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Behavioral fluency

Eliseu Paglioli, William Alves Martins, Ney Azambuja, Mirna Portuguez, Thomas More Frigeri, Larissa Pinos, Ricardo Saute, Cora Salles, João Rubião Hoefel, Ricardo Bernardi Soder, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Marta Hemb, Tom Theys, André Palmini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel approach to control epileptic drop attacks through a selective posterior callosotomy, sparing all prefrontal interconnectivity. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with refractory drop attacks had selective posterior callosotomy and prospective follow-up for >4 years. Falls, episodes of aggressive behavior, and IQ were quantified. Autonomy in activities of daily living, axial tonus, and speech generated a functional score ranging from 0 to 13...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Lucas Giner, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Diego De La Vega, Philippe Courtet
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria)...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Tamara Shiner, Anat Mirelman, Mali Gana Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Elissa Ash, Ron Cialic, Naomi Nevler, Tanya Gurevich, Noa Bregman, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi
Importance: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are a risk factor for the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These mutations are common among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) and appear to have an effect on the natural history of the disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and genetic characteristics of an AJ cohort of patients diagnosed with DLB, assess the association of phenotype of DLB with GBA mutations, and explore the effects of these mutations on the clinical course of the disease...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Wei Zhou, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhichao Xia, Yanchao Bi, Ping Li, Hua Shu
When reading a narrative text, both the dorsal and ventral visual systems are activated. To illustrate the patterns of interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems in text reading, we conducted analyses of functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) in a left-hemispheric network for reading-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. In reading-driven fMRI (Experiment 1), we found significant FCs among the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the visual word form area (VWFA), and there were top-down effects from the left MFG to the left IPS, from the left MFG to the VWFA, and from the left IPS to the VWFA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Veena A Nair, Poonam Beniwal-Patel, Ifeanyi Mbah, Brittany M Young, Vivek Prabhakaran, Sumona Saha
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease caused by immune-mediated inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. The extent of morphologic brain alterations and their associated cognitive and affective impairments remain poorly characterized. Aims: We used magnetic resonance imaging to identify structural brain differences between patients with Crohn's disease in remission compared to age-matched healthy controls and evaluated for structural-behavioral correlates. Methods: Nineteen patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls were recruited in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Britt Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Ellie van Setten, Natasha Maurits, Ben Maassen, Titia van Zuijen
Atypical language lateralization has been marked as one of the factors that may contribute to the development of dyslexia. Indeed, atypical lateralization of linguistic functions such as speech processing in dyslexia has been demonstrated using neuroimaging studies, but also using the behavioral dichotic listening (DL) method. However, so far, DL results have been mixed. The current study assesses lateralization of speech processing by using DL in a sample of children at familial risk (FR) for dyslexia. In order to determine whether atypical lateralization of speech processing relates to reading ability, or is a correlate of being at familial risk, the current study compares the laterality index of FR children who did and did not become dyslexic, and a control group of readers without dyslexia...
September 17, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Illays Khan, Irum Nawaz, Imran Amjad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. METHODS: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group -group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years)...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Joshua J Clarkson, Ashley S Otto, Edward R Hirt, Patrick M Egan
Emerging research documents the self-control consequences of individuals' theories regarding the limited nature of willpower, such that unlimited theorists consistently demonstrate greater self-control than limited theorists. The purpose of the present research was to build upon prior work on self-validation and perceptions of mental fatigue to demonstrate when self-control is actually impaired by endorsing an unlimited theory and-conversely-enhanced by endorsing a limited theory. Four experiments show that fluency reinforces the documented effects of individuals' willpower theories on self-control, while disfluency reverses the documented effects of individuals' willpower theories on self-control...
September 12, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Imis Dogan, Eugenie Tinnemann, Sandro Romanzetti, Shahram Mirzazade, Ana S Costa, Cornelius J Werner, Stefan Heim, Kathrin Fedosov, Stefanie Schulz, Dagmar Timmann, Ilaria A Giordano, Thomas Klockgether, Jörg B Schulz, Kathrin Reetz
OBJECTIVE: Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a spinocerebellar degenerative disorder, in which cognitive deficits are sparsely explored. In this behavioral and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we investigated the neurocognitive profile and cortico-cerebellar dysfunctions underlying executive functioning in individuals with FRDA. METHODS: 22 FRDA patients and 22 controls were clinically and neuropsychologically examined. Fifteen of each underwent structural and functional MRI using a verbal-fluency task with phonemic and semantic conditions...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Isabelle Vonberg, Felicitas Ehlen, Ortwin Fromm, Andrea A Kühn, Fabian Klostermann
OBJECTIVE: Reduced verbal fluency (VF) has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), especially those treated by Deep Brain Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS). To delineate the nature of this dysfunction we aimed at identifying the particular VF-related operations modified by STN DBS. METHOD: Eleven PD patients performed VF tasks in their STN DBS ON and OFF condition. To differentiate VF-components modulated by the stimulation, a temporal cluster analysis was performed, separating production spurts (i...
