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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337350/alterations-in-mglu5-receptor-expression-and-function-in-the-striatum-in-a-rat-depression-model
#1
Li-Min Mao, John Q Wang
Major depressive disorder is a common form of mental illness. Many brain regions are implicated in the pathophysiology and symptomatology of depression. Among key brain areas is the striatum that controls reward and mood and is involved in the development of core depression-like behavior in animal models of depression. While molecular mechanisms in this region underlying depression-related behavior are poorly understood, the glutamatergic input to the striatum is believed to play a role. In this study, we investigated changes in metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor expression and signaling in the striatum of adult rats in response to prolonged (10-12 weeks) social isolation, a pre-validated animal paradigm modeling depression in adulthood...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#2
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#3
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#4
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330884/synapsin-iii-is-a-key-component-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-in-lewy-bodies-of-pd-brains
#5
Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Tatiana Varanita, Michela Zaltieri, Vanessa Porrini, Isabella Tessari, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Cristina Missale, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Luigi Bubacco, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Lewy bodies (LB) and Lewy neurites (LN), which are primarily composed of α-synuclein (α-syn), are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We recently found that the neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (syn III) controls dopamine release via cooperation with α-syn and modulates α-syn aggregation. Here, we observed that LB and LN, in the substantia nigra of PD patients and hippocampus of one subject with DLB, displayed a marked immunopositivity for syn III...
January 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324935/right-putamen-and-age-are-the-most-discriminant-features-to-diagnose-parkinson-s-disease-by-using-123i-fp-cit-brain-spet-data-by-using-an-artificial-neural-network-classifier-a-classification-tree-clt
#6
S Cascianelli, C Tranfaglia, M L Fravolini, F Bianconi, M Minestrini, S Nuvoli, N Tambasco, M E Dottorini, B Palumbo
OBJECTIVE: The differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other conditions, such as essential tremor and drug-induced parkinsonian syndrome or normal aging brain, represents a diagnostic challenge. 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET is able to contribute to the differential diagnosis. Semiquantitative analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake in basal ganglia (caudate nuclei and putamina) is very useful to support the diagnostic process. An artificial neural network classifier using 123I-FP-CIT brain SPET data, a classification tree (CIT), was applied...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323935/shape-related-characteristics-of-age-related-differences-in-subcortical-structures
#7
Christopher R Madan
OBJECTIVES: With an increasing aging population, it is important to understand biological markers of aging. Subcortical volume is known to differ with age; additionally considering shape-related characteristics may provide a better index of age-related differences. Fractal dimensionality is more sensitive to age-related differences, but is borne out of mathematical principles, rather than neurobiological relevance. We considered four distinct measures of shape and how they relate to aging and fractal dimensionality: surface-to-volume ratio, sphericity, long-axis curvature, and surface texture...
January 11, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321969/the-two-year-progression-of-structural-and-functional-cerebral-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318509/friend-versus-foe-neural-correlates-of-prosocial-decisions-for-liked-and-disliked-peers
#9
Elisabeth Schreuders, Eduard T Klapwijk, Geert-Jan Will, Berna Güroğlu
Although the majority of our social interactions are with people we know, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of sharing valuable resources with familiar others. Using an ecologically valid research paradigm, this functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of prosocial and selfish behavior in interactions with real-life friends and disliked peers in young adults. Participants (N = 27) distributed coins between themselves and another person, where they could make selfish choices that maximized their own gains or prosocial choices that maximized outcomes of the other...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317603/subcortical-association-with-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-a-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Daisuke Koshiyama, Masaki Fukunaga, Naohiro Okada, Fumio Yamashita, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Kazutaka Ohi, Haruo Fujino, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Kiyoto Kasai, Ryota Hashimoto
Memory performance is severely impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Although several studies have reported a relationship between memory performance and hippocampal volume, only a few structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have investigated the relationship between memory performance and subcortical structures other than hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between memory performance and subcortical regional volumes in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314418/cerebral-blood-volume-mapping-with-ferumoxytol-in-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri-comparison-to-standard-of-care
#11
Csanad G Varallyay, Eric Nesbit, Andrea Horvath, Peter Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Seymur Gahramanov, Leslie L Muldoon, Xin Li, William D Rooney, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood volume (CBV) mapping with a dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion technique has become a clinical tool in diagnosing and follow-up of brain tumors. Ferumoxytol, a long-circulating iron oxide nanoparticle, has been tested for CBV mapping, but the optimal dose has not been established. PURPOSE: To compare ferumoxytol DSC of two different doses to standard of care gadoteridol by analyzing time-intensity curves and CBV maps in normal-appearing brain regions...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309953/facial-emotion-processing-in-patients-with-seizure-disorders
#12
Jerzy P Szaflarski, Jane B Allendorfer, Rodolphe Nenert, W Curt LaFrance, Helen I Barkan, Jennifer DeWolfe, Sandipan Pati, Ashley E Thomas, Lawrence Ver Hoef
Studies of emotion processing are needed to better understand the pathophysiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). We examined the differences in facial emotion processing between 12 patients with PNES, 12 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and 24 matched healthy controls (HCs) using fMRI with emotional faces task (EFT) (happy/sad/fearful/neutral) and resting state connectivity. Compared with TLE, patients with PNES exhibited increased fMRI response to happy, neutral, and fearful faces in visual, temporal, and/or parietal regions and decreased fMRI response to sad faces in the putamen bilaterally...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308437/brain-volume-correlates-with-duration-of-abstinence-from-substance-abuse-in-a-region-specific-and-substance-specific-manner
#13
Cole Korponay, David S Kosson, Jean Decety, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
Background: Human neuroimaging studies indicate that the loss of brain volume associated with substance abuse may be recovered during abstinence. Subcortical and prefrontal cortical regions involved in reward and decision-making are among the regions most consistently implicated in damage and recovery from substance abuse, but the relative capacities of these different brain regions to recover volume during abstinence remains unclear, and it is unknown whether recovery capacities depend on the substance that was abused...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305750/visual-symptom-provocation-in-skin-picking-disorder-an-fmri-study
#14
Anne Schienle, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a common mental disorder characterized by recurrent and excessive picking of dermatological irregularities. Different disorder models have been developed to explain this behavior, but empirical evidence is still scarce. One model (the disgust-related disease avoidance model) suggests that SPD might be understood as pathological grooming elicited by skin imperfections that singal possible infection. Twenty-five women with SPD and 19 matched controls viewed and rated images depicting skin irregularities and smooth skin during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
January 5, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305082/hyperglycemic-chorea-ballism-ascertained-over-15-years-at-a-referral-medical-center
#15
Conor Ryan, J Eric Ahlskog, Rodolfo Savica
OBJECTIVE: To describe chorea/ballism triggered by a hyperglycemic event. METHODS: We used the electronic records system at Mayo Clinic-Rochester to identify patients diagnosed with chorea or ballism from January 1st, 2000 through December 31st, 2014. Each record was reviewed to confirm chorea/ballism. From these cases we selected those that developed chorea/ballism within a month after a hyperglycemic episode (blood glucose >300 mg/dL). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings were analyzed...
