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Benjamin D Hill, Stephen L Aita
Almost the entirety of research on effort in clinical neuropsychology has focused on negative aspects of effort in neuropsychological assessment, with most work over the last 20 years emphasizing feigned cognitive impairment. In contrast, few studies have explored trait-level positive influences on motivation and engagement in regard to neuropsychological testing. This paper reviews potential constructs associated with positive aspects of effort in neuropsychological testing, including conation, grit, Need for Cognition, and personality factors from the Five Factor Model of personality (Big Five)...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Tyler Burge
Among psychologists, it is widely thought that infants well under age 3, monkeys, apes, birds, and dogs have been shown to have rudimentary capacities for representing and attributing mental states or relations. I believe this view to be mistaken. It rests on overinterpreting experiments. It also often rests on assuming that one must choose between taking these individuals to be mentalists and taking them to be behaviorists. This assumption underestimates a powerful nonmentalistic, nonbehavioristic explanatory scheme that centers on attributing action with targets and on causation of action by interlocking, internal conative, and sensory states...
April 2018: Psychological Review
Peter A Hall, Cassandra J Lowe, Adrian B Safati, Huaqi Li, Emilia B Klassen, Amer M Burhan
BACKGROUND: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays a central role in the inhibition of eating, but also the modulation of conscious thought processes that might precede, accompany or follow initial food tasting. The latter might be particularly important to the extent that post-tasting cognitions may drive prolonged eating beyond the satiety point. However, we know very little about the effect of the dlPFC on conation following initial food sampling. This investigation compared the effects of dlPFC attenuation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on social cognition following (Study 1) and prior to (Study 2) a food consumption opportunity...
July 1, 2018: Appetite
Jared R Lindahl, Nathan E Fisher, David J Cooper, Rochelle K Rosen, Willoughby B Britton
Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support...
2017: PloS One
Qianyi Zhan, Jiawei Zhang, Philip S Yu, Sherry Emery, Junyuan Xie
Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem...
July 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith O Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of paediatric traumatic brain injury on grey-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
T Fuchs, D Broschmann
At the beginning of modern psychopathology the notion of the will had a high significance. Thus, the works of Eugen Bleuler, Emil Krapelin and Karl Jaspers show an intensive study of disorders of the will, such as abulia, ambivalence or disorders of impulse control. Retrospectively, changes of the scientific paradigms in psychology could be one of the reasons for a break, which led to giving up the concept of the will in psychopathology. With increasing interest in issues of agency and free will, however, a reactivation of this central concept could close a gap in psychopathology as well as in therapeutic practice...
November 2017: Der Nervenarzt
Petra Ten Hoopen, Ramona L Walls, Ethalinda Ks Cannon, Guy Cochrane, James Cole, Anjanette Johnston, Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi, Pelin Yilmaz
The Compliance and Interoperability Working Group of the Genomic Standards Consortium facilitates the establishment of a community of experts and the development of recommendations to describe genomic data and associated information. Here we present our ongoing conation to harmonise the reporting of contextual plant specimen data associated with genomics and functional genomics. This commentary summarises the current state of our plant sample contextual data harmonisation efforts to engage a broad plant science community...
December 1, 2016: GigaScience
Thomas Fuchs, Zeno Van Duppen
Temporality and its disturbances have been a major topic of phenomenological psychopathology. Particularly Minkowski, Kimura, and Blankenburg described the temporal dimension of schizophrenia. After a brief introduction to their ideas, we describe more recent approaches to temporality in more depth. To this aim, we first distinguish between implicit and explicit time. Implicit time is based on the constitutive synthesis of inner time consciousness on the one hand, and on the conative-affective dynamics of life on the other...
2017: Psychopathology
Giovanni Stanghellini, Massimo Ballerini, Simona Presenza, Milena Mancini, Georg Northoff, John Cutting
BACKGROUND: Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. METHODS: We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders...
