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Behavioral fluency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647546/a-review-of-the-effects-of-very-low-nicotine-content-cigarettes-on-behavioral-and-cognitive-performance
#1
Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Danielle R Davis, Ivori A Zvorsky, Stephen T Higgins
The present systematic review examines whether very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes ameliorate withdrawal-induced impairments in behavioral/cognitive performance. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for performance effects of VLNC cigarettes. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal through June 2017, examine VLNC cigarettes (<0.2mg nicotine yield), include ≥2hour smoking abstinence or reduced nicotine exposure, and examine performance. 19 of 1243 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria...
June 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645192/frequent-sexual-activity-predicts-specific-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults
#2
Hayley Wright, Rebecca A Jenks, Nele Demeyere
Objectives: This study replicates and extends the findings of previous research (Wright, H., & Jenks, R. A. (2016). Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age. Age and Ageing, 45, 313-317. doi:10.1093/ageing/afv197) which found a significant association between sexual activity (SA) and cognitive function in older adults. Specifically, this study aimed to generalize these findings to a range of cognitive domains, and to assess whether increasing SA frequency is associated with increasing scores on a variety of cognitive tasks...
June 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639797/the-dark-side-of-fluency-fluent-names-increase-drug-dosing
#3
Simone Dohle, Amanda K Montoya
Prior research has demonstrated that high processing fluency influences a wide range of evaluations and behaviors in a positive way. But can high processing fluency also lead to potentially hazardous medical behavior? In 2 controlled experiments, we demonstrate that increasing the fluency of pharmaceutical drug names increases drug dosage. Experiment 1 shows that drugs with fluent names are perceived as safer than those with disfluent names and this effect increases drug dosage for both synthetically produced and herbal drugs...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637054/modeling-alphabet-skills-as-instructive-feedback-within-a-phonological-awareness-intervention
#4
Arnold Olszewski, Xigrid Soto, Howard Goldstein
Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Method: Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624827/qualitative-assessment-of-verbal-fluency-performance-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#5
Esther van den Berg, Lize C Jiskoot, Mariëlle J H Grosveld, John C van Swieten, Janne M Papma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Verbal fluency is impaired in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This study explored qualitative differences in verbal fluency (clustering of words, switching between strategies) between FTD and PPA variants. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 50 with PPA (13 nonfluent/agrammatic, 14 semantic, and 23 logopenic) performed a semantic and letter fluency task. Clustering (number of multiword strings) and switching (number of transitions between clustered and nonclustered words) were recorded by two independent raters...
June 17, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615433/disease-progression-in-c9orf72-mutation-carriers
#6
Mary K Floeter, Bryan J Traynor, Jennifer Farren, Laura E Braun, Michael Tierney, Edythe A Wiggs, Tianxia Wu
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in 3 clinical measures, the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), letter fluency, and Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI), over time in C9orf72 mutation carriers (C9+) with varied clinical phenotypes. METHODS: Thirty-four unrelated participants with mutations in C9orf72 were enrolled in a prospective natural history study. Participants were classified as asymptomatic, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ALS-familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD), or behavioral-variant FTD by clinical diagnostic criteria...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607353/robust-water-repellent-zno-nanorod-array-by-swift-heavy-ion-irradiation-effect-of-electronic-excitation-induced-local-chemical-state-modification
#7
Kugalur Shanmugam Ranjith, Lalitha Raveendran Nivedita, Kandasami Asokan, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Ramanathaswamy Pandian, Mohammed Kamruddin, Devesh Kumar Avasthi, Ramasamy Thangavelu Rajendra Kumar
Tailoring the surface properties by varying the chemistry and roughness could be of interest for self-cleaning applications. We demonstrate the transformation of hydrophobic ZnO Nano rod (NR) array into superhydrophobic nature by changing the local chemical state and without altering the surface roughness by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The aligned ZnO NR arrays were irradiated using 150 MeV Ag ions with different fluences from 5E10 to 3E12 ions/cm(2). The observed static water contact angles of ZnO NRs samples were 103° ± 3°, 152° ± 4°,161° ± 3°, 164° ± 2°, 167° ± 2°,154 ± 3° and 151° ± 2° for the pristine, ion fluencies of 1E11, 3E11, 5E11, 7E11, 1E12 and 3E12 ions cm(-2), respectively...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600740/functional-reorganization-during-cognitive-function-tasks-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Jürgen Keller, Sarah Böhm, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Markus Loose, Martin Gorges, Jan Kassubek, Ingo Uttner, Sharon Abrahams, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
Cognitive deficits, especially in the domains of social cognition and executive function including verbal fluency, are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. There is yet sparse understanding of pathogenesis of the underlying, possibly adaptive, cortical patterns. To address this issue, 65 patients with ALS and 33 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls were tested on cognitive and behavioral deficits with the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cortical activity during social cognition and executive function tasks (theory of mind, verbal fluency, alternation) adapted from the ECAS was determined in a 3 Tesla scanner...
