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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633499/lateralized-basal-ganglia-vulnerability-to-pesticide-exposure-in-asymptomatic-agricultural-workers
#3
Mechelle M Lewis, Nicholas W Sterling, Guangwei Du, Eun-Young Lee, Grace Shyu, Michael Goldenberg, Thomas Allen, Christy Stetter, Lan Kong, Shedra Amy Snipes, Byron C Jones, Honglei Chen, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Background: Pesticide exposure is linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder marked by dopamine cell loss in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia (BG) that often presents asymmetrically. We previously reported that pesticide-exposed agricultural workers (AW) have nigral diffusion tensor (DTI) changes. The current study sought to confirm this finding, and explore its hemisphere and regional specificity within BG structures using an independent sample population...
June 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633048/affective-traits-and-history-of-depression-are-related-to-ventral-striatum-connectivity
#4
Sophie R DelDonno, Lisanne M Jenkins, Natania A Crane, Robin Nusslock, Kelly A Ryan, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
INTRODUCTION: Studying remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) facilitates a better understanding of neural mechanisms for risk, given that confounding effects of active symptoms are removed. Disrupted functional connectivity has been reported in multiple networks in MDD. However, no study to date of rMDD has specifically examined connectivity of the ventral striatum (VS), a region highly implicated in reward and motivation. We investigated functional connectivity of the VS in individuals with and without a history of MDD, and in relation to affective personality traits...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632695/serum-ceruloplasmin-and-striatal-dopamine-transporter-density-in-parkinson-disease-comparison-with-123i-fp-cit-spect
#5
Yoo Sung Song, Jong-Min Kim, Kyeong Joon Kim, Ji Young Yun, Sang Eun Kim
PURPOSE: In patients with Parkinson disease (PD), decreased serum ceruloplasmin levels have been observed. This study investigated a correlation between serum ceruloplasmin-along with its related serum markers- and striatal presynaptic dopaminergic denervation measured with I-FP-CIT SPECT. METHODS: We analyzed a total of 141 de novo patients divided into 2 groups: the PD group (107 patients with PD) and the disease control group (34 patients with vascular pseudoparkinsonism, essential tremor, or drug-induced parkinsonism)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631147/the-motor-cortical-representation-of-a-muscle-is-not-homogeneous-in-brain-connectivity
#6
Jo Armour Smith, Alaa Albishi, Sarine Babikian, Skulpan Asavasopon, Beth E Fisher, Jason J Kutch
Functional connectivity patterns of the motor cortical representational area of single muscles have not been extensively mapped in humans, particularly for the axial musculature. Functional connectivity may provide a neural substrate for adaptation of muscle activity in axial muscles that have both voluntary and postural functions. The purpose of this study was to combine brain stimulation and neuroimaging to both map the cortical representation of the external oblique (EO) in primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and to establish the resting-state functional connectivity associated with this representation...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628541/apathy-due-to-injury-of-the-prefrontocaudate-tract-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
In this study, we report on a patient who developed apathy resulting from injury to the prefrontocaudate tract following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was observed on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 46-year-old female patient was involved in a bus accident. Her history included intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left putamen 4 years ago before the head trauma, and her family reported that she had fully recovered. She developed apathy after the TBI, worsening over time. Decreased neural connectivity of the left caudate nucleus (CN) to the left upper medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) resulting from the ICH was observed on the pre-TBI-DTT, whereas on the post-TBI-DTT (28 months after TBI), the neural connectivity of the left CN to the left upper medial PFC was increased, whereas that to the left lower medial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex was decreased...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626843/globally-optimal-label-fusion-with-shape-priors
#8
Ipek Oguz, Satyananda Kashyap, Hongzhi Wang, Paul Yushkevich, Milan Sonka
Multi-atlas label fusion methods have gained popularity in a variety of segmentation tasks given their attractive performance. Graph-based segmentation methods are widely used given their global optimality guarantee. We propose a novel approach, GOLF, that combines the strengths of these two approaches. GOLF incorporates shape priors to the label-fusion problem and provides a globally optimal solution even for the multi-label scenario, while also leveraging the highly accurate posterior maps from a multi-atlas label fusion approach...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626291/machine-learning-in-a-graph-framework-for-subcortical-segmentation
#9
Zhihui Guo, Satyananda Kashyap, Milan Sonka, Ipek Oguz
Automated and reliable segmentation of subcortical structures from human brain magnetic resonance images is of great importance for volumetric and shape analyses in quantitative neuroimaging studies. However, poor boundary contrast and variable shape of these structures make the automated segmentation a tough task. We propose a 3D graph-based machine learning method, called LOGISMOS-RF, to segment the caudate and the putamen from brain MRI scans in a robust and accurate way. An atlas-based tissue classification and bias-field correction method is applied to the images to generate an initial segmentation for each structure...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623417/a-validated-clinical-mri-injury-scoring-system-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#10
Shamik B Trivedi, Zachary A Vesoulis, Rakesh Rao, Steve M Liao, Joshua S Shimony, Robert C McKinstry, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: Deep nuclear gray matter injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We previously published a qualitative MRI injury scoring system utilizing serial T1-weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the MRI scoring system with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI scans from neonates with moderate to severe HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619178/changes-in-subcortical-shape-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-chronic-insomnia
#11
Dae Lim Koo, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Jae-Sung Lim, Joon-Kyung Seong, Eun Yeon Joo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine morphological changes in subcortical structures via surface-based analysis and to correlate local shape changes with cognitive function. METHODS: We analyzed subcortical brain morphology and compared the shape changes with clinical and neuropsychological features in patients with chronic insomnia. RESULTS: Hippocampal atrophy was associated with higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (r = -0...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608008/effects-of-social-reorganization-on-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-cocaine-self-administration-in-male-cynomolgus-monkeys
#12
P W Czoty, R W Gould, H D Gage, M A Nader
RATIONALE: Studies have demonstrated that brain dopamine D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) and the reinforcing effects of cocaine can be influenced by a monkey's position in the social dominance hierarchy. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we manipulated the social ranks of monkeys by reorganizing social groups and assessed effects on D2/D3R availability and cocaine self-administration. METHODS: Male cynomolgus monkeys (N = 12) had been trained to self-administer cocaine under a concurrent cocaine-food reinforcement schedule...
