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Behavioral fluency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920071/predicting-the-past-remembering-the-future
#1
Samuel J Gershman
Rational analyses of memory suggest that retrievability of past experience depends on its usefulness for predicting the future: memory is adapted to the temporal structure of the environment. Recent research has enriched this view by applying it to semantic memory and reinforcement learning. This paper describes how multiple forms of memory can be linked via common predictive principles, possibly subserved by a shared neural substrate in the hippocampus. Predictive principles offer an explanation for a wide range of behavioral and neural phenomena, including semantic fluency, temporal contiguity effects in episodic memory, and the topological properties of hippocampal place cells...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892513/placebo-can-enhance-creativity
#2
Liron Rozenkrantz, Avraham E Mayo, Tomer Ilan, Yuval Hart, Lior Noy, Uri Alon
BACKGROUND: The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891517/selective-attention-and-the-asynchrony-theory-in-native-hebrew-speaking-adult-dyslexics-behavioral-and-erps-measures
#3
Shay Menashe
The main aim of the present study was to determine whether adult dyslexic readers demonstrate the "Asynchrony Theory" (Breznitz [Reading Fluency: Synchronization of Processes, Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006]) when selective attention is studied. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral parameters were collected from nonimpaired readers group and dyslexic readers group performing alphabetic and nonalphabetic tasks. The dyslexic readers group was found to demonstrate asynchrony between the auditory and the visual modalities when it came to processing alphabetic stimuli...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877864/internet-searches-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-cross-sectional-analysis
#4
Johanna Austin, Kristy Hollingshead, Jeffrey Kaye
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a very challenging experience for all those affected. Unfortunately, detection of Alzheimer disease in its early stages when clinical treatments may be most effective is challenging, as the clinical evaluations are time-consuming and costly. Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and everyday behavior, an avenue of research that holds great promise for the early detection of cognitive decline. One area of behavior that changes with cognitive decline is language use...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832595/verbal-monitoring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-comparison-between-internal-and-external-monitoring
#5
Hanna S Gauvin, Jolien Mertens, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Barbara A Pickut, Robert J Hartsuiker
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828219/long-term-safety-and-effectiveness-of-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-infusion
#6
Oriol De Fabregues, Joan Dot, Monder Abu-Suboh, Jorge Hernández-Vara, Alex Ferré, Odile Romero, Marta Ibarria, José Luis Seoane, Nuria Raguer, Carolina Puiggros, Maria Rosa Gómez, Manuel Quintana, Josep Ramon Armengol, José Alvarez-Sabín
INTRODUCTION: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion has demonstrated to improve motor fluctuations. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of LCIG infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with motor fluctuations and its effect in nonmotor symptoms. METHODS: Adverse events (AE) and their management, clinical motor, and nonmotor aspects were assessed up to 10 years. Thirty-seven patients were treated with LGIC; in three subsets of patients, specific batteries of tests were used to assess cognitive and behavior assessment for 6 months, quality of sleep for 6 months, and quality of life and caregiver burden for 1 year...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827577/gender-differences-in-influences-of-temperament-on-olfactory-reactivity-and-awareness
#7
Lenka Martinec Nováková, Radka Vojtušová Mrzílková, Anna Kernerová
Children's olfactory performance is associated with temperament but whether there is a link with olfactory reactivity and awareness is not known. In adults negative affectivity is linked to reactivity to environmental odours but it is not clear whether these associations extend to children. We aimed to investigate the effect of temperamental factors on olfactory reactivity and awareness. In so doing, we controlled for the effect of parenting styles on temperamental assessment and of verbal fluency on children's olfactory reactivity and awareness...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765082/is-there-a-relationship-between-accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-and-cognitive-function-in-us-hispanic-latino-adults-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#8
Elizabeth Vásquez, Garrett Strizich, Carmen R Isasi, Sandra E Echeverria, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Kelly R Evenson, Marc D Gellman, Priya Palta, Qibin Qi, Melissa Lamar, Wassim Tarraf, Hector M González, Robert Kaplan
Normative changes in cognitive function are expected with increasing age. Research on the relationship between normative cognitive decline and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SED) needs further investigation in Hispanic/Latinos adults. We assessed the cross-sectional association between accelerometer assessed MVPA and SED with cognitive function in 7,478 adults aged 45-74years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. At baseline, cognitive tests included two executive function tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a test of language (Word Fluency), and a test of memory (Spanish English Verbal Learning Test)...
July 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750278/neuropsychological-deficits-in-adults-age-60-and-above-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
L B Thorell, Y Holst, H Chistiansen, J J S Kooij, D Bijlenga, D Sjöwall
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological deficits are of major importance in ADHD, yet no previous studies have assessed clinically referred samples of older adults. The authors compared older adults with ADHD (60-75years) with both younger adults with ADHD (18-45years) and older healthy controls with regard to various neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: Well-established tests were used to investigate working memory, inhibition, switching, planning, fluency, and speed of processing...
June 27, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749089/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-a-comparative-study-between-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-primary-psychiatric-disorders
#10
Everard G B Vijverberg, Sigfried Schouws, Paul David Meesters, Esmée Verwijk, Hannie Comijs, Ted Koene, Charlotte Schreuder, Aartjan Beekman, Philip Scheltens, Max Stek, Yolande Pijnenburg, Annemieke Dols
OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological profiles in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with its most common primary psychiatric differential diagnoses, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia, in older patients with active symptoms. METHODS: We included patients from different cohorts with MDD (DSM-IV-TR: 296.20-296.23, 296.30-296.33; n = 42; mean ± SD age, 72.0 ± 8.0 years; female = 57.1%) included from 2002 to 2007, noneuthymic BD (DSM-IV-TR: 296...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735143/transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy-improves-brain-mitochondrial-function-and-cognitive-impairment-in-d-galactose-induced-aging-mice
#11
Farzad Salehpour, Nahid Ahmadian, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Mitochondrial function plays a key role in the aging-related cognitive impairment, and photoneuromodulation of mitochondria by transcranial low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may contribute to its improvement. This study focused on the transcranial LLLT effects on the D-galactose (DG)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and cognitive impairment in mice. For this purpose, red and near-infrared (NIR) laser wavelengths (660 and 810 nm) at 2 different fluencies (4 and 8 J/cm(2)) at 10-Hz pulsed wave mode were administrated transcranially 3 d/wk in DG-received (500 mg/kg/subcutaneous) mice model of aging for 6 weeks...