2017: Psychopathology
Mona Aarenstrup Karlsen, Carsten Fagö-Olsen, Estrid Høgdall, Tine Henrichsen Schnack, Ib Jarle Christensen, Lotte Nedergaard, Lene Lundvall, Magnus Christian Lydolph, Svend Aage Engelholm, Claus Høgdall
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel index for preoperative, non-invasive prediction of complete primary cytoreduction in patients with FIGO stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Prospectively collected clinical data was registered in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. Blood samples were collected within 14 days of surgery and stored by the Danish CancerBiobank. Serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125), age, performance status, and presence/absence of ascites at ultrasonography were evaluated individually and combined to predict complete tumor removal...
September 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Natalie A Phillips
This review article considers some of the age-related changes in cognition that are likely to interact with hearing, listening effort, and cognitive energy. The focus of the review is on normative age-related changes in cognition; however, consideration is also given to older adults who experience clinically significant deficits in cognition, such as persons with Alzheimer's disease or who may be in a preclinical stage of dementia (mild cognitive impairment). The article distinguishes between the assessment of cognitive function for clinical versus research purposes...
July 2016: Ear and Hearing
Alessandro Salice, Alba Montes Sánchez
Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Charlotte E Hartwright, Robert M Hardwick, Ian A Apperly, Peter C Hansen
When required to represent a perspective that conflicts with one's own, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rvlPFC) supports the inhibition of that conflicting self-perspective. The present task dissociated inhibition of self-perspective from other executive control processes by contrasting belief reasoning-a cognitive state where the presence of conflicting perspectives was manipulated-with a conative desire state wherein no systematic conflict existed...
October 2016: Human Brain Mapping
S Omelchuk, L Lymar
The article describes the results of the psychological readiness for performing professional duties study performed in 2010-2015 among the O.Bogomolets' National medical university students; contains analysis of the gender and professional factors of the readiness. The authors have described the results obtained in motivation, cognitive, conative, emotional and communicative components of the psychological readiness by using the classic and author authentic methods. It has been estimated that the female respondents are characterized by a higher level of psychological readiness than the male ones, which may be explained due to higher female conformity resulting from higher demands for profession...
February 2016: Georgian Medical News
Rubén Miranda, Flora Nagapin, Bruno Bozon, Serge Laroche, Thierry Aubin, Cyrille Vaillend
BACKGROUND: The Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD, BMD) show significant comorbid diagnosis for autism, and the genomic sequences encoding the proteins responsible for these diseases, the dystrophin and associated proteins, have been proposed as new candidate risk loci for autism. Dystrophin is expressed not only in muscles but also in central inhibitory synapses in the cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex, where it contributes to the organization of autism-associated trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin complexes and to the clustering of synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors...
2015: Molecular Autism
P Johansson, Ö Dahlström, U Dahlström, U Alehagen
BACKGROUND: The impact of supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on health-care usage and health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) in community-dwelling elderly people has, to our knowledge, not previously been investigated. AIM: To investigate the effect of 48 months supplementation with CoQ10 and selenium on community-dwelling elderly as regards: (I) the number of days out of hospital, and (II) the effect on Hr-QoL. METHODS: A 48-month double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out...
November 2015: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi
This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions...
February 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Konstantinos Tsirigotis, Wojciech Gruszczyński, Marta Tsirigotis-Maniecka
Behaviours causing harm to the individual are generally called self-destructive behaviours. For some time now, direct/acute self-destructiveness has been distinguished from indirect/chronic self-destructiveness. Indirectly self-destructive behaviours occur not only in healthy people (examined in most of the studies) but also in mentally ill individuals, which has not been researched. The aim of this study has been to explore psychopathological (clinical) predictors of indirect self-destructiveness in patients with schizophrenia...
March 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Hugues Duffau
Despite advances in the new science of connectomics, which aims to comprehensively map neural connections at both structural and functional levels, techniques to directly study the function of white matter tracts in vivo in humans have proved elusive. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) mapping of the subcortical fibres offers a unique opportunity to investigate the functional connectivity of the brain. This original method permits real-time anatomo-functional correlations, especially with regard to neural pathways, in awake patients undergoing brain surgery...
May 2015: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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