December 29, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305037/transauricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-at-auricular-acupoints-kindey-co10-yidan-co11-liver-co12-and-shenmen-tf4-can-induce-auditory-and-limbic-cortices-activation-measured-by-fmri
#16
Liyan Peng, Ketao Mu, Aiguo Liu, Liangqiang Zhou, Yueyue Gao, Imrit Tejvansh Shenoy, Zhigang Mei, Qingguo Chen
The purpose of this study was to explore the central mechanism of transauricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) to human by fMRI and to find a suitable taVNS site for potential tinnitus treatment. 24 healthy subjects aged between 28 and 38 years were enrolled in the experiment. 8 subjects were stimulated in the auricular acupoints Kindey (CO10), Yidan (CO11), Liver (CO12) and Shenmen (TF4) in the left ear, 8 subjects were stimulated at the anterior wall of the auditory canal and left lower limb as an anterior stimulation group; 8 persons who were arranged in a sham group received taVNS at the left ear lobe and tail of the helix...
December 24, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304386/the-neurobiology-of-self-face-recognition-among-depressed-adolescents
#17
Karina Quevedo, Madeline Harms, Mitchell Sauder, Hannah Scott, Sumaya Mohamed, Kathleen M Thomas, Michael-Paul Schallmo, Garry Smyda
OBJECTIVE: Depression is linked to alterations in both emotion and self-processing. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess neural activation in healthy and depressed youth to a novel task that combined emotion processing with self-face recognition. METHODS: An fMRI study involving 81 adolescents (50.6% females; Mage=14.61, SD=1.65) comprised of depressed (DEP, n=43), and healthy controls (HC, n=38). Participants completed a clinical interview and self-report measures during an initial assessment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298483/a-metal-protein-attenuating-compound-for-pet-neuroimaging-synthesis-and-preclinical-evaluation-of-11c-pbt2
#18
Hema S Krishnan, Vadim Bernard-Gauthier, Michael Stephen Placzek, Kenneth Dahl, Vidya Narayanaswami, Elijahu Livni, Zhen Chen, Jing Yang, Thomas Lee Collier, Chongzhao Ran, Jacob M Hooker, Steven H Liang, Neil Vasdev
Dyshomeostasis or abnormal accumulation of metal ions such as copper, zinc and iron have been linked to the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). 5,7-Dichloro-2-((dimethylamino)methyl)quinolin-8-ol, PBT2, is a second generation metal protein-attenuating compound that has recently advanced in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of AD and HD based on promising preclinical efficacy data. Herein, we report the first radiosynthesis and preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging evaluation of [11C]PBT2 in rodents and nonhuman primates...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297155/brain-iron-deposition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-and-without-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-in-vivo-susceptibility-mapping-study
#19
Qifang Yang, Lina Zhou, Chen Liu, Daihong Liu, Yang Zhang, Chang Li, Yongning Shang, Xin Wei, Chuanming Li, Jian Wang
This study was performed to investigate iron deposition in the brain of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the associated cognitive impairments. Sixty patients diagnosed with T2DM were subjected to neuropsychological tests to determine their cognitive status, and the results were used to subdivide the patients into a T2DM without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (n = 30) and a T2DM with MCI group (n = 30). All patients underwent high-resolution susceptibility-weighted imaging, and data processing was performed using SMART (Susceptibility Mapping and Phase Artifacts Removal Toolbox) software...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297154/altered-topological-patterns-of-brain-functional-networks-in-crohn-s-disease
#20
Peng Liu, Ru Li, Chunhui Bao, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Huangan Wu, Wei Qin
Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported to relate with the functional and structural alterations in several local brain regions. However, it remains unknown whether the possible abnormalities of information transmission and integration between brain regions are associated with CD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topological alterations of brain functional networks and the potential relationships between the neuroimaging findings and CD clinical characteristics. 43 remissive CD patients and 37 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited to obtain their resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
January 3, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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