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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107446/amygdala-atrophy-and-its-functional-disconnection-with-the-cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-circuit-in-major-depressive-disorder-in-females
#1
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Connie Svob, Jun Long, Xiaofu He, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Jian Dong, Zuping Zhang, Zhishun Wang, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in females than males. Furthermore, female patients with MDD tend to manifest comorbid anxiety. Few studies have explored the potential anatomical and functional brain changes associated with MDD in females. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and functional changes underlying MDD in females, especially within the context of comorbid anxiety. METHODS: In this study, we recruited antidepressant-free females with MDD (N = 35) and healthy female controls (HC; N = 23)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106567/fractional-anisotropy-and-mean-diffusion-as-measures-of-dopaminergic-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-challenging-results
#2
Niklas Lenfeldt, Johan Eriksson, Björn Åström, Lars Forsgren, Susanna Jakobson
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been purported as an imaging technique to assess dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To test if fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD) in the basal ganglia as measured by DTI correlates with dopaminergic function as measured by dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) SPECT. METHODS: One-hundred and eleven patients with Parkinson's disease (71±10 years) and thirty-one controls (68±7 years) performed DTI, DAT and D2R SPECT at baseline and four follow-ups (1-year: 89 patients/zero controls; 3-year: 72/11; 5-year: 48/17; and 8-year: 13/13)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104737/cerebral-blood-flow-alterations-specific-to-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#3
Chuanjun Zhuo, Jiajia Zhu, Wen Qin, Hongru Qu, Xiaolei Ma, Chunshui Yu
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been associated with deficits in auditory and speech-related networks. However, the resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations specific to AVHs in schizophrenia remain unknown. AIMS: To explore AVH-related CBF alterations in individuals with schizophrenia. METHOD: In total, 35 individuals with schizophrenia with AVHs, 41 individuals with schizophrenia without AVHs and 50 controls underwent arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104573/anomalous-subcortical-morphology-in-boys-but-not-girls-with-adhd-compared-to-typically-developing-controls-and-correlates-with-emotion-dysregulation
#4
Karen E Seymour, Xiaoying Tang, Deana Crocetti, Stewart H Mostofsky, Michael I Miller, Keri S Rosch
There has been limited investigation of volume and shape difference in subcortical structures in children with ADHD and a paucity of examination of the influence of sex on these findings. The objective of this study was to examine morphology (volume and shape) of subcortical structures and their association with emotion dysregulation (ED) in girls and boys with ADHD as compared to their typically-developing (TD) counterparts. Participants included 218 children ages 8-12 years old with and without DSM-IV ADHD...
January 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101035/early-motor-fluctuations-in-a-patient-with-striatonigral-degeneration
#5
Fumihito Yoshii, Yusuke Moriya, Tomohide Ohnuki, Wakoh Takahashi, Masafuchi Ryo
We report a 44-year-old female with striatonigral degeneration (SND) who showed wearing-off oscillations after 4 months of levodopa treatment. The patient presented with asymmetric left-side dominant rigidity, and levodopa was effective at first. However, she began to show wearing-off oscillations of motor symptoms, which gradually worsened thereafter. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed linear lateral putamen hyperintensities, and positron emission tomography (PET) studies using (18)F-fluorodopa (FD) and (11)C-N-methylspiperon (NMSP) showed a marked decrease of radioactivity in the right putamen, especially in the posterior putamen...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099446/reconstruction-of-the-cortical-maps-of-the-tasmanian-tiger-and-comparison-to-the-tasmanian-devil
#7
Gregory S Berns, Ken W S Ashwell
The last known Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)-aka the thylacine-died in 1936. Because its natural behavior was never scientifically documented, we are left to infer aspects of its behavior from museum specimens and historical recollections of bushmen. Recent advances in brain imaging have made it possible to scan postmortem specimens of a wide range of animals, even more than a decade old. Any thylacine brain, however, would be more than 100 years old. Here, we show that it is possible to reconstruct white matter tracts in two thylacine brains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098719/regional-gray-matter-volumes-as-related-to-psychomotor-slowing-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
Karen A Nunley, Christopher M Ryan, Howard J Aizenstein, Rebecca L MacCloud, Trevor J Orchard, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: Psychomotor slowing is a common cognitive complication in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but its neuroanatomical correlates and risk factors are unclear. In non-diabetic adults, smaller gray matter volume (GMV) and presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with psychomotor slowing. We hypothesize that smaller GMV in prefronto-parietal regions explains T1D-related psychomotor slowing. We also inspect the contribution of microvascular disease and hyperglycemia. METHODS: GMV, WMH, and glucose levels were measured concurrently with a test of psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, DSST) in 95 adults with childhood-onset T1D (mean age/duration=49/41 years) and 135 similarly-aged non-T1D adults...
January 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094810/aberrant-development-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-caregiver-maltreatment-of-offspring
#9
C-G Yan, M Rincón-Cortés, C Raineki, E Sarro, S Colcombe, D N Guilfoyle, Z Yang, S Gerum, B B Biswal, M P Milham, R M Sullivan, F X Castellanos
Caregiver maltreatment induces vulnerability to later-life psychopathology. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggest changes in prefrontal and limbic circuitry underlie this susceptibility. We examined this question using a rat model of maternal maltreatment and methods translated from humans, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Rat pups were reared by mothers provided with insufficient or abundant bedding for nest building from postnatal (PN) days 8 to 12 and underwent behavioral assessments of affect-related behaviors (forced swim, sucrose preference and social interaction) in adolescence (PN45) and early adulthood (PN60)...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092779/aberrant-spontaneous-neural-activity-and-correlation-with-evoked-brain-potentials-in-first-episode-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#10
Zhe Li, Wei Lei, Wei Deng, Zhong Zheng, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Qiang Wang, Chaohua Huang, Na Li, David A Collier, Qiyong Gong, Tao Li
The goals of the study were to analyze spontaneous neural activity between deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia (DS, NDS) using resting-state fMRI, and to investigate the correlation of fMRI with clinical features and evoked brain potentials. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was measured in 41 DS participants, 42 NDS participants, and 42 healthy controls. ALFF in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe was significantly decreased in patients, while ALFF in the right fusiform gyrus and the bilateral putamen was significantly increased...
