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Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Zhibin Wang, Xiao-Guang Luo, Chao Gao
In the clinic, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) largely depends on clinicians' experience. When the diagnosis is made, approximately 80% of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (SN) have been lost. Additionally, it is rather challenging to differentiate PD from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD). Clinially-available 3T conventional MRI contributes little to solve these problems. The pathologic alterations of parkinsonism show abnormal brain iron deposition, and therefore susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), which is sensitive to iron concentration, has been applied to find iron-related lesions for the diagnosis and differentiation of PD in recent decades...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Elizabeth S Barrie, Katherine Hartmann, Sung-Ha Lee, John T Frater, Michal Seweryn, Danxin Wang, Wolfgang Sadee
Functionally related genes often cluster into a genome region under coordinated regulation, forming a local regulome. To understand regulation of the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 nicotinic receptor gene cluster, we integrate large-scale RNA expression data (brain and peripheral) from GTEx (Genotype Tissue Expression), clinical associations (GRASP) and linkage disequilibrium data (1,000 Genomes) to find candidate SNPs representing independent regulatory variants. CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNB4 mRNAs, and a well-expressed CHRNA5 antisense RNA (RP11-650L12...
October 19, 2016: Human Mutation
Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Limei Bu, Dahua Yu, Shaoping Su, Yao Ma, Karen M von Deneen, Lin Luo, Jinquan Zhai, Bo Liu, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
H-J Kim, S-I Oh, M de Leon, X Wang, K-W Oh, J-S Park, A Deshpande, M Buj, S H Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a motor neuron disease, is associated with various cortical symptoms including mild cognitive decline with behavior changes, suggesting the involvement of extra-motor areas in ALS. Our aim was to investigate the specific patterns of brain atrophy in sporadic, impaired ALS patients without commonly known genetic mutations using voxel-based morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients with sporadic ALS and 28 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Matthew D Sacchet, M Catalina Camacho, Emily E Livermore, Ewart A C Thomas, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by accelerated biological aging, including greater age-related changes in physiological functioning. The disorder is also associated with abnormal neural reward circuitry, particularly in the basal ganglia (BG). Here we assessed age-related changes in BG volume in both patients with MDD and healthy control participants. METHODS: We obtained whole-brain T1-weighted images from patients with MDD and healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Asanori Kiyuna, Norimoto Kise, Munehisa Hiratsuka, Shunsuke Kondo, Takayuki Uehara, Hiroyuki Maeda, Akira Ganaha, Mikio Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is considered a focal dystonia. However, the detailed pathophysiology of SD remains unclear, despite the detection of abnormal activity in several brain regions. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathophysiological background of SD. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case-control study. METHODS: Both task-related brain activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging by reading the five-digit numbers and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measured by 150 T2-weighted echo planar images acquired without any task were investigated in 12 patients with adductor SD and in 16 healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Shelley Hurwitz, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Rohit Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to compare cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy over 1 year in patients starting dimethyl fumarate (DMF) for multiple sclerosis (MS) to that of patients on no disease-modifying treatment (noDMT). DMF is an established therapy for relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with RRMS at the start of DMF [age (mean ± SD) 46.1 ± 10.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
October 15, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Marloes A M Janssen, Max Hinne, Ronald J Janssen, Marcel A van Gerven, Stefan C Steens, Bozena Góraj, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated abnormalities in the brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients is associated with disruptions in subcortical regions of the brain in comparison to a matched HIV-negative control group...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Harald H Sitte, Christian Pifl, Ali H Rajput, Heide Hörtnagl, Junchao Tong, George K Lloyd, Stephen J Kish, Oleh Hornykiewicz
In the human brain, the claustrum is a small subcortical telencephalic nucleus, situated between the insular cortex and the putamen. A plethora of neuroanatomical studies have shown the existence of dense, widespread, bidirectional and bilateral monosynaptic interconnections between the claustrum and most cortical areas. A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence points to the integrative role of claustrum in complex brain functions, from motor to cognitive. Here, we examined for the first time, the behaviour of the classical monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the claustrum of the normal autopsied human brain and of patients who died with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Daniel Enterría-Morales, Ivette López-López, José López-Barneo, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny
Gender difference in Parkinson's disease (PD) suggests that female sex steroids may promote dopaminergic neuron survival and protect them from degeneration. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be dopaminotrophic; thus it is considered as a potential therapeutic target in PD. Additionally, GDNF is endogenously synthetized in the caudate/putamen of humans and striatum in rodents. A neuroprotective role of estrogens on the nigrostriatal pathway via the stimulation of GDNF has been proposed...
