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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140499/simple-arithmetic-not-so-simple-for-highly-math-anxious-individuals
#1
Hyesang Chang, Lisa Sprute, Erin A Maloney, Sian L Beilock, Marc G Berman
Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#2
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091830/an-ecological-approach-to-the-behavioral-assessment-of-executive-functions-in-anorexia-nervosa
#3
Grazia Fernanda Spitoni, Massimiliano Aragonaa, Sara Bevacqua, Armando Cotugno, Gabriella Antonucci
The use of ecological tests to assess executive functions (EFs) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) has not examined extensively. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the performance of patients with AN and healthy controls (HCs) on standard versus ecologically valid tests on EFs. Sixty-two females aged between 16 and 42 who were diagnosed with AN and 70 matched HCs completed 2 neuropsychological test batteries: standard tests (WCST, TMT, Stroop, ToL, fluency test) and the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS)...
October 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056919/analysis-of-relations-between-spatiotemporal-movement-regulation-and-performance-of-discrete-actions-reveals-functionality-in-skilled-climbing
#4
REVIEW
Dominic Orth, Graham Kerr, Keith Davids, Ludovic Seifert
In this review of research on climbing expertise, we focus on different measures of climbing performance, including spatiotemporal measures related to fluency and activity states (i.e., discrete actions), adopted by climbers for achieving overall performance goals of getting to the end of a route efficiently and safely. Currently, a broad range of variables have been reported, however, many of these fail to capture how climbers adapt to a route whilst climbing. We argue that spatiotemporal measures should be considered concurrently with evaluation of activity states (such as reaching or exploring) in order gain a more comprehensive picture of how climbers successfully adapt to a route...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048606/contact-location-and-neuropsychological-outcomes-in-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#5
Darlene P Floden, Caio M Matias, Connor A Wathen, Grace E Ozinga, Olivia Hogue, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: A host of influences contribute to cognitive and behavioral changes following deep brain stimulation. The location of the active cathode is likely an important variable but it has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether active contact location relative to the subthalamic nucleus and other neighboring structures is related to nonmotor outcomes. METHODS: We identified a retrospective, cross-sectional sample of 46 patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
October 18, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028508/jazz-musicians-reveal-role-of-expectancy-in-human-creativity
#6
Emily Przysinda, Tima Zeng, Kellyn Maves, Cameron Arkin, Psyche Loui
Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently...
December 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017430/characterizing-neurocognitive-late-effects-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors-using-a-combination-of-neuropsychological-and-cognitive-neuroscience-measures
#7
Ellen Van Der Plas, Lauren Erdman, Brian J Nieman, Rosanna Weksberg, Darci T Butcher, Deborah L O'connor, Susanne Aufreiter, Johann Hitzler, Sharon L Guger, Russell J Schachar, Shinya Ito, Brenda J Spiegler
Knowledge about cognitive late effects in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is largely based on standardized neuropsychological measures and parent reports. To examine whether cognitive neuroscience paradigms provided additional insights into neurocognitive and behavioral late effects in ALL survivors, we assessed cognition and behavior using a selection of cognitive neuroscience tasks and standardized measures probing domains previously demonstrated to be affected by chemotherapy. 130 ALL survivors and 158 control subjects, between 8 and 18 years old at time of testing, completed the n-back (working memory) and stop-signal (response inhibition) tasks...
October 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975851/state-authenticity-as-fit-to-environment-the-implications-of-social-identity-for-fit-authenticity-and-self-segregation
#8
Toni Schmader, Constantine Sedikides
People seek out situations that "fit," but the concept of fit is not well understood. We introduce State Authenticity as Fit to the Environment (SAFE), a conceptual framework for understanding how social identities motivate the situations that people approach or avoid. Drawing from but expanding the authenticity literature, we first outline three types of person-environment fit: self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. Each type of fit, we argue, facilitates cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and social fluency that promote state authenticity and drive approach or avoidance behaviors...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973156/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-times-in-adults-who-stutter-brain-electrophysiological-evidence
#9
Nathan D Maxfield
Purpose: Some psycholinguistic theories of stuttering propose that language production operates along a different time course in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically fluent adults (TFA). However, behavioral evidence for such a difference has been mixed. Here, the time course of semantic and phonological encoding in picture naming was compared in AWS (n = 16) versus TFA (n = 16) by measuring 2 event-related potential (ERP) components: NoGo N200, an ERP index of response inhibition, and lateralized readiness potential, an ERP index of response preparation...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970792/parkinson-disease-detection-from-speech-articulation-neuromechanics
#10
Pedro Gómez-Vilda, Jiri Mekyska, José M Ferrández, Daniel Palacios-Alonso, Andrés Gómez-Rodellar, Victoria Rodellar-Biarge, Zoltan Galaz, Zdenek Smekal, Ilona Eliasova, Milena Kostalova, Irena Rektorova
Aim: The research described is intended to give a description of articulation dynamics as a correlate of the kinematic behavior of the jaw-tongue biomechanical system, encoded as a probability distribution of an absolute joint velocity. This distribution may be used in detecting and grading speech from patients affected by neurodegenerative illnesses, as Parkinson Disease. Hypothesis: The work hypothesis is that the probability density function of the absolute joint velocity includes information on the stability of phonation when applied to sustained vowels, as well as on fluency if applied to connected speech...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958627/assisted-and-unassisted-recession-of-functional-anomalies-associated-with-dysprosody-in-adults-who-stutter
#11
Katrin Neumann, Harald A Euler, Malte Kob, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud, Tobias Weissgerber, Christian A Kell