January 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090246/bayesian-covariate-selection-in-mixed-effects-models-for-longitudinal-shape-analysis
#11
Prasanna Muralidharan, James Fishbaugh, Eun Young Kim, Hans J Johnson, Jane S Paulsen, Guido Gerig, P Thomas Fletcher
The goal of longitudinal shape analysis is to understand how anatomical shape changes over time, in response to biological processes, including growth, aging, or disease. In many imaging studies, it is also critical to understand how these shape changes are affected by other factors, such as sex, disease diagnosis, IQ, etc. Current approaches to longitudinal shape analysis have focused on modeling age-related shape changes, but have not included the ability to handle covariates. In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian mixed-effects shape model that incorporates simultaneous relationships between longitudinal shape data and multiple predictors or covariates to the model...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087191/alterations-of-brain-activity-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#12
REVIEW
Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Sahattaya Paiboonworachat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079169/abnormalities-of-regional-brain-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#13
PingLei Pan, Yang Zhang, Yi Liu, He Zhang, DeNing Guan, Yun Xu
There is convincing evidence that abnormalities of regional brain function exist in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, many resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) have reported inconsistent results about regional spontaneous neuronal activity in PD. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis using the Seed-based d Mapping and several complementary analyses. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for eligible whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured ALFF differences between patients with PD and healthy controls published from January 1st, 2000 until June 24, 2016...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079059/co-variation-of-peripheral-levels-of-mir-1202-and-brain-activity-and-connectivity-during-antidepressant-treatment
#14
Juan Pablo Lopez, Fabricio Pereira, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Marcelo Berlim, Eduardo Chachamovich, Laura M Fiori, Paola Niola, Gustavo Turecki, Fabrice Jollant
MicroRNAs are short non-coding molecules that play a major role in regulating gene expression. Peripheral levels of miR-1202 have been shown to predict and mediate antidepressant response. However, it is not clear to what extent these peripheral measures reflect central neural changes in vivo. We approached this problem with the combined use of peripheral miR-1202 measures and neuroimaging. At baseline and after 8 weeks of Desvenlafaxine (50-100 mg die), twenty patients were scanned with 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging, first at rest then during the Go/NoGo task, a classical test of response inhibition...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078602/sulfatides-primarily-exist-in-the-substantia-nigra-region-of-mouse-brain-tissue
#16
Kab-Tae Park, Jong Cheol Shon, Ji-Eun Kim, Gyu Hwan Park, Hyun Jin Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Lipid distribution in the brain is important for many biological functions and has been associated with some brain diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate lipid distribution in different regions of brain tissue in mice. To this end, substantia nigra (SN), caudate putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), hypothalamus (Hyp), and cortex (Cx) tissues of mice were analyzed using direct infusion nanoelectrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry and multivariate analyses. The SN, CPu, Hip, Hyp, and Cx groups showed clear differences in lipid distribution using principal component analysis and a partial least-squares discriminant analysis score plot, and lipid levels were significantly different in different brain regions...
January 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078505/t2-relaxation-time-measurements-in-the-brains-of-scalded-rats
#17
Tao Jiang, Liqi Xie, Xin Lou, Dawei Li, Zhiye Chen, Huafeng Xiao, Lin Ma
This study aimed to evaluate the T2 relaxation time of the brain in severely scalded rats using a magnetic resonance (MR) T2 mapping sequence, and to investigate the correlation between T2 relaxation time and plasma glucose level. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into the scalded group (n=21) and control group (n=7). Magnetic resonance scans were performed with T1WI, T2WI, and T2-mapping sequences in the scalded group; the scans were performed 1 day prior to scalding and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-scalding; in addition, identical MR scans were performed in the control group at the same time points...
January 4, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074926/disrupted-global-metastability-and-static-and-dynamic-brain-connectivity-across-individuals-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#18
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Tobias Kaufmann, Karin Persson, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Torgeir Moberget, Martina Jonette Lund, Maria Lage Barca, Andreas Engvig, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Ole A Andreassen, Geir Selbæk, Lars T Westlye
As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074769/-neuroradiological-changes-by-suppression-of-tics
#19
Sara Bohn Larsen, Camilla Birgitte Sørensen, Liselotte Skov, Nanette Mol Debes
Tourette's syndrome is characterized by involuntary tics. First choice of treatment has been pharmacological, but recently, behavioural therapy teaching patients to suppress their tics has been introduced. Neuroimaging studies have shown an increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes and caudate nucleus, and a decreased activity in globus pallidus and putamen during inhibition of tics. The activity in the frontal lobes changes with age, probably caused by a lack of compensatory hypertrophy. In order to fully understand the mechanism behind behavioural therapy further studies are needed...
January 2, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074235/long-term-brain-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-functioning-in-children-treated-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-high-dose-methotrexate-chemotherapy-alone-or-combined-with-cns-radiotherapy-at-reduced-total-dose-to-12%C3%A2-gy
#20
Olga Zając-Spychała, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Katarzyna Karmelita-Katulska, Jakub Pilarczyk, Katarzyna Derwich, Jacek Wachowiak
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. METHODS: Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment...
January 10, 2017: Neuroradiology
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