2016: PloS One
Tulio Guadalupe, Samuel R Mathias, Theo G M vanErp, Christopher D Whelan, Marcel P Zwiers, Yoshinari Abe, Lucija Abramovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Benjamin S Aribisala, Nicola J Armstrong, Volker Arolt, Eric Artiges, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Vatche G Baboyan, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth Barker, Mark E Bastin, Bernhard T Baune, John Blangero, Arun L W Bokde, Premika S W Boedhoe, Anushree Bose, Silvia Brem, Henry Brodaty, Uli Bromberg, Samantha Brooks, Christian Büchel, Jan Buitelaar, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Anna Cattrell, Yuqi Cheng, Patricia J Conrod, Annette Conzelmann, Aiden Corvin, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Fabrice Crivello, Udo Dannlowski, Greig I de Zubicaray, Sonja M C de Zwarte, Ian J Deary, Sylvane Desrivières, Nhat Trung Doan, Gary Donohoe, Erlend S Dørum, Stefan Ehrlich, Thomas Espeseth, Guillén Fernández, Herta Flor, Jean-Paul Fouche, Vincent Frouin, Masaki Fukunaga, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Michael Gill, Andrea Gonzalez Suarez, Penny Gowland, Hans J Grabe, Dominik Grotegerd, Oliver Gruber, Saskia Hagenaars, Ryota Hashimoto, Tobias U Hauser, Andreas Heinz, Derrek P Hibar, Pieter J Hoekstra, Martine Hoogman, Fleur M Howells, Hao Hu, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Chaim Huyser, Bernd Ittermann, Neda Jahanshad, Erik G Jönsson, Sarah Jurk, Rene S Kahn, Sinead Kelly, Bernd Kraemer, Harald Kugel, Jun Soo Kwon, Herve Lemaitre, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Christine Lochner, Michelle Luciano, Andre F Marquand, Nicholas G Martin, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Jean-Luc Martinot, David Mataix-Cols, Karen Mather, Colm McDonald, Katie L McMahon, Sarah E Medland, José M Menchón, Derek W Morris, Omar Mothersill, Susana Munoz Maniega, Benson Mwangi, Takashi Nakamae, Tomohiro Nakao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswaamy, Frauke Nees, Jan E Nordvik, A Marten H Onnink, Nils Opel, Roel Ophoff, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Paul Pauli, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Janardhan Yc Reddy, Miguel E Renteria, Roberto Roiz-Santiáñez, Annerine Roos, Natalie A Royle, Perminder Sachdev, Pascual Sánchez-Juan, Lianne Schmaal, Gunter Schumann, Elena Shumskaya, Michael N Smolka, Jair C Soares, Carles Soriano-Mas, Dan J Stein, Lachlan T Strike, Roberto Toro, Jessica A Turner, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Anne Uhlmann, Maria Valdés Hernández, Odile A van den Heuvel, Dennis van der Meer, Neeltje E M van Haren, Dick J Veltman, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Nora C Vetter, Daniella Vuletic, Susanne Walitza, Henrik Walter, Esther Walton, Zhen Wang, Joanna Wardlaw, Wei Wen, Lars T Westlye, Robert Whelan, Katharina Wittfeld, Thomas Wolfers, Margaret J Wright, Jian Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Je-Yeon Yun, JingJing Zhao, Barbara Franke, Paul M Thompson, David C Glahn, Bernard Mazoyer, Simon E Fisher, Clyde Francks
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Kaiwu He, Fei Qi, Chunni Guo, Shuqin Zhan, Hua Xu, Jianjun Liu, Xifei Yang
Transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channel proteins are abundantly expressed in brain. However, the functions of these TRPC proteins such as TRPC1 are largely unclear. In this study, we reported that TRPC1 deficiency caused movement disorder as measured by swimming test, modified open field test and sunflower seeds eating test. Immunofluorescent staining showed significant loss of both NeuN-positive cells and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive cells in the caudate putamen (CPu), the external globus pallidus (GPe), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in 5-month-old TRPC1 knockout mice (TRPC1-/-) compared to the wild type (WT) mice...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Mariana P Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, João R Sato, Edson Amaro
To describe cerebral (structural and functional MRI) and neuropsychological long term changes in moderate drowning victim's compared to healthy volunteers in working memory and motor domains. We studied 15 adult drowning victim's in chronic stage (DV - out of 157 eligible cases of sea water rescues with moderate drowning classification) paired to 18 healthy controls (HC). All participants were investigated using intelligence, memory, and attention neuropsychological standard tests and underwent functional (motor and working memory tasks) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 3 T system...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Diana Cash, Motohisa Suzuki, Kazunori Suzuki, Michel Bernanos, Camilla Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063 is a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor that produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects at 0.3mg/kg (26% PDE10A occupancy in rats) or higher in rodents through the balanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we evaluated the specific binding of TAK-063 using in vitro autoradiography (ARG) and the modulation of brain activity using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
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