June 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595599/designing-persuasive-health-materials-using-processing-fluency-a-literature-review
#9
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
BACKGROUND: Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588478/lower-activation-in-frontal-cortex-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-observed-during-sex-determination-test-in-early-stage-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-type
#10
Ravi Rajmohan, Ronald C Anderson, Dan Fang, Austin G Meyer, Pavis Laengvejkal, Parunyou Julayanont, Greg Hannabas, Kitten Linton, John Culberson, Hafiz Khan, John De Toledo, P Hemachandra Reddy, Michael W O'Boyle
Face-labeling refers to the ability to classify faces into social categories. This plays a critical role in human interaction as it serves to define concepts of socially acceptable interpersonal behavior. The purpose of the current study was to characterize, what, if any, impairments in face-labeling are detectable in participants with early-stage clinically diagnosed dementia of the Alzheimer type (CDDAT) through the use of the sex determination test (SDT). In the current study, four (1 female, 3 males) CDDAT and nine (4 females, 5 males) age-matched neurotypicals (NT) completed the SDT using chimeric faces while undergoing BOLD fMRI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565933/comparing-executive-function-evoked-hemodynamic-response-and-gait-as-predictors-of-variations-in-mobility-for-older-adults
#11
Drew W R Halliday, Sandra R Hundza, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, Marc Klimstra, Drew Commandeur, Timothy V Lukyn, Robert S Stawski, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: Falls represent a major concern for older adults and may serve as clinically salient index events for those presenting in the prodromal stages of mild cognitive impairment. Declines in executive function performance and in gait consistency have shown promise in predicting fall risk; however, associated neurophysiological underpinnings have received less attention. In this study, we used a multimodal approach to assess fall risk in a group of older adults with and without a previous fall history...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505581/spatiotemporal-reorganization-of-the-reading-network-in-adult-dyslexia
#12
Eddy Cavalli, Pascale Colé, Chotiga Pattamadilok, Jean-Michel Badier, Christelle Zielinski, Valérie Chanoine, Johannes C Ziegler
Developmental dyslexia is characterized by impairments in reading fluency and spelling that persist into adulthood. Here, we hypothesized that high-achieving adult dyslexics (i.e., university students with a history of dyslexia) manage to cope with these deficits by relying to a greater extent on morphological information than do non-impaired adult readers. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a primed lexical decision task, in which we contrasted orthographic, morphological and semantic processing. Behavioral results confirmed that adult dyslexics did indeed rely to a greater extent on the semantic properties of morphemes than controls...