PURPOSE: Speech in persons who stutter (PWS) is associated with disturbed prosody (speech melody and intonation), which may impact communication. The neural correlates of PWS' altered prosody during speaking are not known, neither is how a speech-restructuring therapy affects prosody at both a behavioral and a cerebral level. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we explored group differences in brain activation associated with the production of different kinds of prosody in 13 male adults who stutter (AWS) before, directly after, and at least 1 year after an effective intensive fluency-shaping treatment, in 13 typically fluent-speaking control participants (CP), and in 13 males who had spontaneously recovered from stuttering during adulthood (RAWS), while sentences were read aloud with 'neutral', instructed emotional (happy), and linguistically driven (questioning) prosody...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920071/predicting-the-past-remembering-the-future
#12
Samuel J Gershman
Rational analyses of memory suggest that retrievability of past experience depends on its usefulness for predicting the future: memory is adapted to the temporal structure of the environment. Recent research has enriched this view by applying it to semantic memory and reinforcement learning. This paper describes how multiple forms of memory can be linked via common predictive principles, possibly subserved by a shared neural substrate in the hippocampus. Predictive principles offer an explanation for a wide range of behavioral and neural phenomena, including semantic fluency, temporal contiguity effects in episodic memory, and the topological properties of hippocampal place cells...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892513/placebo-can-enhance-creativity
#13
Liron Rozenkrantz, Avraham E Mayo, Tomer Ilan, Yuval Hart, Lior Noy, Uri Alon
BACKGROUND: The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891517/selective-attention-and-the-asynchrony-theory-in-native-hebrew-speaking-adult-dyslexics-behavioral-and-erps-measures
#14
Shay Menashe
The main aim of the present study was to determine whether adult dyslexic readers demonstrate the "Asynchrony Theory" (Breznitz [Reading Fluency: Synchronization of Processes, Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006]) when selective attention is studied. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral parameters were collected from nonimpaired readers group and dyslexic readers group performing alphabetic and nonalphabetic tasks. The dyslexic readers group was found to demonstrate asynchrony between the auditory and the visual modalities when it came to processing alphabetic stimuli...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877864/internet-searches-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-cross-sectional-analysis
#15
Johanna Austin, Kristy Hollingshead, Jeffrey Kaye
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a very challenging experience for all those affected. Unfortunately, detection of Alzheimer disease in its early stages when clinical treatments may be most effective is challenging, as the clinical evaluations are time-consuming and costly. Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and everyday behavior, an avenue of research that holds great promise for the early detection of cognitive decline. One area of behavior that changes with cognitive decline is language use...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832595/verbal-monitoring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-comparison-between-internal-and-external-monitoring
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hanna S Gauvin, Jolien Mertens, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Barbara A Pickut, Robert J Hartsuiker
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828219/long-term-safety-and-effectiveness-of-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-infusion
#17
Oriol De Fabregues, Joan Dot, Monder Abu-Suboh, Jorge Hernández-Vara, Alex Ferré, Odile Romero, Marta Ibarria, José Luis Seoane, Nuria Raguer, Carolina Puiggros, Maria Rosa Gómez, Manuel Quintana, Josep Ramon Armengol, José Alvarez-Sabín
INTRODUCTION: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion has demonstrated to improve motor fluctuations. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of LCIG infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with motor fluctuations and its effect in nonmotor symptoms. METHODS: Adverse events (AE) and their management, clinical motor, and nonmotor aspects were assessed up to 10 years. Thirty-seven patients were treated with LGIC; in three subsets of patients, specific batteries of tests were used to assess cognitive and behavior assessment for 6 months, quality of sleep for 6 months, and quality of life and caregiver burden for 1 year...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827577/gender-differences-in-influences-of-temperament-on-olfactory-reactivity-and-awareness
#18
Lenka Martinec Nováková, Radka Vojtušová Mrzílková, Anna Kernerová
Children's olfactory performance is associated with temperament but whether there is a link with olfactory reactivity and awareness is not known. In adults negative affectivity is linked to reactivity to environmental odours but it is not clear whether these associations extend to children. We aimed to investigate the effect of temperamental factors on olfactory reactivity and awareness. In so doing, we controlled for the effect of parenting styles on temperamental assessment and of verbal fluency on children's olfactory reactivity and awareness...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765082/is-there-a-relationship-between-accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-and-cognitive-function-in-us-hispanic-latino-adults-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#19
Elizabeth Vásquez, Garrett Strizich, Carmen R Isasi, Sandra E Echeverria, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Kelly R Evenson, Marc D Gellman, Priya Palta, Qibin Qi, Melissa Lamar, Wassim Tarraf, Hector M González, Robert Kaplan
Normative changes in cognitive function are expected with increasing age. Research on the relationship between normative cognitive decline and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SED) needs further investigation in Hispanic/Latinos adults. We assessed the cross-sectional association between accelerometer assessed MVPA and SED with cognitive function in 7,478 adults aged 45-74years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. At baseline, cognitive tests included two executive function tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a test of language (Word Fluency), and a test of memory (Spanish English Verbal Learning Test)...
July 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750278/neuropsychological-deficits-in-adults-age-60-and-above-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
L B Thorell, Y Holst, H Chistiansen, J J S Kooij, D Bijlenga, D Sjöwall
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological deficits are of major importance in ADHD, yet no previous studies have assessed clinically referred samples of older adults. The authors compared older adults with ADHD (60-75years) with both younger adults with ADHD (18-45years) and older healthy controls with regard to various neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: Well-established tests were used to investigate working memory, inhibition, switching, planning, fluency, and speed of processing...
September 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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