June 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603026/widespread-reduction-of-dopamine-cell-bodies-and-terminals-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-a-low-dose-regimen-of-mdma-during-adolescence
#13
Cristina Cadoni, Augusta Pisanu, Nicola Simola, Lucia Frau, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Silvia Corongiu, Christian Dessì, Annesha Sil, Antonio Plumitallo, Jadwiga Wardas, Gaetano Di Chiara
Although MDMA (3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) neurotoxicity in serotonin neurons is largely recognized in a wide variety of species including man, neurotoxicity in dopamine (DA) neurons is thought to be species-specific. MDMA is mainly consumed by adolescents, often in conjunction with caffeine (Energy Drinks) and this association has been reported to exacerbate MDMA toxic effects. In order to model these aspects of MDMA use, vis-à-vis their impact on DA neurons, we investigated the effects of adolescent exposure to low doses of MDMA (5 mg/kg for 10 days), alone or in combination with caffeine (10 mg/kg) on neuronal and functional DA indices and on recognition memory in adult rats...
June 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598121/-regional-homogeneity-changes-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorders-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#14
Min-Lan Yuan, Zheng-Jia Ren, Hong-Ru Zhu, Yan Zhang, Ya-Jing Meng, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorders (SAD) before and after cognitive behavior therapy (CBT),and determine the neuromechanism of formation,treatment and recovery of SAD. METHODS: Fifteen SAD patients were treated with an eight-week group CBT.The patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state before and after the treatments.Eighteen healthy controls (HC) were recruited and underwent a baseline fMRI scan...
November 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597409/progression-and-persistence-of-neurotoxicity-induced-by-mdma-in-dopaminergic-regions-of-the-mouse-brain-and-association-with-noradrenergic-gabaergic-and-serotonergic-damage
#15
Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Nicola Simola
The amphetamine-related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is known to induce neurotoxic damage in dopaminergic regions of the mouse brain. In order to characterize how the number of administrations influenced the severity of MDMA-induced dopaminergic damage and to describe the localization and persistence of this damage, we evaluated the changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in different regions of the mouse brain. Moreover, we investigated whether dopaminergic damage was associated with noradrenergic, GABAergic, and serotonergic damage, by evaluating the changes in noradrenaline transporter (NET), glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67), and serotonin transporter (SERT)...
June 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595893/altered-morphology-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#16
Nicole E Neef, Christoph Bütfering, Tibor Auer, F Luise Metzger, Harald A Euler, Jens Frahm, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
PURPOSE: Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595287/conversion-to-parkinson-disease-in-the-pars-hyposmic-and-dopamine-transporter-deficit-prodromal-cohort
#17
Danna Jennings, Andrew Siderowf, Matthew Stern, John Seibyl, Shirley Eberly, David Oakes, Kenneth Marek
Importance: Detecting individuals at risk for Parkinson disease (PD) during the prodromal phase could clarify disease mechanisms and allow for treatment earlier in the disease process to possibly slow or prevent the onset of motor PD. Objective: To determine if the combination of smell identification testing followed by dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can accurately and efficiently identify individuals from the general population at risk for conversion to a clinical diagnosis of PD...
June 8, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591153/effects-of-gravity-changes-on-gene-expression-of-bdnf-and-serotonin-receptors-in-the-mouse-brain
#18
Chihiro Ishikawa, Haiyan Li, Rin Ogura, Yuko Yoshimura, Takashi Kudo, Masaki Shirakawa, Dai Shiba, Satoru Takahashi, Hironobu Morita, Takashi Shiga
Spaceflight entails various stressful environmental factors including microgravity. The effects of gravity changes have been studied extensively on skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, immune and vestibular systems, but those on the nervous system are not well studied. The alteration of gravity in ground-based animal experiments is one of the approaches taken to address this issue. Here we investigated the effects of centrifugation-induced gravity changes on gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin receptors (5-HTRs) in the mouse brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585051/the-role-of-the-putamen-in-language-a-meta-analytic-connectivity-modeling-study
#19
Nestor Viñas-Guasch, Yan Jing Wu
The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al...
June 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582868/dynamic-prediction-of-motor-diagnosis-in%C3%A2-huntington-s-disease-using-a-joint-modeling-approach
#20
Kan Li, Erin Furr Stimming, Jane S Paulsen, Sheng Luo
BACKGROUND: Prediction of motor diagnosis in Huntington's disease (HD) can be improved by incorporating other phenotypic and biological clinical measures in addition to cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and age. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare various clinical and biomarker trajectories for tracking HD progression and predicting motor conversion. METHODS: Participants were from the PREDICT-HD study. We constructed a mixed-effect model to describe the change of measures while jointly modeling the process with time to HD diagnosis...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
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