July 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495601/structural-connectivity-subserving-verbal-fluency-revealed-by-lesion-behavior-mapping-in-stroke-patients
#13
Mingyang Li, Yumei Zhang, Luping Song, Ruiwang Huang, Junhua Ding, Yuxing Fang, Yangwen Xu, Zaizhu Han
Tests of verbal fluency have been widely used to assess the cognitive functioning of persons, and are typically classified into two categories (semantic and phonological fluency). While widely-distributed divergent and convergent brain regions have been found to be involved in semantic and phonological fluency, the anatomical connectivity underlying the fluency is not well understood. The present study aims to construct a comprehensive white-matter network associated with semantic and phonological fluency by investigating the relationship between the integrity of 22 major tracts in the whole brain and semantic fluency (measured by 3 cues) and phonological fluency (measured by 2 cues) in a group of 51 stroke patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481569/cognitive-modeling-as-an-interface-between-brain-and-behavior-measuring-the-semantic-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Brendan T Johns, Vanessa Taler, David B Pisoni, Martin R Farlow, Ann Marie Hake, David A Kareken, Frederick W Unverzagt, Michael N Jones
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterised by subjective and objective memory impairment in the absence of dementia. MCI is a strong predictor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, and may represent an early stage in the disease course in many cases. A standard task used in the diagnosis of MCI is verbal fluency, where participants produce as many items from a specific category (e.g., animals) as possible. Verbal fluency performance is typically analysed by counting the number of items produced...
May 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453474/neuropsychological-profile-in-the-c9orf72-associated-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#15
Noora-Maria Suhonen, Ramona M Haanpää, Ville Korhonen, Jari Jokelainen, Anni Pitkäniemi, Anna-Leena Heikkinen, Johanna Krüger, Päivi Hartikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomo Hänninen, Anne M Remes
While the C9ORF72 expansion is a major cause of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), little is known of the resultant cognitive profile. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of the C9ORF72 associated bvFTD. We contrasted structured neuropsychological assessments of the C9ORF72 expansion carrier bvFTD patients (n = 26) with non-carrier bvFTD patients (n = 47) and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 47). As compared to the non-carrier bvFTD patients, the C9ORF72 expansion carriers performed at a higher level in an immediate verbal memory test while showing poorer phonemic verbal fluency...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453473/prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-a-comparison-of-the-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles
#16
Dilman Sadiq, Tim Whitfield, Lean Lee, Tim Stevens, Sergi Costafreda, Zuzana Walker
BACKGROUND: Dementia must be diagnosed accurately and early in the disease course to allow pathology-specific treatments to be effective. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially at the prodromal stage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and neuropsychological profiles of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients who, at follow-up, progressed to AD (retrospectively AD-MCI) or DLB (retrospectively DLB-MCI) or remained MCI...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441425/role-of-route-previewing-strategies-on-climbing-fluency-and-exploratory-movements
#17
Ludovic Seifert, Romain Cordier, Dominic Orth, Yoan Courtine, James L Croft
This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks) they used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431177/altered-functional-connectivity-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#18
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Sanghun Lee, Jung-Hoon Kim, Jung-Ah Lim, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ick Byun, Min Hee Jeong, Kwang Su Cha, Jeong Woo Choi, Kyung Hwan Kim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Ki-Young Jung
Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered as a prodromal stage of synucleinopathy. Although loss of functional connectivity is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, network characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) in iRBD are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated resting-state EEG functional connectivity to identify the brain network changes in patients with iRBD. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 16 controls...
June 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431030/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#19
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
Objective: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392208/minimal-effects-of-prolonged-smoking-abstinence-or-resumption-on-cognitive-performance-challenge-the-self-medication-hypothesis-in-schizophrenia
#20
Douglas L Boggs, Toral S Surti, Irina Esterlis, Brian Pittman, Kelly Cosgrove, R Andrew Sewell, Mohini Ranganathan, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
One prominent, long-standing view is that individuals with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes more than the general population to "self-medicate" cognitive deficits and other symptoms. This study tested the self-medication hypothesis by examining the effects of smoking abstinence and resumption on cognition in patients with schizophrenia. Nicotine-dependent smokers with schizophrenia (n=26) were trained on a cognitive battery and then hospitalized to achieve and maintain confirmed abstinence from smoking for ~1 week...
April 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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