keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Omnivore

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816362/social-space-and-cultural-class-divisions-the-forms-of-capital-and-contemporary-lifestyle-differentiation
#1
Magne Flemmen, Vegard Jarness, Lennart Rosenlund
In this article, we address whether and how contemporary social classes are marked by distinct lifestyles. We assess the model of the social space, a novel approach to class analysis pioneered by Bourdieu's Distinction. Although pivotal in Bourdieu's work, this model is too often overlooked in later research, making its contemporary relevance difficult to assess. We redress this by using the social space as a framework through which to study the cultural manifestation of class divisions in lifestyle differences in contemporary Norwegian society...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815585/mammal-induced-trophic-cascades-in-invertebrate-food-webs-are-modulated-by-grazing-intensity-in-subalpine-grassland
#2
Martijn L Vandegehuchte, Martin Schütz, Frederic de Schaetzen, Anita C Risch
1. Even though mammalian herbivores can exert strong indirect effects on other animals by altering the vegetation, the study of trophic cascades retains a focus on apex predators and their top-down forces. Bottom-up trophic interaction chains induced by mammalian herbivores, particularly in invertebrate food webs, remain largely unexplored. 2. We tested whether effects of mammalian herbivores on the vegetation ricochet back up several trophic levels of the invertebrate food web. We further tested two alternative hypotheses: the strength of herbivore-induced indirect interactions either increases with plant productivity because of a concurrent higher grazing intensity, or it decreases because of a higher plant tolerance to grazing...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814977/worse-inflammatory-profile-in-omnivores-than-in-vegetarians-associates-with-the-gut-microbiota-composition
#3
Ana Carolina Franco-de-Moraes, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
AIMS: To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile. METHODS: A total of 268 non-diabetic individuals were stratified into groups of dietary types (strict vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and omnivores). The taxonomic composition and phylogenetic structure of the microbiota were obtained through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802161/physicochemical-analysis-of-permian-coprolites-from-brazil
#4
M I C Rodrigues, J H da Silva, F Eroni P Santos, P Dentzien-Dias, J C Cisneros, A S de Menezes, P T C Freire, B C Viana
In this paper we performed the study of two coprolites (fossilized feces) collected from the exposed levels of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin, and Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Sedimentary Basin, both of the Palaeozoic era (Permian age). They were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, infrared, Raman and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques in order to aid our understanding of the processes of fossilization and to discuss issues related to the feeding habits of the animals which generated those coprolites, probably cartilaginous fishes...
August 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790380/trophic-isotopic-carbon-variation-increases-with-pond-s-hydroperiod-evidence-from-an-austral-ephemeral-ecosystem
#5
Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J Wasserman, P William Froneman, Olaf L F Weyl
Trophic variation in food web structure occurs among and within ecosystems. The magnitude of variation, however, differs from system to system. In ephemeral pond ecosystems, temporal dynamics are relatively more important than in many systems given that hydroperiod is the ultimate factor determining the presence of an aquatic state. Here, using stable isotopes we tested for changes in trophic chain length and shape over time in these dynamic aquatic ecosystems. We found that lower and intermediate trophic level structure increased over time...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780065/eating-and-health-behaviors-in-vegans-compared-to-omnivores-dispelling-common-myths
#6
Sydney Heiss, Jaime A Coffino, Julia M Hormes
Studies comparing eating behaviors in individuals avoiding meat and other animal products to omnivores have produced largely inconclusive findings, in part due to a failure to obtain sufficiently large samples of vegan participants to make meaningful comparisons. This study examined eating and health behaviors in a large community sample of dietary vegans ("vegans"), compared to omnivores. Participants (n = 578, 80.4% female) completed an online questionnaire assessing a range of eating- and other health-related attitudes and behaviors...
