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Chunxiao Qi, Xiaoming Ji, Guoliang Zhang, Yunxiao Kang, Yuanxiang Huang, Rui Cui, Shuangcheng Li, Huixian Cui, Geming Shi
The purpose of present study was to infer the potential effects of testosterone increase in some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Tourette syndrome. Thus, the influence of early postnatal androgen exposure upon the neurobehaviors and its possible neural basis were investigated in the study. Male pup rats received consecutive 14-day testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 7. The TP treatment produced the hyperactive motor behavior and grooming behavior as well as the increased levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the mesodopaminergic system and the elevated levels of serotonin in the nucleus accumbens, without affecting the levels of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine and histamine in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of PND21 and PND49 rats...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Youngsin Jung, Lennon G Jordan, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Melissa E Murray, Ross R Reichard, Tanis J Ferman, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Rodolfo Savica, Mary M Machulda, Julie A Fields, Laura A Allen, Daniel A Drubach, Erik K St Louis, Michael H Silber, Clifford R Jack, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Bradley F Boeve
The relationship between clinicopathologic diagnosis and123 I-FP-CIT SPECT in 18 patients with dementia (12 with Lewy body disease) from one center in the United States was assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of abnormal123 I-FP-CIT SPECT with reduced striatal uptake on visual inspection for predicting Lewy body disease were 91.7% and 83.3%, respectively. The mean calculated putamen to occipital ratio (mPOR) based on regions of interest was significantly reduced in Lewy body disease compared to non-Lewy body disease cases ( P = 0...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Ruth Ruscheweyh, Heike Wersching, Harald Kugel, Benedikt Sundermann, Anja Teuber
Individual differences in sensitivity to pain are large and have clinical and scientific importance. Although heavily influenced by situational factors, they also relate to genetic factors and psychological traits, and are reflected by differences in functional activation in pain-related brain regions. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate if individual pain sensitivity is related to local grey matter volumes. Pain sensitivity was determined using (1) index finger pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and (2) pain intensity ratings of imagined painful situations as assessed by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) in 501 population-based subjects participating in the BiDirect Study...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Chunyao Zhou, Yongheng Wang, Xing Liu, Yuchao Liang, Ziwen Fan, Tao Jiang, Yinyan Wang, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: The newly proposed putamen classification system shows good prognostic value in patients with insular LGGs, yet no study towards the molecular profiles of putamen involved LGGs has been proposed. METHODS: Clinical information and imaging data of patients diagnosed with insular low-grade gliomas were collected retrospectively. Genetic information of the 34 tumors was assessed using RNA-sequencing. Gene set enrichment analysis was further performed to identify the genes showing differential expression between putamen-involved tumors and putamen non-involved tumors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Conor Owens-Walton, David Jakabek, Xiaozhen Li, Fiona A Wilkes, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Danielle van Westen, Jeffrey C L Looi, Oskar Hansson
We sought to investigate morphological and resting state functional connectivity changes to the striatal nuclei in Parkinson disease (PD) and examine whether changes were associated with measures of clinical function. Striatal nuclei were manually segmented on 3T-T1 weighted MRI scans of 74 PD participants and 27 control subjects, quantitatively analysed for volume, shape and also functional connectivity using functional MRI data. Bilateral caudate nuclei and putamen volumes were significantly reduced in the PD cohort compared to controls...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Hanna Cho, Sang Won Seo, Jae Yong Choi, Hye Sun Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most common form of frontotemporal dementia, and tau pathology can be found in 40%-50% of bvFTD patients. In this study, we sought to investigate18 F-flortaucipir-binding patterns and their correlates in clinically diagnosed bvFTD patients by comparing with results for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We enrolled 20 bvFTD, 20 AD, and 20 age-matched healthy subjects who underwent neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and tau positron emission tomography scans with18 F-flortaucipir...
February 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Aida Niñerola-Baizán, Judith Gallego, Albert Cot, Pablo Aguiar, Francisco Lomeña, Javier Pavía, Domenec Ros
The aim of this work was to obtain a set of parameters to be applied in [123I]FP-CIT SPECT reconstruction in order to minimize the error between standardized and true values of the Specific Uptake Ratio (SUR) in dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies. To this end, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate a database of 1,380 projection data-sets from 23 subjects, including normal cases and a variety of pathologies. Studies were reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP) with attenuation correction and Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) with correction for different degradations (attenuation, scatter and PSF)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Shuai Zhou, Wei Wang, Zizhen Wang, Gang Hu, Jianghong He, Xinhuai Wu
Purpose: Diagnostic error is common among patients with vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). The purpose of this article is to use three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) to compare cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns in patients in MCS with those in VS. Methods: Patients meeting MCS and VS criteria were identified. Two post-labeling delay (PLD) time pcASL on 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner system were performed with patients in the resting awake state...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Pernille Hagland, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis-seed-based d mapping-of 25 whole-brain neuroimaging studies (including 571 patients and 564 healthy control subjects) using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, comparing brain activation of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects during presentation of emotionally valenced versus neutral stimuli...
February 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Adam J Stark, Christopher T Smith, Kalen J Petersen, Paula Trujillo, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Manus J Donahue, Robert M Kessler, Ariel Y Deutch, David H Zald, Daniel O Claassen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by widespread degeneration of monoaminergic (especially dopaminergic) networks, manifesting with a number of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Regional alterations to dopamine D2/3 receptors in PD patients are documented in striatal and some extrastriatal areas, and medications that target D2/3 receptors can improve motor and non-motor symptoms. However, data regarding the combined pattern of D2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions in PD are limited...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Ahmed M Elkady, Dana Cobzas, Hongfu Sun, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
BACKGROUND: Combined R2* and quantitative susceptibility (QS) has been previously used in cross-sectional multiple sclerosis (MS) studies to distinguish deep gray matter (DGM) iron accumulation and demyelination. PURPOSE: We propose and apply discriminative analysis of regional evolution (DARE) to define specific changes in MS and healthy DGM. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal (baseline and 2-year follow-up) retrospective study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-seven relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 17 progressive MS (PMS), and corresponding age-matched healthy subjects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Grace Blest-Hopley, Vincent Giampietro, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
While numerous studies have investigated the residual effects of cannabis use on human brain function, results of these studies have been inconsistent. Using meta-analytic approaches we summarize the effects of prolonged cannabis exposure on human brain function as measured using task-based functional MRI (fMRI) across studies employing a range of cognitive activation tasks comparing regular cannabis users with non-users. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for studies investigating adult and adolescent cannabis users...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Li-Min Mao, Hunter J Faris, John Q Wang
The Src family kinase (SFK) is a subfamily of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. SFK members, Src and especially Fyn, are expressed in the striatum. These SFK members are involved in the regulation of neuronal and synaptic activities and are linked to the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the fact that muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors are highly expressed in striatal neurons and are critical for the regulation of striatal function, we investigated the role of mACh receptors in the regulation of SFKs in the adult rat striatum in vivo...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Anne J Blood, Jeff L Waugh, Thomas F Münte, Marcus Heldmann, Aloysius Domingo, Christine Klein, Hans C Breiter, Lillian V Lee, Raymond L Rosales, Norbert Brüggemann
Preliminary evidence from postmortem studies of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) suggests tissue loss may occur first and/or most severely in the striatal striosome compartment, followed later by cell loss in the matrix compartment. However, little is known about how this relates to pathogenesis and pathophysiology. While MRI cannot visualize these striatal compartments directly in humans, differences in relative gradients of afferent cortical connectivity across compartments (weighted toward paralimbic versus sensorimotor cortex, respectively) can be used to infer potential selective loss in vivo...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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