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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222355/neuroimaging-of-major-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-cortical-thickness-cortical-and-subcortical-volume-and-spectroscopy-findings
#1
Marcos Hortes N Chagas, Vitor Tumas, Márcio A Pena-Pereira, João Paulo Machado-de-Sousa, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Rafael Faria Sanches, Jaime E C Hallak, José Alexandre S Crippa
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to compare PD patients with current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), lifetime MDD, and no MDD using three neuroimaging techniques. A total of 43 PD patients were selected and divided into three groups: (i) current MDD (n = 15), (ii) previous MDD without current MDD (n = 10); and (iii) control group (no current or lifetime MDD; n = 18). All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and spectroscopy in the bilateral putamen and cingulate cortex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#2
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220797/elevated-choline-containing-compound-levels-in-rapid-cycling-bipolar-disorder
#3
Bo Cao, Jeffrey A Stanley, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Benson Mwangi, Sudhakar Selvaraj, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
Previous studies have found increased levels of choline-containing compounds [ie, glycerophosphocholine plus phosphocholine (GPC+PC)] in bipolar disorder using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS), especially in bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Increased levels of GPC+PC suggest alterations in the membrane phospholipids metabolism in bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling (RC) bipolar disorder is considered as a severe course of bipolar disorder, but it is unclear whether rapid cycling bipolar disorder is linked to highly altered membrane phospholipid metabolism...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220069/effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-interregional-relation-of-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-major-depression
#4
Gregory M James, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Cecile Philippe, Georg S Kranz, Thomas Vanicek, Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Marius Hienert, Marie Spies, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate serotonergic neurotransmission by blocking reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. Up to now, it remains unclear how SSRIs achieve their antidepressant effect. However, task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have demonstrated connectivity changes between brain regions. Here, we use positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify SSRI's main target, the serotonin transporter (SERT), and assess treatment-induced molecular changes in the interregional relation of SERT binding potential (BPND)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219628/subcortical-brain-volume-differences-in-participants-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adults-a-cross-sectional-mega-analysis
#5
Martine Hoogman, Janita Bralten, Derrek P Hibar, Maarten Mennes, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne S J Schweren, Kimm J E van Hulzen, Sarah E Medland, Elena Shumskaya, Neda Jahanshad, Patrick de Zeeuw, Eszter Szekely, Gustavo Sudre, Thomas Wolfers, Alberdingk M H Onnink, Janneke T Dammers, Jeanette C Mostert, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Gregor Kohls, Eileen Oberwelland, Jochen Seitz, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Sara Ambrosino, Alysa E Doyle, Marie F Høvik, Margaretha Dramsdahl, Leanne Tamm, Theo G M van Erp, Anders Dale, Andrew Schork, Annette Conzelmann, Kathrin Zierhut, Ramona Baur, Hazel McCarthy, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Ana Cubillo, Kaylita Chantiluke, Mitul A Mehta, Yannis Paloyelis, Sarah Hohmann, Sarah Baumeister, Ivanei Bramati, Paulo Mattos, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Pamela Douglas, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson, Katya Rubia, Clare Kelly, Adriana Di Martino, Michael P Milham, Francisco X Castellanos, Thomas Frodl, Mariam Zentis, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Paul Pauli, Terry L Jernigan, Jan Haavik, Kerstin J Plessen, Astri J Lundervold, Kenneth Hugdahl, Larry J Seidman, Joseph Biederman, Nanda Rommelse, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Georg von Polier, Kerstin Konrad, Oscar Vilarroya, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Joan Carles Soliva, Sarah Durston, Jan K Buitelaar, Stephen V Faraone, Philip Shaw, Paul M Thompson, Barbara Franke
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219620/brain-structural-correlates-of-executive-and-social-cognition-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-elderly-bipolar-disorder
#6
Sandra Baez, Clara Pinasco, María Roca, Jesica Ferrari, Blas Couto, Indira García-Cordero, Agustín Ibañez, Francy Cruz, Pablo Reyes, Diana Matallana, Facundo Manes, Marcelo Cetcovich, Teresa Torralva
An early stage of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often displays a mix of behavioral disturbances and personality changes hindering a differential diagnosis from elderly bipolar disorder (BD), making this process a big challenge. However, no studies have compared these pathologies from neuropsychological and neuroanatomical perspectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive functions (EF) and social cognition profiles as well as the structural neuroimaging of bvFTD and elderly patients with BD...