August 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770674/do-native-rodents-prey-on-land-snails-an-experimental-and-quantitative-study-in-hokkaido-japan
#7
Yuta Morii, Hiroko Wakabayashi
Predator-prey interaction is one of the most important and pervasive pressures in the ecology and evolution of prey species. However, accurate description of the food web is sometimes extremely difficult as there are many predator-prey interactions in the wild are obscure. Recent studies have reported that two closely related land snails, Karaftohelix editha and K. gainesi, on Hokkaido Island, Japan, were diversified due to predation, probably by carabid beetles. However, it is unclear 1) whether native rodents prey upon land snails on Hokkaido Island, and 2) how frequently land snails are preyed upon by rodents in this region, although it has been reported that several species of rodents are predators of land snails in many regions...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768268/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-primary-neocortical-areas-in-selected-mammals
#8
Elisabeth van Kann, Bruno Cozzi, Patrick R Hof, Helmut H A Oelschläger
The present study focuses on the relationship between neocortical structures and functional aspects in three selected mammalian species. Our aim was to compare cortical layering and neuron density in the projection areas (somatomotor, M1; somatosensory, S1; auditory, A1; and visual, V1; each in a wider sense). Morphological and design-based stereological analysis was performed in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) as a representative terrestrial hoofed animal (artiodactyl) and the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) as a highly derived related aquatic mammal (cetartiodactyl)...
July 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757542/isogroup-selection-to-optimize-biocontrol-increases-cannibalism-in-omnivorous-zoophytophagous-bugs
#9
François Dumont, Denis Réale, Eric Lucas
Zoophytophagous insects can substitute animals for plant resources when prey is scarce. Many arthropods feed on conspecifics to survive in these conditions. An individual's tendency for cannibalism may depend on its genotype along with its diet specialization, in interaction with the availability of alternative food resources. We compared two isogroup lines of the zoophytophagous mullein bug, either specialized on animal or on plant diets, that were generated to improve biocontrol. We predicted that: (1) bugs from the prey-specialized line would show higher levels of cannibalism than bugs from the pollen-specialized line, and (2) both lines would decrease cannibalism levels in the presence of their preferred resource...
July 25, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755647/health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-fish-and-accumulation-patterns-in-food-web-in-the-upper-yangtze-river-china
#10
Yujun Yi, Caihong Tang, Tieci Yi, Zhifeng Yang, Shanghong Zhang
This study aims to concern the distribution of As, Cr, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in surface sediment, zoobenthos and fishes, and quantify the accumulative ecological risk and human health risk of metals in river ecological system based on the field investigation in the upper Yangtze River. The results revealed high ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Zn and Pb in sediment. As and Cd in fish presented potential human health risk of metals by assessing integrated target hazard quotient results based on average and maximum concentrations, respectively...
July 26, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754955/isotopic-analyses-suggest-mammoth-and-plant-in-the-diet-of-the-oldest-anatomically-modern-humans-from-far-southeast-europe
#11
Dorothée G Drucker, Yuichi I Naito, Stéphane Péan, Sandrine Prat, Laurent Crépin, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Simon Puaud, Martina Lázničková-Galetová, Marylène Patou-Mathis, Aleksandr Yanevich, Hervé Bocherens
Relatively high (15)N abundances in bone collagen of early anatomically modern humans in Europe have often been interpreted as a specific consumption of freshwater resources, even if mammoth is an alternative high (15)N prey. At Buran-Kaya III, access to associated fauna in a secured archaeological context and application of recently developed isotopic analyses of individuals amino acids offer the opportunity to further examine this hypothesis. The site of Buran-Kaya III is located in south Crimea and has provided a rich archaeological sequence including two Upper Palaeolithic layers, from which human fossils were retrieved and directly dated as from 37...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734211/organotropism-of-methylmercury-in-fish-of-the-southeastern-of-brazil
#12
L S Azevedo, M G Almeida, W R Bastos, M S Suzuki, M C N N Recktenvald, M T S Bastos, C S Vergílio, C M M de Souza
This is one of the first studies to evaluate the effect of biometric variables (total length and weight), diet, and abiotic matrices (sediment and water column) on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) of four fish (two carnivore-invertivores, Pimelodus fur and Pachyurus adspersus; one carnivore-piscivore, Oligosarcus hepsetus; and one omnivore, Pimelodella lateristriga) in the lower section of a river in southeastern Brazil. Samples of fish (n = 120), water (n = 5) and sediment (n = 5) were collected at five sites characterized by pollution with mercury due to the use of organomercury fungicides and stream bed gold mining, commonly carried out in that section of the river in the 1980s...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733610/environmental-impact-of-omnivorous-ovo-lacto-vegetarian-and-vegan-diet