October 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733335/motor-speech-signature-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-refining-the-phenotype
#12
Adam P Vogel, Matthew L Poole, Hugh Pemberton, Marja W J Caverlé, Frederique M C Boonstra, Essie Low, David Darby, Amy Brodtmann
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive description of motor speech function in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: Forty-eight individuals (24 bvFTD and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls) provided speech samples. These varied in complexity and thus cognitive demand. Their language was assessed using the Progressive Aphasia Language Scale and verbal fluency tasks. Speech was analyzed perceptually to describe the nature of deficits and acoustically to quantify differences between patients with bvFTD and healthy controls...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729930/structural-differences-in-impaired-verbal-fluency-in-essential-tremor-patients-compared-to-healthy-controls
#13
Esther A Pelzer, Christian Nelles, David J Pedrosa, Carsten Eggers, Lothar Burghaus, Corina Melzer, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to identify differences in grey and white matter in essential tremor patients compared to controls in the non-motor domain, using the example of impaired verbal fluency. BACKGROUND: A disturbance of verbal fluency in essential tremor patients compared to healthy controls is behaviorally well described. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze structural differences in grey and white matter in 19 essential tremor patients compared to 23 age- and gender-matched controls...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707568/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-neural-networks-structure-in-young-and-older-adults
#14
Andrew K Martin, Marcus Meinzer, Robert Lindenberg, Mira M Sieg, Laura Nachtigall, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a viable tool to improve motor and cognitive function in advanced age. However, although a number of studies have demonstrated improved cognitive performance in older adults, other studies have failed to show restorative effects. The neural effects of beneficial stimulation response in both age groups is lacking. In the current study, tDCS was administered during simultaneous fMRI in 42 healthy young and older participants. Semantic word generation and motor speech baseline tasks were used to investigate behavioral and neural effects of uni- and bihemispheric motor cortex tDCS in a three-way, crossover, sham tDCS controlled design...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677108/design-fluency-and-neuroanatomical-correlates-in-54-neurosurgical-patients-with-lesions-to-the-right-hemisphere
#15
Dario Marin, Eleonora Madotto, Franco Fabbro, Miran Skrap, Barbara Tomasino
We addressed the neuroanatomical correlates of 54 right-brain-damaged neurosurgical patients on visuo-spatial design fluency, which is a measure of the ability to generate/plan a series of new abstract combinations in a flexible way. 22.2% of the patients were impaired. They failed the task because they did not use strategic behavior, in particular they used rotational strategy to a significantly lower extent and produced a significantly higher rate of perseverative errors. Overall performance did not correlate with neuropsychological tests, suggesting that proficient performance was independent of other cognitive domains...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674515/investigating-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-mri-response-to-a-verbal-fluency-task-in-early-stroke-before-and-after-hemodynamic-scaling
#16
Veena A Nair, Ryan V Raut, Vivek Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) has been extensively used as a marker of brain dysfunction and subsequent recovery following stroke. However, growing evidence suggests that straightforward interpretation of BOLD fMRI changes with aging and disease is challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of calibrating task fMRI data by applying a hemodynamic calibration method using the resting-state fluctuation amplitude (RSFA)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647546/a-review-of-the-effects-of-very-low-nicotine-content-cigarettes-on-behavioral-and-cognitive-performance
#17
Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Danielle R Davis, Ivori A Zvorsky, Stephen T Higgins
The present systematic review examines whether very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes ameliorate withdrawal-induced impairments in behavioral/cognitive performance. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for performance effects of VLNC cigarettes. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal through June 2017, examine VLNC cigarettes (<0.2mg nicotine yield), include ≥2hour smoking abstinence or reduced nicotine exposure, and examine performance. 19 of 1243 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria...
June 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645192/frequent-sexual-activity-predicts-specific-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults
#18
Hayley Wright, Rebecca A Jenks, Nele Demeyere
Objectives: This study replicates and extends the findings of previous research (Wright, H., & Jenks, R. A. (2016). Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age. Age and Ageing, 45, 313-317. doi:10.1093/ageing/afv197) which found a significant association between sexual activity (SA) and cognitive function in older adults. Specifically, this study aimed to generalize these findings to a range of cognitive domains, and to assess whether increasing SA frequency is associated with increasing scores on a variety of cognitive tasks...
June 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639797/the-dark-side-of-fluency-fluent-names-increase-drug-dosing
#19
Simone Dohle, Amanda K Montoya
Prior research has demonstrated that high processing fluency influences a wide range of evaluations and behaviors in a positive way. But can high processing fluency also lead to potentially hazardous medical behavior? In 2 controlled experiments, we demonstrate that increasing the fluency of pharmaceutical drug names increases drug dosage. Experiment 1 shows that drugs with fluent names are perceived as safer than those with disfluent names and this effect increases drug dosage for both synthetically produced and herbal drugs...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637054/modeling-alphabet-skills-as-instructive-feedback-within-a-phonological-awareness-intervention
#20
Arnold Olszewski, Xigrid Soto, Howard Goldstein
Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Method: Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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