February 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215236/hyperdopaminergism-in-lenticulostriate-stroke-related-restless-legs-syndrome-an-imaging-study
#7
Elisabeth Ruppert, Marc Bataillard, Izzie Jacques Namer, Laurent Tatu, Aurélien Hacquard, Laurence Hugueny, Jeffrey Hubbard, Ulker Kilic-Huck, Valérie Wolff, Patrice Bourgin
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) involves a dopaminergic dysregulation that remains poorly understood, with controversial data from the literature. Stroke-related RLS is a rare condition that involves primarily the basal ganglia, the paramedian pons, and the thalamus. Given these elements, we studied dopaminergic metabolism in patients with RLS secondary to lenticulostriate infarction using structural and nuclear imaging in the striatum ipsilateral to the infarction area, as compared to the contralateral side...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#8
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206781/cognitive-control-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-adults-with-spina-bifida-myelomeningocele
#9
Ashley L Ware, Paulina A Kulesz, Jenifer Juranek, Paul T Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated aging can occur in adult survivors of neurodevelopmental disorders, but has been narrowly studied in spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM). Since discrete aspects of cognitive control and related neural network macrostructure deteriorate in normal aging, the specificity and trajectory of cognition and neuropathology incurred across adulthood in SBM were examined. METHOD: Adults (N = 120) with and without SBM completed working memory span and manipulation tasks, and an inhibitory control task...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205498/cognitive-control-learning-and-clinical-motor-ratings-are-most-highly-associated-with-basal-ganglia-brain-volumes-in-the-premanifest-huntington-s-disease-phenotype
#10
Maria B Misiura, Spencer Lourens, Vince D Calhoun, Jeffrey Long, Jeremy Bockholt, Hans Johnson, Ying Zhang, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu, Betul Kara, Elizabeth Fall
OBJECTIVES: Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating genetic disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities associated with neuropathological decline. HD pathology is the result of an extended chain of CAG (cytosine, adenine, guanine) trinucleotide repetitions in the HTT gene. Clinical diagnosis of HD requires the presence of an otherwise unexplained extrapyramidal movement disorder in a participant at risk for HD. Over the past 15 years, evidence has shown that cognitive, psychiatric, and subtle motor dysfunction is evident decades before traditional motor diagnosis...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203097/cerebral-malaria-insight-into-pathogenesis-complications-and-molecular-biomarkers
#11
Farah Hafiz Yusuf, Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz, Maria Shoaib, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed
Cerebral malaria is a medical emergency. All patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria with neurologic manifestations of any degree should be urgently treated as cases of cerebral malaria. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is due to damaged vascular endothelium by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production and vascular leakage, which result in brain hypoxia, as indicated by increased lactate and alanine concentrations. The levels of the biomarkers' histidine-rich protein II, angiopoietin-Tie-2 system and plasma osteoprotegrin serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197859/imaging-the-up-s-and-down-s-of-emotion-regulation-in-lifetime-depression
#12
Sina Radke, Felix Hoffstaedter, Leonie Löffler, Lydia Kogler, Frank Schneider, Jens Blechert, Birgit Derntl
Reappraisal is a particularly effective strategy for influencing emotional experiences, specifically for reducing the impact of negative stimuli. Although depression has repeatedly been linked to dysfunctional behavioral and neural emotion regulation, prefrontal and amygdala engagement seems to vary with clinical characteristics and the specific regulation strategy used. Whereas previous neuroimaging research has focused on down-regulating reactions to emotionally evocative scenes, the current study compared up- and down-regulation in response to angry facial expressions in patients with depression and healthy individuals...
