community-of-passerine-birds
#16
Karin Maldonado, Francisco Bozinovic, Seth D Newsome, Pablo Sabat
The niche variation hypothesis (NVH) predicts that population with broader niches should exhibit greater between-individual diet variation or individual specialization (IS) relative to populations with narrower niches. Most studies that quantify population niche widths and associated levels of IS typically focus on a single or few species, but studies examining NVH in a phylogenetically informed comparative analysis among species are lacking. Here we use nitrogen isotope (δ(15) N) analysis to measure population niche widths and IS in a single bird community comprised of twelve passerine species representing different foraging guilds...
February 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145418/chronic-dietary-exposure-to-branched-chain-amino-acids-impairs-glucose-disposal-in-vegans-but-not-in-omnivores
#17
J Gojda, L Rossmeislová, R Straková, J Tůmová, M Elkalaf, M Jaček, P Tůma, J Potočková, E Krauzová, P Waldauf, J Trnka, V Štich, M Anděl
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are among nutrients strongly linked with insulin sensitivity (IS) measures. We investigated the effects of a chronic increase of BCAA intake on IS in two groups of healthy subjects differing in their basal consumption of BCAA, that is, vegans and omnivores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eight vegans and eight matched omnivores (five men and three women in each group) received 15 g (women) or 20 g (men) of BCAA daily for 3 months...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145089/the-relationship-between-diet-and-tooth-complexity-in-living-dentigerous-saurians
#18
Keegan M Melstrom
Living saurian reptiles exhibit a wide range of diets, from carnivores to strict herbivores. Previous research suggests that the tooth shape in some lizard clades correlates with diet, but this has not been tested using quantitative methods. I investigated the relationship between phenotypic tooth complexity and diet in living reptiles by examining the entire dentary tooth row in over 80 specimens comprising all major dentigerous saurian clades. I quantified dental complexity using orientation patch count rotated (OPCR), which discriminates diet in living and extinct mammals, where OPCR-values increase with the proportion of dietary plant matter...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132661/the-potential-of-host-plants-for-biological-control-of-tuta-absoluta-by-the-predator-dicyphus-errans
#19
B L Ingegno, V Candian, I Psomadelis, N Bodino, L Tavella
Dicyphus errans (Wolff) has been shown to be a suitable biocontrol agent for Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). This generalist predator shares various host plants with the exotic pest, and these interactions could be exploited to enhance pest control. Therefore, host preference, survival rate and development times of the predator and prey were investigated on crop and non-crop plant species. Among the tested plants, the favourite hosts were Solanum species for T. absoluta, and herb Robert, European black nightshade, courgette and tomato for D...
January 30, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125745/radiocesium-transfer-in-forest-insect-communities-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#20
Yumiko Ishii, Seiji Hayashi, Noriko Takamura
To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5-2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi...
2017: PloS One
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