2016: PloS One
Maxime Bertoux, Siddharth Ramanan, Andrea Slachevsky, Stephanie Wong, Fernando Henriquez, Gada Musa, Carolina Delgado, Emma Flanagan, Michel Bottlaender, Marie Sarazin, Michael Hornberger, Bruno Dubois
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is traditionally considered to be mild and attributed to prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Recent studies, however, indicated that some patients can present with a memory impairment of the hippocampal type, showing storage and consolidation deficits in addition to the more executive/prefrontal related encoding and strategic difficulties. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to study the relationship between executive functions (EF) and memory processes in bvFTD via a data-driven approach...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eun Hyun Seo, Hoowon Kim, Kun Ho Lee, Il Han Choo
BACKGROUND: For the early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is increasing interest in pre-mild cognitive impairment (pre-MCI). OBJECTIVE: We explored the neuropsychological characteristics in a group of pre-MCI and cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals, with the aim of providing measures sensitive to cognitive change in pre-MCI. METHODS: We included 188 CN elderly and 77 individuals with pre-MCI. All participants underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alberto R Ramos, Wassim Tarraf, Martha Daviglus, Sonia Davis, Linda C Gallo, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Frank J Penedo, Susan Redline, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Clinton B Wright, Phyllis C Zee, Hector M González
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between sleep duration and neurocognitive function in a representative sample of middle-aged to older Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. We tested the hypothesis that sleep duration has a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped association with neurocognitive function. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants ages 45-74 years (n = 8,676). HCHS/SOL is a community-based cohort from four US urban areas sampled using a probability design from 2008-2011...
October 1, 2016: Sleep
T Mura, H Amieva, M Goldberg, J-F Dartigues, J Ankri, M Zins, C Berr
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to examine the effect sizes of different cognitive function determinants in middle and early old age. METHODS: Cognitive functions were assessed in 11 711 volunteers (45 to 75 years old), included in the French CONSTANCES cohort between January 2012 and May 2014, using the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT), verbal fluency tasks, digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) and trail making test (TMT), parts A and B...
November 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nabil Benzina, Luc Mallet, Eric Burguière, Karim N'Diaye, Antoine Pelissolo
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiological etiology...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Katelyn Cohen, Sarah Capponi, Mazvita Nyamukapa, Jason Baxter, Albert Crawford, Brett Worly
Objectives Healthcare provider focus often rests solely on a pregnant woman, while a woman's partner may prove to be an ally in a pregnant woman's health behaviors. The objective of this study is to assess the role of partner support and other demographic factors affecting alcohol and drug use in pregnancy. Methods This cross-sectional cohort study at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital evaluated pregnant women and their partners and obtained sociodemographic information, medical history, tobacco and alcohol use, and results from the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ)...
July 15, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Mahtab Poor Zamany Nejat Kermany, Fatemeh Roodneshin, Niloofar Ahmadi Dizgah, Ebrahim Gerami, Esmail Riahi
BACKGROUND: A detrimental effect of commonly used anesthetics on the neurodevelopmental and behavioral parameters has long been shown in young animals subjected to early childhood anesthesia. Epidemiologic studies suggest the possibility of a modestly elevated risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed to anesthesia during early childhood. However, these results are still preliminary and inconclusive. AIM: To further elucidate the probability of occurrence of such adverse outcomes, we evaluated cognitive performance of children who underwent general anesthesia early in their childhood...
October 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Olga Inozemtseva, Lina Pérez-Solís, Esmeralda Matute, Jorge Juárez
BACKGROUND: In substance abusers, deficits in executive functioning (EF) are relevant to understanding the behavioral regulation of substance consumption and the failure to remain abstinent. OBJECTIVE: To determine the course of EF impairment, measured with traditional and ecological instruments, after 1 and 3 months of abstinence in patients with cocaine dependence. METHODS: 26 cocaine-only-dependent in-patients (cocaine-dependent group, CDG) and 24 nondependent controls (control group, CG) recruited from a typical population were assessed using several EF tests and questionnaires [Stroop, verbal and graphic fluency, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (TOL), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A)] after three periods of abstinence: 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months...
September 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Cynthia A Riccio, Stephanie M Vidrine, Morris J Cohen, Delmaris Acosta-Cotte, Yong Park
This is a retrospective study of 14 cases of children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), the most prominent feature of which is acquired aphasia. These children were followed at a tertiary care pediatric epilepsy center. From the research data base, all LKS cases with neuropsychological evaluation were extracted. Children ranged in age from 6 to 13 years (M = 9.12; SD = 2.19) at the time of assessment (1 to 10 years post-onset). The majority of the children were white males, and all but one continued to experience seizure activity...
June 29, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
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