February 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197123/altered-regional-gray-matter-volume-in-obese-men-a-structural-mri-study
#13
Bin Zhang, Xiao Tian, Derun Tian, Jinhong Wang, Qiming Wang, Chunshui Yu, Chunbo Li, Jijun Wang
Obesity is associated with a number of health problems, especial insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Our previous study showed that obese males had decreased neural activity in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and increased activity in the left putamen (Zhang et al., 2015b), which could indicate altered eating behaviors in obesity related to a hyper-functioning striatum and hypo-functioning inhibitory control. Accordingly, our goal of the current study was to determine whether there are alterations in the brain structures within these two neural systems in obese individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195567/bdnf-val66met-association-with-serotonin-transporter-binding-in-healthy-humans
#14
P M Fisher, B Ozenne, C Svarer, D Adamsen, S Lehel, W F C Baaré, P S Jensen, G M Knudsen
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted differences in 5-HTT levels in humans but with equivocal results, possibly due to limited sample sizes. Within the current study we evaluated these genetic predictors of 5-HTT binding with [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) in a comparatively large cohort of 144 healthy individuals...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194282/localizing-age-related-changes-in-brain-structure-using-voxel-based-morphometry
#15
Shu Hua Mu, Min Xu, Jun Xiu Duan, Jian Zhang, Li Hai Tan
Aim. We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development from late childhood to young adults using VBM and ROI-based methods. Method. The structural MRI of 91 normal individuals ranging in age from 6 to 26 years was obtained and the GMV for each region was measured. Results. Our results showed that the earliest loss of GMV occurred in left olfactory, right precuneus, caudate, left putamen, pallidum, and left middle temporal gyrus. In addition, the trajectory of maturational and aging showed a linear decline in GMV on both cortical lobes and subcortical regions...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194012/a-dna-methylation-site-within-the-klf13-gene-is-associated-with-orexigenic-processes-based-on-neural-responses-and-ghrelin-levels
#16
L Wiemerslage, R Islam, C van der Kamp, H Cao, G Olivo, F Ence-Eriksson, S Castillo, A L Larsen, M Bandstein, L S Dahlberg, E Perland, V Gustavsson, J Nilsson, H Vogel, A Schürmann, E-M Larsson, M Rask-Andersen, C Benedict, H B Schiöth
We investigated five methylation markers recently linked to body-mass index, for their role in the neuropathology of obesity. In neuroimaging experiments, our analysis involving 23 participants showed that methylation levels for the cg07814318 site, which lies within the KLF13 gene, correlated with brain activity in the claustrum, putamen, cingulate gyrus, and frontal gyri, some of which have been previously associated to food signaling, obesity, or reward. Methylation levels at cg07814318 also positively correlated with ghrelin levels...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192274/activity-and-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-trigeminal-nociception
#17
Jan Mehnert, Laura Schulte, Dagmar Timmann, Arne May
The role of the cerebellum in pathologies of the trigeminal nervous system is still unknown although recently gathered evidence point to a modulatory rather than a passive role. Here we provide evidence for the activation of specific cerebellar areas during nociceptive trigeminal input in the left nostril in a large number of volunteers (54 subjects) and an additional independent group (18 subjects) as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Peak voxel activity ipsilateral to the stimulated side can be seen in cerebellar lobules VI, VIIIa and Crus I, and vermal lobule VIIIa, although some activations are also seen in the contralateral side...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188914/connectivity-based-parcellation-reveals-distinct-cortico-striatal-connectivity-fingerprints-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Joshua H Balsters, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188814/how-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-cope-with-a-sustained-finger-motor-task-a-behavioural-and-fmri-study
#19
Laura Bonzano, Matteo Pardini, Luca Roccatagliata, Giovanni L Mancardi, Marco Bove
Motor and non-motor basal ganglia (BG) circuits can help healthy subjects cope with task-induced central fatigue and re-establish motor performance after deterioration. This work aimed to assess whether patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were able to recover motor performance after deterioration due to a demanding task and whether BG activity played a role in performance recovery in this population. Fourteen patients with MS performed a finger-tapping sequence with their right hand during three fMRI sessions: at baseline, after a demanding finger motor task (5-min sequence repetition) and after a short rest period...
February 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187964/brain-perfusion-and-diffusion-abnormalities-in-children-treated-for-posterior-fossa-brain-tumors
#20
Matthew D Li, Nils D Forkert, Palak Kundu, Cheryl Ambler, Robert M Lober, Terry C Burns, Patrick D Barnes, Iris C Gibbs, Gerald A Grant, Paul G Fisher, Samuel H Cheshier, Cynthia J Campen, Michelle Monje, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral perfusion and diffusion in survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumor with neurologically normal controls and correlate differences with cognitive dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed retrospectively arterial spin-labeled cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 21 patients with medulloblastoma (MB), 18 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and 64 neurologically normal children. We generated ANCOVA models to evaluate treatment effects on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and cerebral white matter at time points an average of 5...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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