#13
Alice Rosi, Pedro Mena, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Silvia Turroni, Erasmo Neviani, Ilario Ferrocino, Raffaella Di Cagno, Luca Ruini, Roberto Ciati, Donato Angelino, Jane Maddock, Marco Gobbetti, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Francesca Scazzina
Food and beverage consumption has a great impact on the environment, although there is a lack of information concerning the whole diet. The environmental impact of 153 Italian adults (51 omnivores, 51 ovo-lacto-vegetarians, 51 vegans) and the inter-individual variability within dietary groups were assessed in a real-life context. Food intake was monitored with a 7-d dietary record to calculate nutritional values and environmental impacts (carbon, water, and ecological footprints). The Italian Mediterranean Index was used to evaluate the nutritional quality of each diet...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724729/food-web-persistence-in-fragmented-landscapes
#14
Jinbao Liao, Daniel Bearup, Bernd Blasius
Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a key driver of biodiversity loss. There has been some progress in the theory of spatial food webs; however, to date, practically nothing is known about how patch configurational fragmentation influences multi-trophic food web dynamics. We develop a spatially extended patch-dynamic model for different food webs by linking patch connectivity with trophic-dependent dispersal (i.e. higher trophic levels displaying longer-range dispersal). Using this model, we find that species display different sensitivities to patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their trophic position and the overall food web structure...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#15
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
July 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699068/health-and-nutritional-status-of-vegetarian-candidates-for-bariatric-surgery-and-practical-recommendations
#16
Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Keren Hod, Assaf Buch, Limor Mardy-Tilbor, Ziva Regev, Tair Ben-Porat, Nasser Sakran, David Goitein, Asnat Raziel
INTRODUCTION: Data on vegetarianism and bariatric surgery (BS) are scarce. We herein describe the health and nutritional status of vegetarian patients who plan to undergo BS and propose combined recommendations for vegetarian patients who undergo BS, based on our clinical experience and current scientific literature in both nutrition fields. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all primary laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies (LSG) performed at a bariatric center of excellence between January 2014 and November 2016 was carried out querying patients who declared a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle before surgery...
July 11, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690827/stabilizing-mechanisms-in-a-food-web-with-an-introduced-omnivore
#17
Monica Granados, Sean Duffy, Christopher W McKindsey, Gregor F Fussmann
Intraguild predation (IGP) is an omnivorous food web configuration in which the top predator consumes both a competitor (consumer) and a second prey that it shares with the competitor. This omnivorous configuration occurs frequently in food webs, but theory suggests that it is unstable unless stabilizing mechanisms exist that can decrease the strength of the omnivore and consumer interaction. Although these mechanisms have been documented in native food webs, little is known about whether they operate in the context of an introduced species...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690792/the-most-common-diet-results-in-low-reproduction-in-a-generalist-seabird
#18
Susanne van Donk, Kees C J Camphuysen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jaap van der Meer
Dietary specialization has been described across a wide range of taxa in the animal kingdom. Fitness consequences are, however, not well documented. We examined the reproductive consequences of different dietary specializations in the herring gull Larus argentatus, an omnivorous seabird, using an extensive dataset which includes breeding and dietary data of 10 successive years. We hypothesized that pairs that focused on prey of higher energetic value would yield higher fledging rates. An alternative hypothesis is that pairs that relied on more resources simultaneously would reproduce better...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688114/shape-analysis-of-the-jaws-between-two-minnow-species-over-ontogeny
#19
Colby J Gerth, Anabela Maia
This study compares sand shiner (Notropis stramineus) and silverjaw (Ericymba buccata) minnows, in terms of the morphological shape changes of the upper, lower, and pharyngeal jaws over ontogeny. These two species of minnows initially feed on midge larvae and undergo an ontogenic prey shift. The traditional morphometrics measured-total length, snout-to-vent length, eye diameter, premaxilla length, lower jaw length, gape-were regressed onto total length to test for allometry. Digital pictures were processed with tpsDig and further analyzed with MorphoJ utilizing a regular geometric morphometrics procedure using principle component analyses...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686608/biodiversity-conservation-in-an-anthropized-landscape-trees-not-patch-size-drive-bird-community-composition-in-a-low-input-agro-ecosystem
#20
Eric Mellink, Mónica E Riojas-López, Melinda Cárdenas-García
One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
20853
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"